Plasma phospholipid and dietary ?-linolenic acid, mortality, CHD and stroke: the Cardiovascular Health Study.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that long-chain n-3 fatty acids derived from seafood are associated with a lower risk of mortality, CHD and stroke. Whether ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 : 3n-3), a plant-derived long-chain essential n-3 fatty acid, is associated with a lower risk of these outcomes is unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of plasma phospholipid and dietary ALA with the risk of mortality, CHD and stroke among older adults who participated in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a cohort study of adults aged ? 65 years. A total of 2709 participants were included in the plasma phospholipid ALA analysis and 2583 participants were included in the dietary ALA analysis. Cox regression was used to assess the associations of plasma phospholipid and dietary ALA with the risk of mortality, incident CHD and stroke. In minimally and multivariable-adjusted models, plasma phospholipid ALA was found to be not associated with the risk of mortality, incident CHD or stroke. After adjustment for age, sex, race, enrolment site, education, smoking status, diabetes, BMI, alcohol consumption, treated hypertension and total energy intake, higher dietary ALA intake was found to be associated with a lower risk of total and non-cardiovascular mortality; on comparing the highest quintiles of dietary ALA with the lowest quintiles, the HR for total mortality and non-cardiovascular mortality were found to be 0·73 (95 % CI 0·61, 0·88) and 0·64 (95 % CI 0·52, 0·80), respectively. Dietary ALA was found to be not associated with the risk of cardiovascular mortality, incident CHD or stroke. In conclusion, the results of the present suggest study that dietary ALA, but not plasma phospholipid ALA, is associated with a lower risk of total and non-cardiovascular mortality in older adults.
Project description:Long-chain ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3-PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5?-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (22:5?-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6?-3), have been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk, but effects on cause-specific and total mortality and potential dose-responses remain controversial. Most observational studies have assessed self-reported dietary intake and most randomized trials have tested effects of adding supplements to dietary intake and evaluated secondary prevention, thus limiting inference for dietary ?3-PUFAs or primary prevention.To investigate associations of plasma phospholipid EPA, DPA, DHA, and total ?3-PUFA levels with total and cause-specific mortality among healthy older adults not receiving supplements.Prospective cohort study.4 U.S. communities.2692 U.S. adults aged 74 years (±5 years) without prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, or heart failure at baseline.Phospholipid fatty acid levels and cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 1992. Relationships with total and cause-specific mortality and incident fatal or nonfatal CHD and stroke through 2008 were assessed.During 30 829 person-years, 1625 deaths (including 570 cardiovascular deaths), 359 fatal and 371 nonfatal CHD events, and 130 fatal and 276 nonfatal strokes occurred. After adjustment, higher plasma levels of ?3-PUFA biomarkers were associated with lower total mortality, with extreme-quintile hazard ratios of 0.83 for EPA (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.98; P for trend = 0.005), 0.77 for DPA (CI, 0.66 to 0.90; P for trend = 0.008), 0.80 for DHA (CI, 0.67 to 0.94; P for trend = 0.006), and 0.73 for total ?3-PUFAs (CI, 0.61 to 0.86; P for trend < 0.001). Lower risk was largely attributable to fewer cardiovascular than noncardiovascular deaths. Individuals in the highest quintile of phospholipid ?3-PUFA level lived an average of 2.22 more years (CI, 0.75 to 3.13 years) after age 65 years than did those in the lowest quintile.Temporal changes in fatty acid levels and misclassification of causes of death may have resulted in underestimated associations, and unmeasured or imperfectly measured covariates may have caused residual confounding.Higher circulating individual and total ?3-PUFA levels are associated with lower total mortality, especially CHD death, in older adults.National Institutes of Health.
