High-dose cytarabine in acute myeloid leukemia treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: The optimal dose, scheme, and clinical setting for Ara-C in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment remain uncertain. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to systematically assess the impact of high-dose cytarabine (HDAC) on AML therapy during the induction and consolidation stages. Twenty-two trials with a total of 5,945 de novo AML patients were included in the meta-analysis. Only patients less than 60 year-old were included in the study. Using HDAC in induction therapy was beneficial for RFS (HR?=?0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.93; P?=?0.02) but not so for CR rate (HR?=?1.01; 95% CI, 0.93-1.09; P?=?0.88) and OS (HR?=?0.83; 95% CI, 0.66-1.03; P?=?0.1). In consolidation therapy, HDAC showed significant RFS benefits (HR?=?0.67; 95% CI, 0.49-0.9; P?=?0.008) especially for the favorable-risk group (HR?=?0.38; 95% CI, 0.21-0.69; P?=?0.001) compared with SDAC (standard dose cytarabine), although no OS advantage was observed (HR?=?0.84; 95% CI, 0.55-1.27; P?=?0.41). HDAC treatment seemed less effective than auto-BMT/allo-BMT treatment (HR?=?1.66, 95% CI, 1.3-2.14; P<0.0001) with similar OS. HDAC treatment led to lower relapse rate in induction and consolidation therapy than SDAC treatment, especially for the favorable-risk group. Auto-BMT/allo-BMT was more beneficial in prolonging RFS than HDAC.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) encompasses heterogeneous entities with dismal outcomes. Intermediate and unfavorable-risk AML represent the most difficult-to-treat entities. We recently reported the benefit of the clofarabine-based consolidation (CLARA) regimen compared to the standard high-dose cytarabine (HDAC) regimen in younger AML patients. Here, we aimed at assessing the clinical significance of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-array alterations and their interactions with chemotherapy regimens. A SNP-array was successfully performed in 187 out of the 221 intent-to-treat patients (CLARA arm: n = 92 patients, HDAC arm: n = 95 patients). The CLARA regimen did not significantly improve relapse-free survival (RFS) among patients who displayed a complex karyotype when compared to the HDAC regimen (4-year RFS (4y-RFS): 36.4% vs. 18.8%, respectively; p = 0.134). Defining micro-complex karyotypes from at least four SNP-array lesions enabled us to refine and enlarge the subset of adverse patients. In such patients, the CLARA regimen significantly improved RFS compared to the HDAC regimen (4y-RFS: 44.4% vs. 13.8%, respectively; p = 0.004). From our study cohort, 8% of patients displayed TP53 mutations, which were associated with an impaired RFS (4y-RFS: 20.0% vs 43.7%; p = 0.029). In a multivariate analysis, micro-complex karyotypes remained the sole poor prognostic factor in the HDAC arm (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.324 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.337-4.041), p = 0.003). The SNP array represents a powerful and reproductive approach to refine adverse AML patients that may benefit from alternative consolidation regimens.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and consolidation chemotherapy have been used to treat intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients in first complete remission (CR1). However, it is still unclear which treatments are most effective for these patients. The aim of our study was to analyze the relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) benefit of allogeneic HSCT (alloHSCT) for intermediate-risk AML patients in CR1. A meta-analysis of prospective trials comparing alloHSCT to non-alloHSCT (autologous HSCT [autoHSCT] and/or chemotherapy) was undertaken. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library though October 2014, using keywords and relative MeSH or Emtree terms, 'allogeneic'; 'acut*' and 'leukem*/aml/leukaem*/leucem*/leucaem*'; and 'nonlympho*' or 'myelo*'. A total of 7053 articles were accessed. The primary outcomes were RFS and OS, while the secondary outcomes were treatment-related mortality (TRM) and relapse rate (RR). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each outcome. The primary outcomes were RFS and OS, while the secondary outcomes were TRM and RR. We included 9 prospective controlled studies including 1950 adult patients. Patients with intermediate-risk AML in CR1 who received either alloHSCT or non-alloHSCT were considered eligible. AlloHSCT was found to be associated with significantly better RFS, OS, and RR than non-alloHSCT (HR, 0.684 [95% CI: 0.48, 0.95]; HR, 0.76 [95% CI: 0.61, 0.95]; and HR, 0.58 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.75], respectively). TRM was significantly higher following alloHSCT than non-alloHSCT (HR, 3.09 [95% CI: 1.38, 6.92]). However, subgroup analysis showed no OS benefit for alloHSCT over autoHSCT (HR, 0.99 [95% CI: 0.70, 1.39]). In conclusion, alloHSCT is associated with more favorable RFS, OS, and RR benefits (but not TRM outcomes) than non-alloHSCT generally, but does not have an OS advantage over autoHSCT specifically, in patients with intermediate-risk AML in CR1.
