Disposable platform provides visual and color-based point-of-care anemia self-testing.
ABSTRACT: Anemia, or low blood hemoglobin (Hgb) levels, afflicts 2 billion people worldwide. Currently, Hgb levels are typically measured from blood samples using hematology analyzers, which are housed in hospitals, clinics, or commercial laboratories and require skilled technicians to operate. A reliable, inexpensive point-of-care (POC) Hgb test would enable cost-effective anemia screening and chronically anemic patients to self-monitor their disease. We present a rapid, stand-alone, and disposable POC anemia test that, via a single drop of blood, outputs color-based visual results that correlate with Hgb levels.We tested blood from 238 pediatric and adult patients with anemia of varying degrees and etiologies and compared hematology analyzer Hgb levels with POC Hgb levels, which were estimated via visual interpretation using a color scale and an optional smartphone app for automated analysis.POC Hgb levels correlated with hematology analyzer Hgb levels (r = 0.864 and r = 0.856 for visual interpretation and smartphone app, respectively), and both POC test methods yielded comparable sensitivity and specificity for detecting any anemia (n = 178) (<11 g/dl) (sensitivity: 90.2% and 91.1%, specificity: 83.7% and 79.2%, respectively) and severe anemia (n = 10) (<7 g/dl) (sensitivity: 90.0% and 100%, specificity: 94.6% and 93.9%, respectively).These results demonstrate the feasibility of this POC color-based diagnostic test for self-screening/self-monitoring of anemia.Not applicable.This work was funded by the FDA-funded Atlantic Pediatric Device Consortium, the Georgia Research Alliance, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, the Georgia Center of Innovation for Manufacturing, and the InVenture Prize and Ideas to Serve competitions at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Project description:Severe anemia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children in resource-poor settings, but laboratory diagnostics are often limited in these locations. To address this need, we developed a simple, inexpensive, and color-based point-of-care (POC) assay to detect severe anemia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of this novel POC assay to detect moderate and severe anemia in a limited-resource setting. The study was a cross-sectional study conducted on children with sickle cell anemia in Luanda, Angola. The hemoglobin concentrations obtained by the POC assay were compared to reference values measured by a calibrated automated hematology analyzer. A total of 86 samples were analyzed (mean hemoglobin concentration 6.6 g/dL). There was a strong correlation between the hemoglobin concentrations obtained by the POC assay and reference values obtained from an automated hematology analyzer (r=0.88, P<0.0001). The POC assay demonstrated excellent reproducibility (r=0.93, P<0.0001) and the reagents appeared to be durable in a tropical setting (r=0.93, P<0.0001). For the detection of severe anemia that may require blood transfusion (hemoglobin <5 g/dL), the POC assay had sensitivity of 88.9% and specificity of 98.7%. These data demonstrate that an inexpensive (<$0.25 USD) POC assay accurately estimates low hemoglobin concentrations and has the potential to become a transformational diagnostic tool for severe anemia in limited-resource settings.
Project description:We describe the development and clinical evaluation of an automated smartphone-linked sensor capable of chemical-free, quantitative measurement of hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) in whole blood samples. We have demonstrated that our sensor could analyze an unprocessed blood specimen with a mean processing time of <8?s and provided the [Hb] results with ~99% accuracy against a reference hematology analyzer with coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.21% measured at [Hb] = 11.2?g/dL. Its diagnostic capability for anemia was evaluated by measuring [Hb] of 142 clinical blood specimens and comparing the results with those from an automated hematology analyzer (ADVIA 2120i, Siemens AG, Germany) and a portable hemoglobinomteter (Hb201+, Hemocue, Sweden). The sensor yielded comparable sensitivities and specificities of 87.50% and 100.00% for males, and 94.44% and 100.00% for females, respectively, for anemic detection. The results suggested that our optical sensor based on the intrinsic photothermal response of Hb molecules and advances in consumer electronics, particularly smartphone capabilities, enables a direct, chemical-free [Hb] assay accessible to people in both developed and developing countries.