Project description:Although studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids intake may reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk, few studies have differentiated dietary eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) from alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and epidemiological research in Asian populations is limited.The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort that recruited 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45-74 years from 1993 to 1998. Usual diet was measured at recruitment using a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and mortality information was identified via registry linkage up to 31 December 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with adjustment for potential confounders.We documented 4780 cardiovascular deaths (including 2697 coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths and 1298 stroke deaths) during 890,473 person-years of follow up. Omega-3 fatty acids intake was monotonically associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. Compared to the lowest quartile, the HR was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.81-0.96), 0.88 (95% CI 0.80-0.97), and 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.92) for the second, third, and highest quartile, respectively (p-trend?=?0.003). Both EPA/DHA and ALA were independently associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality: HR comparing extreme quartiles was 0.86 (95% CI 0.77-0.96, p-trend?=?0.002) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.73-0.90, p-trend?<?0.001), respectively. The associations were similar for deaths from CHD and stroke and persisted in participants who were free of CVD at baseline.Higher intakes of marine (EPA/DHA) and plant (ALA) omega-3 fatty acids are both associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality in a Chinese population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) have been recommended to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD), controversy remains about benefits versus harms, including concerns over theorized proinflammatory effects of n-6 PUFA. We investigated associations of circulating n-6 PUFA including linoleic acid (the major dietary PUFA), ?-linolenic acid, dihomo-?-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid, with total and cause-specific mortality in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based U.S. cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS:Among 2792 participants(aged ?65 years) free of cardiovascular disease at baseline, plasma phospholipid n-6 PUFA were measured at baseline using standardized methods. All-cause and cause-specific mortality, and total incident CHD and stroke, were assessed and adjudicated centrally. Associations of PUFA with risk were assessed by Cox regression. During 34 291 person-years of follow-up (1992-2010), 1994 deaths occurred (678 cardiovascular deaths), with 427 fatal and 418 nonfatal CHD, and 154 fatal and 399 nonfatal strokes. In multivariable models, higher linoleic acid was associated with lower total mortality, with extreme-quintile hazard ratio =0.87 (P trend=0.005). Lower death was largely attributable to cardiovascular disease causes, especially nonarrhythmic CHD mortality (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.82; P trend=0.001). Circulating ?-linolenic acid, dihomo-?-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid were not significantly associated with total or cause-specific mortality (eg, for arachidonic acid and CHD death, the extreme-quintile hazard ratio was 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.34; P trend=0.87). Evaluated semiparametrically, linoleic acid showed graded inverse associations with total mortality (P=0.005). There was little evidence that associations of n-6 PUFA with total mortality varied by age, sex, race, or plasma n-3 PUFA. Evaluating both n-6 and n-3 PUFA, lowest risk was evident with highest levels of both. CONCLUSIONS:High circulating linoleic acid, but not other n-6 PUFA, was inversely associated with total and CHD mortality in older adults.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The lack of association found in several cohort studies between dietary saturated fat and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk has renewed debate over the link between dietary fats and CHD. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We assessed the relationship between plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PFA) concentration and incident CHD using a nested case control design within a prospective study (EPIC-Norfolk) of 25,639 individuals aged 40-79 years examined in 1993-1997 and followed up to 2009. Plasma PFA concentrations were measured by gas chromatography in baseline samples retrieved from frozen storage. In 2,424 men and women with incident CHD compared with 4,930 controls alive and free of cardiovascular disease, mean follow-up 13 years, saturated PFA (14:0, 16:0,18:0) plasma concentrations were significantly associated with increased CHD risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.27-2.41, p<0.0001), in top compared to bottom quartiles (Q), and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA concentrations were inversely related (OR 0.77, 0.60-0.99, p<0.05) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol intake, plasma vitamin C, social class, education, and other PFAs. Monounsaturated PFA, omega-3 PFA, and trans PFA concentrations were not significantly associated with CHD. Odd chain PFA (15:0, 17:0) concentrations were significantly inversely associated with CHD (OR 0.73, 0.59-0.91, p<0.001, Q4 versus Q1). Within families of saturated PFA or polyunsaturated PFA, significantly heterogeneous relationships with CHD were observed for individual fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, plasma concentrations of even chain saturated PFA were found to be positively and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA inversely related to subsequent coronary heart disease risk. These findings are consistent with accumulating evidence suggesting a protective role of omega-6 fats substituting for saturated fats for CHD prevention.