Project description:DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) mutations were widely believed to be independently associated with inferior prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. As dominant missense alterations in DNMT3A mutations, R882 mutations cause the focal hypomethylation phenotype. However, there remains debate on the influence of R882 mutations on AML prognosis. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed at further illustrating the prognostic power of DNMT3A R882 mutations in AML patients.Eligible studies were identified from 5 databases containing PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Clinical Trials, and the Cochrane Library (up to October 25, 2015). Effects (hazard ratios [HRs] with 95% confidence interval [CI]) of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were pooled to estimate the prognostic power of mutant DNMT3A R882 in overall patients and subgroups of AML patients.Eight competent studies with 4474 AML patients including 694 with DNMT3A R882 mutations were included. AML patients with DNMT3A R882 mutations showed significant shorter RFS (HR?=?1.40, 95% CI?=?1.24-1.59, P?<?0.001) and OS (HR?=?1.47, 95% CI?=?1.17-1.86, P?=?0.001) in the overall population. DNMT3A R882 mutations predicted worse RFS and OS among the subgroups of patients under age 60 (RFS: HR?=?1.44, 95% CI?=?1.25-1.66, P?<?0.001; OS: HR?=?1.48, 95% CI?=?1.15-1.90, P?=?0.002), over age 60 (RFS: HR?=?2.03, 95% CI?=?1.40-2.93, P?<?0.001; OS: HR?=?1.85, 95% CI?=?1.36-2.53, P?<?0.001), cytogenetically normal (CN)-AML (RFS: HR?=?1.52, 95% CI?=?1.26-1.83, P?<?0.001; OS: HR?=?1.67, 95% CI?=?1.16-2.41, P?=?0.006), and non-CN-AML (RFS: HR?=?1.96, 95% CI?=?1.20-3.21, P?=?0.006; OS: HR?=?2.51, 95% CI?=?1.52-4.15, P?=?0.0038).DNMT3A R882 mutations possessed significant unfavorable prognostic influence on RFS and OS in AML patients.
Project description:Timed sequential therapy (TST) aims to improve outcomes in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) by harnessing drug-induced cell cycle kinetics of AML, where a second drug is timed to coincide with peak leukemia proliferation induced by the first drugs. We analyzed outcomes in 301 newly diagnosed AML patients treated from 2004-2013 with cytarabine, anthracycline, and etoposide TST induction. Median age was 52 (range 20-74) and complete remission rate 68%. With median follow-up 5.8 years, 5-year DFS and overall survival (OS) were 37% (95% CI 31-45%) and 32% (95% CI 27-38%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, older age, unfavorable cytogenetics, and WBC?50×109/L resulted in worse OS. Among patients not undergoing blood and marrow transplant, a propensity score analysis, which reduces imbalance in baseline characteristics, showed consolidation with TST compared with 1 or more cycles high-dose cytarabine trended toward lower DFS and post-remission survival with hazard ratio (HR) 1.9 (95% CI 0.9-4.0), and 1.6 (95% CI 0.7-3.6), respectively. Our results demonstrate the efficacy and feasibility of TST induction for newly diagnosed patients with AML, with results comparable to that seen in clinical trials with other TST therapies and 7+3.