Project description:The use of the smartphone is an ideal platform to realize the future point-of-care (POC) diagnostic system. Herein, we propose an integrated smartphone-based genetic analyzer. It consists of a smartphone and an integrated genetic analysis unit (i-Gene), in which the power of the smartphone was utilized for heating the gene amplification reaction, and the camera function was used for imaging the colorimetric change of the reaction for quantitative and multiplex foodborne pathogens. The housing of i-Gene was fabricated by using a 3D printer, which was equipped with a macro lens, white LEDs, a disposable microfluidic chip for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a thin-film heater, and a power booster. The i-Gene was installed on the iPhone in alignment with a camera. The LAMP mixture for Eriochrome Black T (EBT) colorimetric detection was injected into the LAMP chip to identify Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The proportional-integral-derivative controller-embedded film heater was powered by a 5.0 V power bank to maintain 63 °C for the LAMP reaction. When the LAMP proceeded, the color was changed from violet to blue, which was real-time monitored by the smartphone complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera. The images were transported to the desktop computer via Wi-Fi. The quantitative LAMP profiles were obtained by plotting the ratio of green/red intensity versus the reaction time. We could identify E. coli O157:H7 with a limit of detection of 101 copies/?L within 60 min. Our proposed smartphone-based genetic analyzer offers a portable, simple, rapid, and cost-effective POC platform for future diagnostic markets.
Project description:Rationale: Early and accurate detection of disease is crucial for its prevention, identification, and treatment. However, most of disease diagnostics is still limited in clinical laboratories due to the need of complicated instruments and professional personnel. Herein, we reported a smartphone-based synergistically enhanced colorimetric method for molecular diagnostics in our point of care (POC) smart cup platform. Methods: A disposable microfluidic chip was developed for colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) detection of multiple HPV DNA in our POC smart cup platform. The colorimetric detection takes advantage of synergistic effect of PPi4- and H+ ions, two byproducts of LAMP reaction. Color signal of LAMP assay was recorded and analyzed by our custom Android app (dubbed "Hue Analyzer"). Results: Our method not only significantly improves colorimetric readout, but also provides a 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity. It has been successfully applied for HPV-associated cancer screening with spiked saliva and clinical swab samples. Conclusion: The proposed POC diagnostic platform is completely compatible with other nucleic acid biomarkers and has great potential for personalized health monitoring and disease prevention.
Project description:We introduce a paradigm of completely non-invasive, on-demand diagnostics that may replace common blood-based laboratory tests using only a smartphone app and photos. We initially targeted anemia, a blood condition characterized by low blood hemoglobin levels that afflicts >2 billion people. Our app estimates hemoglobin levels by analyzing color and metadata of fingernail bed smartphone photos and detects anemia (hemoglobin levels <12.5?g?dL-1) with an accuracy of ±2.4?g?dL-1 and a sensitivity of 97% (95% CI, 89-100%) when compared with CBC hemoglobin levels (n?=?100 subjects), indicating its viability to serve as a non-invasive anemia screening tool. Moreover, with personalized calibration, this system achieves an accuracy of ±0.92?g?dL-1 of CBC hemoglobin levels (n?=?16), empowering chronic anemia patients to serially monitor their hemoglobin levels instantaneously and remotely. Our on-demand system enables anyone with a smartphone to download an app and immediately detect anemia anywhere and anytime.
Project description:Background:Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) is the predominant hemoglobin found in HbA1 fractions. A1c assay is the recommended assay for diagnosing diabetes and any condition that changes red cell turnover such as Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA), will lead to spurious A1C results. Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining the effect of IDA on HbA1c in diabetic patients attending Black Lion Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods:A facility based comparative cross sectional study was conducted on 174 diabetic patients (87 with IDA and 87 without IDA) from April to July 2016. Socio demographic data and clinical conditions were collected using structured questionnaire. Venous blood was collected for performing Complete blood count (CBC) using Cell dyn 1800 hematology analyzer; Serum ferritin, performed by COBAS INTEGRA 400/800 Chemistry analyzer and HbA1c tests, performed by COBAS C 111 analyzer. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 software. Pearson's correlation, chi-square, and independent t-tests were calculated. The data was presented as mean?±?SD. A P-value of <?0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results:Mean hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (HCT), Mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were lower in IDA group compared to non-IDA diabetic patients. HbA1c (%) level was significantly lower in IDA group (6.18?±?1.57) compared with the non-IDA diabetic patients (7.74?±?1.81) (p <?0.05). Conclusion:HbA1c is significantly lower in diabetic patients with IDA compared to the non-IDA diabetic patients. Therefore, the authors believe that monitoring these patients using only HbA1c could be misleading, hence physicians and health care providers should take this into account before making any therapeutic decision. Detailed examination including large number of participants employing advanced laboratory techniques is recommended.