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The relationship between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and stroke-related mortality is inconsistent. METHODS: We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded databases using glycemic index, glycemic load, and cardiovascular disease and reference lists of retrieved articles up to April 30, 2012. We included prospective studies with glycemic index and glycemic load as the exposure and incidence of fatal and nonfatal CHD, stroke, and stroke-related mortality as the outcome variable. Pooled relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS: Fifteen prospective studies with a total of 438,073 participants and 9,424 CHD cases, 2,123 stroke cases, and 342 deaths from stroke were included in the meta-analysis. Gender significantly modified the effects of glycemic index and glycemic load on CHD risk, and high glycemic load level was associated with higher risk of CHD in women (RR=1.49, 95%CI 1.27-1.73), but not in men (RR=1.08, 95%CI 0.91-1.27). Stratified meta-analysis by body mass index indicated that among overweight and obese subjects, dietary glycemic load level were associated with increased risk of CHD (RR=1.49, 95%CI 1.27-1.76; P for interaction=0.003). Higher dietary glycemic load, but not glycemic index, was positively associated with stroke (RR=1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.43). There is a linear dose-response relationship between dietary glycemic load and increased risk of CHD, with pooled RR of 1.05 (95%CI 1.02-1.08) per 50-unit increment in glycemic load level. CONCLUSION: High dietary glycemic load is associated with a higher risk of CHD and stroke, and there is a linear dose-response relationship between glycemic load and CHD risk. Dietary glycemic index is slightly associated with risk of CHD, but not with stroke and stroke-related death. Further studies are needed to verify the effects of gender and body weight on cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Not much is known about the relations of circulating saturated fatty acids (SFAs), which are influenced by both metabolic and dietary determinants, with total and cause-specific mortality. OBJECTIVE:We examined the associations of plasma phospholipid SFAs with total and cause-specific mortality among 3941 older adults from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a population-based prospective study of adults aged ?65 y who were followed from 1992 through 2011. METHODS:The relations of total and cause-specific mortality with plasma phospholipid palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), arachidic acid (20:0), behenic acid (22:0), and lignoceric acid (24:0) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS:During 45,450 person-years of follow-up, 3134 deaths occurred. Higher concentrations of the plasma phospholipid SFAs 18:0, 22:0, and 24:0 were associated with a lower risk of total mortality [multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs)] for the top compared with the bottom quintile: 0.85 (0.75, 0.95) for 18:0; 0.85 (0.75, 0.95) for 22:0; and 0.80 (0.71, 0.90) for 24:0. In contrast, plasma 16:0 concentrations in the highest quintile were associated with a higher risk of total mortality compared with concentrations in the lowest quintile [1.25 (1.11, 1.41)]. We also found no association of plasma phospholipid 20:0 with total mortality. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that the associations of plasma phospholipid SFAs with the risk of death differ according to SFA chain length and support future studies to better characterize the determinants of circulating SFAs and to explore the mechanisms underlying these relations.
Project description:Prior studies of ?-linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk have generated inconsistent results.We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence regarding the relation of ALA and CVD risk.We searched multiple electronic databases through January 2012 for studies that reported the association between ALA (assessed as dietary intake or as a biomarker in blood or adipose tissue) and CVD risk in prospective and retrospective studies. We pooled the multivariate-adjusted RRs comparing the top with the bottom tertile of ALA using random-effects meta-analysis, which allowed for between-study heterogeneity.Twenty-seven original studies were identified, including 251,049 individuals and 15,327 CVD events. The overall pooled RR was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.97; I² = 71.3%). The association was significant in 13 comparisons that used dietary ALA as the exposure (pooled RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99; I² = 49.0%), with similar but nonsignificant trends in 17 comparisons in which ALA biomarkers were used as the exposure (pooled RR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.03; I² = 79.8%). An evaluation of mean participant age, study design (prospective compared with retrospective), exposure assessment (self-reported diet compared with biomarker), and outcome [fatal coronary heart disease (CHD), nonfatal CHD, total CHD, or stroke] showed that none were statistically significant sources of heterogeneity.In observational studies, higher ALA exposure is associated with a moderately lower risk of CVD. The results were generally consistent for dietary and biomarker studies but were not statistically significant for biomarker studies. However, the high unexplained heterogeneity highlights the need for additional well-designed observational studies and large randomized clinical trials to evaluate the effects of ALA on CVD.