Project description:Sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) limits the efficacy of cytarabine (ara-C) used in AML by hydrolyzing its active metabolite ara-CTP and thus represents a promising therapeutic target. SAMHD1 has also been implicated in DNA damage repair that may impact DNA damage-inducing therapies such as anthracyclines, during induction therapy. To determine whether SAMHD1 limits ara-C efficacy during induction or consolidation therapy, SAMHD1 protein levels were assessed in two patient cohorts of de novo AML from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (USA) and the National University Hospital (Singapore), respectively, using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays. SAMHD1 was expressed at a variable level by AML blasts but not in a broad range of normal hematopoietic cells in reactive bone marrows. A sizeable patient subset with low SAMHD1 expression (<25% of positive blasts) was identified, which was significantly associated with longer event-free (EFS) and overall (OS) survival in patients receiving high-dose cytarabine (HDAC) during consolidation. Therefore, evaluation of SAMHD1 expression level in AML blasts at diagnosis, may stratify patient groups for future clinical trials combining HDAC with novel SAMHD1 inhibitors as consolidation therapy.
Project description:The value of measurable residual disease (MRD) in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is inconsistent between those treated with intensive vs hypomethylating drugs, and unknown after semi-intensive therapy. We investigated the role of MRD in refining complete remission (CR) and treatment duration in the phase 3 FLUGAZA clinical trial, which randomized 283 elderly AML patients to induction and consolidation with fludarabine plus cytarabine (FLUGA) vs 5-azacitidine. After consolidation, patients continued treatment if MRD was ?0.01% or stopped if MRD was <0.01%, as assessed by multidimensional flow cytometry (MFC). On multivariate analysis including genetic risk and treatment arm, MRD status in patients achieving CR (N = 72) was the only independent prognostic factor for relapse-free survival (RFS) (HR, 3.45; P = .002). Achieving undetectable MRD significantly improved RFS of patients with adverse genetics (HR, 0.32; P = .013). Longer overall survival was observed in patients with undetectable MRD after induction though not after consolidation. Although leukemic cells from most patients displayed phenotypic aberrancies vs their normal counterpart (N = 259 of 265), CD34 progenitors from cases with undetectable MRD by MFC carried extensive genetic abnormalities identified by whole-exome sequencing. Interestingly, the number of genetic alterations significantly increased from diagnosis to MRD stages in patients treated with FLUGA vs 5-azacitidine (2.2-fold vs 1.1-fold; P = .001). This study supports MRD assessment to refine CR after semi-intensive therapy or hypomethylating agents, but unveils that improved sensitivity is warranted to individualize treatment and prolong survival of elderly AML patients achieving undetectable MRD.
Project description:Postremission treatment is crucial to prevent relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). High-dose cytarabine delivered every 12 hours on days 1, 3, and 5 (HDAC-135) is the standard of care for younger adult patients with AML. Although this standard has been unsuccessfully challenged by other treatment regimens, including multiagent chemotherapy, the timing of HDAC administration has attracted little attention. Here, we retrospectively compared the safety, efficacy, and health care resource consumption associated with HDAC-135 and another standard, condensed HDAC-123 regimen, as consolidation treatment in younger AML patients in first complete response. This study included 221 patients (median age, 46.6 years; range, 18-60 years). HDAC-123 and HDAC-135 were used in 92 and 129 patients, respectively. Both regimens were associated with similar rates of relapse-free survival, cumulative incidence of relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and overall survival, including in core binding factor AML subgroup in which levels of minimal residual disease reduction were similar in both schedules. Hematological recovery times regarding neutrophils and platelets were significantly shorter in patients receiving HDAC-123, with an average difference of 3 to 4 days for each consolidation cycle. The total duration of hospitalization for the whole postremission program was shorter with HDAC-123 (32 days; interquartile ratio [IQR], 22.0,36.5) compared with HDAC-135 (41 days; IQR, 30.5, 50.0) (P < .0001). In conclusion, the condensed HDAC-123 regimen induced faster hematological recovery and therefore significantly reduced the length of hospital stay without affecting treatment response or outcome in younger AML patients.