Project description:Urine strips are widely applied for rapid analysis of various indexes of urine for clinical examinations. The tests mainly rely on the application of a urine analyzer, which suffers several drawbacks and cannot meet the requirements of point-of-care testing (POCT). The integration of a smartphone with a biosensor has recently attracted great attention. We herein propose a human vision-based smartphone algorithm for colorimetric analysis of various urine indexes. A CIEDE2000 formula in CIELab color space is applied for the evaluation of color difference, which may greatly improve the analytical performances of urine strips. The proposed algorithm also possesses merits such as good accuracy, quantitative analysis, and limited calculation task, which is suitable for the application with smartphone platform. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method shows excellent reliability compared with the urine analyzer and some other algorithms. In addition, human real samples are successfully analyzed with excellent accuracy. Therefore, this work provides a convenient colorimetric tool for POCT urine analysis.
Project description:The Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes that can potentially cause microcephaly, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and other birth defects. Effective vaccines for Zika have not yet been developed. There is a necessity to establish an easily deployable, high-throughput, low-cost, and disposable point-of-care (POC) diagnostic platform for ZIKV infections. We report here an automated magnetic actuation platform suitable for a POC microfluidic sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using antibody-coated superparamagnetic beads. The smartphone integrated immunoassay is developed for colorimetric detection of ZIKV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen using disposable chips to accommodate the reactions inside the chip in microliter volumes. An in-house-built magnetic actuator platform automatically moves the magnetic beads through different aqueous phases. The assay requires a total of 9 min to automatically control the post-capture washing, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated secondary antibody probing, washing again, and, finally, color development. By measuring the saturation intensity of the developed color from the smartphone captured video, the presented assay provides high sensitivity with a detection limit of 62.5 ng/mL in whole plasma. These results advocate a great promise that the platform would be useful for the POC diagnosis of Zika virus infection in patients and can be used in resource-limited settings.
Project description:Patients with coagulation disorders may present to a variety of physician specialties; however, accurate and efficient diagnosis can be challenging for physicians not specialized in hematology, due to identified gaps in knowledge around appropriate laboratory assays and interpretation of test results. Coags Uncomplicated was developed to fill this unmet educational need by increasing practical knowledge of coagulation disorders among nonexpert physicians and other health care professionals (HCPs) in a point-of-care (POC) setting.The aim of this study was to assess patterns of use of the mobile app Coags Uncomplicated, a tool designed to support education regarding accurate and efficient diagnosis of bleeding disorders.App metrics were obtained by tracking registered user data. Additionally, a survey was distributed to registered users, to assess circumstances and frequency of use.The most common specialties of 7596 registered US users were hematology-oncology (n=1534, 20.19%), hematology (n=1014, 13.35%), and emergency medicine (n=1222, 16.09%); most identified as physicians (n=4082, 53.74%). Specialties accounting for the greatest numbers of screen views were hematology-oncology (99,390 views), hematology (47,808 views), emergency medicine (23,121 views), and internal medicine (22,586 views). The most common diagnostic endpoints reached were disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC; 2713 times), liver disease effect (2108 times), and vitamin K deficiency (1584 times). Of 3424 users asked to take the survey, 262 responded (7.65%); most were physicians in direct clinical care (71%) and specialized in hematology-oncology (39%) or emergency medicine (21%). Most frequent use was reported by hematologists (69%, ≥6 times) and hematologists-oncologists (38%, ≥6 times). Most physicians (89.2%) reported using the app for patient-case-related education around appropriate use of laboratory tests in diagnostic evaluation. Physicians rated Lab Value Analyzer (mean 4.43) and Lab Test Algorithm (mean 4.46) tools highly on a 5-point "how helpful" scale and were likely to recommend the app to colleagues.App use among physicians and other HCPs is consistent with value as a POC educational tool, which may facilitate differential diagnoses and appropriate early consultation with hematologists.
Project description:To examine the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency and anemia in a cohort of otherwise-healthy children and to determine whether race modifies the association between 25(OH)D status and hemoglobin (Hgb).Cross-sectional study of 10,410 children and adolescents ages 1-21 years from the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Anemia was defined as Hgb less than the 5th percentile for age and sex based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) data.Lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with increased risk for anemia; <30 ng/mL, adjusted OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.21-3.08, P = .006, and <20 ng/mL, OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.14-1.89, P = .004. In linear regression, small but significant increases in Hgb were noted in the upper quartiles of 25(OH)D compared with the lowest quartile (<20 ng/mL) in the full cohort. Results of race-stratified linear regression by 25(OH)D quartile in white children were similar to those observed in the full cohort, but in black children, an increase in Hgb in the upper 25(OH)D quartiles was only apparent compared with the lowest black race-specific quartile (<12 ng/mL).25(OH)D deficiency is associated with increased risk of anemia in healthy US children, but the 25(OH)D threshold levels for lower Hgb are lower in black children in comparison with white children.