Project description:Background: Vegetarian dietary patterns are recommended for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and management due to their favorable effects on cardiometabolic risk factors, however, the role of vegetarian dietary patterns in CVD incidence and mortality remains unclear. Objective: To update the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association of vegetarian dietary patterns with major cardiovascular outcomes in prospective cohort studies that included individuals with and without diabetes using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched through September 6th, 2018. We included prospective cohort studies ?1 year of follow-up including individuals with or without diabetes reporting the relation of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns with at least one cardiovascular outcome. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale). The pre-specified outcomes included CVD incidence and mortality (total CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke). Risk ratios for associations were pooled using inverse variance random effects model and expressed as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I 2-statistic). The overall certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Results: Seven prospective cohort studies (197,737 participants, 8,430 events) were included. A vegetarian dietary pattern was associated with reduced CHD mortality [RR, 0.78 (CI, 0.69, 0.88)] and incidence [0.72 (0.61, 0.85)] but were not associated with CVD mortality [0.92 (0.84, 1.02)] and stroke mortality [0.92 (0.77, 1.10)]. The overall certainty of the evidence was graded as "very low" for all outcomes, owing to downgrades for indirectness and imprecision. Conclusions: Very low-quality evidence indicates that vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with reductions in CHD mortality and incidence but not with CVD and stroke mortality in individuals with and without diabetes. More research, particularly in different populations, is needed to improve the certainty in our estimates. Clinical Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT03610828.
Project description:It is unknown whether influences of midlife whole diet on the long-term CHD mortality risk are independent of genetic and common environmental factors or familial predisposition. We addressed this question prospectively using data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study. We included 910 male twins who were middle-aged and had usual diet assessed with nutritionist-administered, cross-checked dietary history interview at baseline (1969-1973). Moderation-quantified healthy diet (MQHD), a dietary pattern, was created to evaluate a whole diet. Primary outcome was time-to-CHD death. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using frailty survival model. Known CHD risk factors were controlled. During the follow-up of 40 years through 31 December 2009, 113 CHD deaths, 198 total cardiovascular deaths and 610 all-cause deaths occurred. In the entire cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR for the overall association (equivalent to a general population association) was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·66, 0·88) per 10-unit increment in the MQHD score for CHD, and the multivariable-adjusted HR for a twin with a MQHD score ten units higher than his co-twin brother was 0·79 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·96, P=0·02) for CHD independent of familial predisposition. Similar results were found for a slightly more food-specified alternative moderation-quantified healthy diet (aMQHD). The between-pair association (reflecting familial influence) was significant for CHD for both MQHD and aMQHD. It is concluded that associations of MQHD and aMQHD with a lower long-term CHD mortality risk are both nutritionally and familially affected, supporting their use for dietary planning to prevent CHD mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The effectiveness of folic acid supplementation in stroke risk has been investigated, however, the available results are inconclusive and conflicting. The purpose of this systemic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of folic acid in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS:By searching the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate effect of folic acid supplementation in patients with CVD. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were summarized; hazard ratios (HR), the relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were also calculated. Fixed effects models were used to combine the data. A total of 12 randomized controlled trials, which involved 47,523 participants, met the inclusion criteria in this systematic review and meta-analysis. RESULTS:Our meta-analysis showed that cardiovascular patients who received folic acid therapy had significantly decreased risk of stroke (RR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77-0.94, Pheterogeneity = .347, I = 10.6%) compared with patients who received control treatment. However, no significant difference in all-cause mortality (HR, 0.97, 95% CI, 0.86-1.10, Pheterogeneity = .315, I = 15.4%), cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.87, 95% CI, 0.66-1.15, Pheterogeneity = .567, I = 0) and risk of CHD (RR, 1.04, 95% CI, 0.99-1.10, Pheterogeneity = .725, I = 0) were found between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis suggested that folic acid supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stroke in patients with CVD.