RecQ-core of BLM unfolds telomeric G-quadruplex in the absence of ATP.
ABSTRACT: Various helicases and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins are known to destabilize G-quadruplex (GQ) structures, which otherwise result in genomic instability. Bulk biochemical studies have shown that Bloom helicase (BLM) unfolds both intermolecular and intramolecular GQ in the presence of ATP. Using single molecule FRET, we show that binding of RecQ-core of BLM (will be referred to as BLM) to ssDNA in the vicinity of an intramolecular GQ leads to destabilization and unfolding of the GQ in the absence of ATP. We show that the efficiency of BLM-mediated GQ unfolding correlates with the binding stability of BLM to ssDNA overhang, as modulated by the nucleotide state, ionic conditions, overhang length and overhang directionality. In particular, we observed enhanced GQ unfolding by BLM in the presence of non-hydrolysable ATP analogs, which has implications for the underlying mechanism. We also show that increasing GQ stability, via shorter loops or higher ionic strength, reduces BLM-mediated GQ unfolding. Finally, we show that while WRN has similar activity as BLM, RecQ and RECQ5 helicases do not unfold GQ in the absence of ATP at physiological ionic strength. In summary, our study points to a novel and potentially very common mechanism of GQ destabilization mediated by proteins binding to the vicinity of these structures.
Project description:RECQ5 is one of five members of the RecQ family of helicases in humans, which include RECQ1, Bloom (BLM), Werner (WRN), RECQ4, and RECQ5. Both WRN and BLM have been shown to resolve G-quadruplex (GQ) structures. Deficiencies in unfolding GQ are known to result in DNA breaks and genomic instability, which are prominent in Werner and Bloom syndromes. RECQ5 is significant in suppressing sister chromatid exchanges during homologous recombination but its GQ unfolding activity are not known. We performed single-molecule studies under different salt (50-150 mM KCl or NaCl) and ATP concentrations on different GQ constructs including human telomeric GQ (with different overhangs and polarities) and GQ formed by thrombin-binding aptamer to investigate this activity. These studies demonstrated a RECQ5-mediated GQ unfolding activity that was an order of magnitude weaker than BLM and WRN. On the other hand, BLM and RECQ5 demonstrated similar single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) reeling activities that were not coupled to GQ unfolding. These results demonstrate overlap in function between these RecQ helicases; however, the relatively weak GQ destabilization activity of RECQ5 compared to BLM and WRN suggests that RECQ5 is not primarily associated with GQ destabilization, but could substitute for the more efficient helicases under conditions where their activity is compromised. In addition, these results implicate a more general role for helicase-promoted ssDNA reeling activity such as removal of proteins at the replication fork, whereas the association of ssDNA reeling with GQ destabilization is more helicase-specific.
Project description:Various helicases and single stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins unfold G-quadruplex (GQ) structures. However, the underlying mechanisms of this activity have only recently come to focus. We report kinetic studies on Bloom (BLM) helicase and human telomeric GQ interactions using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET). Using partial duplex DNA (pdDNA) constructs with different 5' ssDNA overhangs, we show that BLM localizes in the vicinity of ssDNA/double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) junction and reels in the ssDNA overhang in an ATP-dependent manner. A comparison of DNA constructs with or without GQ in the overhang shows that GQ unfolding is achieved in 50-70% of reeling attempts under physiological salt and pH conditions. The unsuccessful attempts often result in dissociation of BLM from DNA which slows down the overall BLM activity. BLM-mediated GQ unfolding is typically followed by refolding of the GQ, a pattern that is repeated several times before BLM dissociates from DNA. BLM is significantly less processive compared to the highly efficient GQ destabilizer Pif1 that can repeat GQ unfolding activity hundreds of times before dissociating from DNA. Despite the variations in processivity, our studies point to possible common patterns used by different helicases in minimizing the duration of stable GQ formation.
Project description:BLM, one of the human RecQ helicases, plays a fundamental role in homologous recombination-based error-free DNA repair pathways, which require its translocation and DNA unwinding activities. Although translocation is essential in vivo during DNA repair processes and it provides a framework for more complex activities of helicases, including strand separation and nucleoprotein displacement, its mechanism has not been resolved for any human DNA helicase. Here, we present a quantitative model for the translocation of a monomeric form of BLM along ssDNA. We show that BLM performs translocation at a low adenosine triphosphate (ATP) coupling ratio (1 ATP consumed/1 nucleotide traveled) and moderate processivity (with a mean number of 50 nucleotides traveled in a single run). We also show that the rate-limiting step of the translocation cycle is a transition between two ADP-bound enzyme states. Via opening of the helicase core, this structural change may drive the stepping of BLM along the DNA track by a directed inchworm mechanism. The data also support the conclusion that BLM performs double-stranded DNA unwinding by fully active duplex destabilization.