Project description:Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are often neutropenic as a result of their disease. Furthermore, these patients typically experience profound neutropenia following induction and/or consolidation chemotherapy and this may result in serious, potentially life-threatening, infection. This randomized, double-blind, phase 2 clinical trial compared the efficacy and tolerability of pegfilgrastim with filgrastim for assisting neutrophil recovery following induction and consolidation chemotherapy for de novo AML in patients with low-to-intermediate risk cytogenetics.Patients (n = 84) received one or two courses of standard induction chemotherapy (idarubicin + cytarabine), followed by one course of consolidation therapy (high-dose cytarabine) if complete remission was achieved. They were randomized to receive either single-dose pegfilgrastim 6 mg or daily filgrastim 5 mug/kg, beginning 24 hours after induction and consolidation chemotherapy.The median time to recovery from severe neutropenia was 22.0 days for both pegfilgrastim (n = 42) and filgrastim (n = 41) groups during Induction 1 (difference 0.0 days; 95% CI: -1.9 to 1.9). During Consolidation, recovery occurred after a median of 17.0 days for pegfilgrastim versus 16.5 days for filgrastim (difference 0.5 days; 95% CI: -1.1 to 2.1). Therapeutic pegfilgrastim serum concentrations were maintained throughout neutropenia. Pegfilgrastim was well tolerated, with an adverse event profile similar to that of filgrastim.These data suggest no clinically meaningful difference between a single dose of pegfilgrastim and multiple daily doses of filgrastim for shortening the duration of severe neutropenia following chemotherapy in de novo AML patients with low-to-intermediate risk cytogenetics.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00114764.
Project description:Clofarabine is active in refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this phase 2 study, we treated 18- to 65-year-old AML patients refractory to first-line 3 + 7 daunorubicin/cytarabine induction or relapsing after 3 + 7 induction and high-dose cytarabine consolidation, with clofarabine (30 mg/m2 /d, Days 1-5), cytarabine (750 mg/m2 /d, Days 1-5), and mitoxantrone (12 mg/m2 /d, Days 3-5) (CLAM). Patients achieving remission received up to two consolidation cycles of 50% CLAM, with eligible cases bridged to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The mutational profile of a 69-gene panel was evaluated. Twenty-six men and 26 women at a median age of 46 (22-65) years were treated. The overall response rate after the first cycle of CLAM was 90.4% (complete remission, CR: 69.2%; CR with incomplete hematologic recovery, CRi: 21.2%). Twenty-two CR/CRi patients underwent allo-HSCT. The 2-year overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and event-free survival (EFS) were 65.8%, 45.7%, and 40.2%, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that superior OS was associated with CR after CLAM (P = .005) and allo-HSCT (P = .005), and superior RFS and EFS were associated with allo-HSCT (P < .001). Remarkably, CR after CLAM and allo-HSCT resulted in 2-year OS of 84.3% and 90%, respectively. Karyotypic aberrations and genetic mutations did not influence responses or survivals. Grade 3/4 neutropenia/thrombocytopenia and grade 3 febrile neutropenia occurred in all cases. Other nonhematologic toxicities were mild and uncommon. There was no treatment-related mortality and the performance of allo-HSCT was not compromised. Clofarabine, cytarabine, and mitoxantrone was highly effective and safe in refractory/relapsed AML. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02686593).
Project description:Cytarabine (Ara-C) in consolidation therapy played important role in preventing relapses for AML patients achieved complete remission, but the optimum dose remains elusive. In this network meta-analysis, we compared benefit and safety of high-, intermediate- and low-dose Ara-C [HDAraC (>2?g/m2, ?3?g/m2 twice daily), IDAraC (?1?g/m2, ?2?g/m2 twice daily) and LDAraC (<1?g/m2 twice day)] in consolidation, based on ten randomized phase III/IV trials from 1994 to 2016, which included 4008 adult AML patients. According to the results, HDAraC in a dosage of 3?g/m2 twice daily significantly improved disease-free survival (DFS) compared with IDAraC [hazard rate (HR) 0.87, 95% CrI 0.79-0.97) and LDAraC (HR 0.86, 95% CrI 0.78-0.95). Subgroup analysis further showed that the DFS advantage of HDAraC is focused on the patients with favorable cytogenetics, but not the other cytogenetics. Compared with LDAraC, HDAraC (HR 6.04, 95% CrI 1.67-21.49) and IDAraC (HR 3.80, 95% CrI 1.05-12.85) were associated with higher risk of grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicity. However, no significant difference between HDAraC and IDAraC was found. These findings suggest that Ara-C in a dosage of 3?g/m2 twice daily provides maximal anti-relapse effect.