Project description:Mutations in the RecQ DNA helicase gene BLM give rise to Bloom's syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genetic instability and cancer predisposition. BLM helicase is highly active in binding and unwinding G-quadruplexes (G4s), which are physiological targets for BLM, as revealed by genome-wide characterizations of gene expression of cells from BS patients. With smFRET assays, we studied the molecular mechanism of BLM-catalyzed G4 unfolding and showed that ATP is required for G4 unfolding. Surprisingly, depending on the molecular environments of G4, BLM unfolds G4 through different mechanisms: unfolding G4 harboring a 3'-ssDNA tail in three discrete steps with unidirectional translocation, and unfolding G4 connected to dsDNA by ssDNA in a repetitive manner in which BLM remains anchored at the ss/dsDNA junction, and G4 was unfolded by reeling in ssDNA. This indicates that one BLM molecule may unfold G4s in different molecular environments through different mechanisms.
Project description:G-quadruplex (G4) is a noncanonical DNA secondary structure formed by Hoogsteen base pairing. It is recognized by various DNA helicases involved in DNA metabolism processes such as replication and transcription. Human Bloom syndrome protein (BLM), one of five human RecQ helicases, is a G4 helicase. While several studies revealed the mechanism of G4 binding and unfolding by the conserved RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain of BLM, how RQC recognizes different G4 topologies is still unclear. Here, we investigated the interaction of Myc-22(14/23T) G4 from the c-Myc promoter and hTelo G4 from the telomeric sequence with RQC. Myc-22(14/23T) and hTelo form parallel and (3+1) hybrid topologies, respectively. Our circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy data indicate that RQC can partially unfold the parallel G4, even with a short 3' overhang, while it can only partially unfold the (3+1) hybrid G4 with a 3' overhang of 6 nucleotides or longer. We found that the intrinsic thermal stability of G4 does not determine RQC-induced G4 unfolding by comparing T m of G4s. We also showed that both parallel and (3+1) hybrid G4s bind to the ?-wing region of RQC. Thermodynamic analysis using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) showed that all interactions were endothermic and entropically driven. We suggest that RQC partially unfolds the parallel G4 more efficiently than the (3+1) hybrid G4 and binds to various G4 structures using its ?-wing region. By this information, our research provides new insights into the influence of G4 structure on DNA metabolic processes involving BLM.
Project description:RecQ family helicases function as safeguards of the genome. Unlike Escherichia coli, the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis bacterium possesses two RecQ-like homologues, RecQ[Bs] and RecS, which are required for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. RecQ[Bs] also binds to the forked DNA to ensure a smooth progression of the cell cycle. Here we present the first biochemical analysis of recombinant RecQ[Bs]. RecQ[Bs] binds weakly to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and blunt-ended double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) but strongly to forked dsDNA. The protein exhibits a DNA-stimulated ATPase activity and ATP- and Mg(2+)-dependent DNA helicase activity with a 3' ? 5' polarity. Molecular modeling shows that RecQ[Bs] shares high sequence and structure similarity with E. coli RecQ. Surprisingly, RecQ[Bs] resembles the truncated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sgs1 and human RecQ helicases more than RecQ[Ec] with regard to its enzymatic activities. Specifically, RecQ[Bs] unwinds forked dsDNA and DNA duplexes with a 3'-overhang but is inactive on blunt-ended dsDNA and 5'-overhung duplexes. Interestingly, RecQ[Bs] unwinds blunt-ended DNA with structural features, including nicks, gaps, 5'-flaps, Kappa joints, synthetic replication forks, and Holliday junctions. We discuss these findings in the context of RecQ[Bs]'s possible functions in preserving genomic stability.
Project description:DNA helicases of the RecQ family are conserved among the three domains of life and play essential roles in genome maintenance. Mutations in several human RecQ helicases lead to diseases that are marked by cancer predisposition. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RecQ helicase Sgs1 is orthologous to human BLM, defects in which cause the cancer-prone Bloom's Syndrome. Here, we use single-molecule imaging to provide a quantitative mechanistic understanding of Sgs1 activities on single stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is a central intermediate in all aspects of DNA metabolism. We show that Sgs1 acts upon ssDNA bound by either replication protein A (RPA) or the recombinase Rad51. Surprisingly, we find that Sgs1 utilizes a novel motor mechanism for disrupting ssDNA intermediates bound by the recombinase protein Rad51. The ability of Sgs1 to disrupt Rad51-ssDNA filaments may explain some of the defects engendered by RECQ helicase deficiencies in human cells.
Project description:Maintenance of genome integrity is the major biological role of RecQ-family helicases via their participation in homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair processes. RecQ helicases exert their functions by using the free energy of ATP hydrolysis for mechanical movement along DNA tracks (translocation). In addition to the importance of translocation per se in recombination processes, knowledge of its mechanism is necessary for the understanding of more complex translocation-based activities, including nucleoprotein displacement, strand separation (unwinding), and branch migration. Here, we report the key properties of the ssDNA translocation mechanism of Escherichia coli RecQ helicase, the prototype of the RecQ family. We monitored the pre-steady-state kinetics of ATP hydrolysis by RecQ and the dissociation of the enzyme from ssDNA during single-round translocation. We also gained information on the translocation mechanism from the ssDNA length dependence of the steady-state ssDNA-activated ATPase activity. We show that RecQ occludes 18 ± 2 nt on ssDNA during translocation. The hydrolysis of ATP is noncooperative in the presence of ssDNA, indicating that RecQ active sites work independently during translocation. In the applied conditions, the enzyme hydrolyzes 35 ± 4 ATP molecules per second during ssDNA translocation. RecQ translocates at a moderate processivity, with a mean run length of 100-320 nt on ssDNA. The determined tight mechanochemical coupling of 1.1 ± 0.2 ATP consumed per nucleotide traveled indicates an inchworm-type mechanism.
Project description:G-quadruplex (GQ) stabilizing small molecule (SM) ligands have been used to stabilize human telomeric GQ (hGQ) to inhibit telomerase activity, or non-telomeric GQs to manipulate gene expression at transcription or translation level. GQs are known to inhibit DNA replication unless destabilized by helicases, such as Bloom helicase (BLM). Even though the impact of SM ligands on thermal stability of GQs is commonly used to characterize their efficacy, how these ligands influence helicase-mediated GQ unfolding is not well understood. Three prominent SM ligands (an oxazole telomestatin derivative, pyridostatin, and PhenDC3), which thermally stabilize hGQ at different levels, were utilized in this study. How these ligands influence BLM-mediated hGQ unfolding was investigated using two independent single-molecule approaches. While the frequency of dynamic hGQ unfolding events was used as the metric in the first approach, the second approach was based on quantifying the cumulative unfolding activity as a function of time. All three SM ligands inhibited BLM activity at similar levels, 2-3 fold, in both approaches. Our observations suggest that the impact of SM ligands on GQ thermal stability is not an ideal predictor for their inhibition of helicase-mediated unfolding, which is physiologically more relevant.
Project description:DNA-restructuring activities of RecQ-family helicases play key roles in genome maintenance. These activities, driven by two tandem RecA-like core domains, are thought to be controlled by accessory DNA-binding elements including the helicase-and-RnaseD-C-terminal (HRDC) domain. The HRDC domain of human Bloom's syndrome (BLM) helicase was shown to interact with the RecA core, raising the possibility that it may affect the coupling between ATP hydrolysis, translocation along single-stranded (ss)DNA and/or unwinding of double-stranded (ds)DNA. Here, we determined how these activities are affected by the abolition of the ssDNA interaction of the HRDC domain or the deletion of the entire domain in E. coli RecQ helicase. Our data show that the HRDC domain suppresses the rate of DNA-activated ATPase activity in parallel with those of ssDNA translocation and dsDNA unwinding, regardless of the ssDNA binding capability of this domain. The HRDC domain does not affect either the processivity of ssDNA translocation or the tight coupling between the ATPase, translocation, and unwinding activities. Thus, the mechanochemical coupling of E. coli RecQ appears to be independent of HRDC-ssDNA and HRDC-RecA core interactions, which may play roles in more specialized functions of the enzyme.