Parkin counteracts symptoms in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Parkinson's disease, a prevalent neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the reduction of dopaminergic neurons resulting in the loss of motor control, resting tremor, the formation of neuronal inclusions and ultimately premature death. Two inherited forms of PD have been linked to mutations in the alpha-synuclein and parkin genes. The parkin protein functions as an ubiquitin ligase targeting specific proteins for degradation. Expression of human alpha-synuclein in Drosophila neurons recapitulates the loss of motor control, the development of neuronal inclusions, degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the ommatidial array to provide an excellent genetic model of PD. RESULTS:To investigate the role of parkin, we have generated transgenic Drosophila that conditionally express parkin under the control of the yeast UAS enhancer. While expression of parkin has little consequence, co-expression of parkin with alpha-synuclein in the dopaminergic neurons suppresses the alpha-synuclein-induced premature loss of climbing ability. In addition directed expression of parkin in the eye counteracts the alpha-synuclein-induced degeneration of the ommatidial array. These results show that parkin suppresses the PD-like symptoms observed in the alpha-synuclein-dependent Drosophila model of PD. CONCLUSION:The highly conserved parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase can suppress the damaging effects of human alpha-synuclein. These results are consistent with a role for parkin in targeting alpha-synuclein to the proteasome. If this relationship is conserved in humans, this suggests that up-regulation of parkin should suppress alpha-synucleinopathic PD. The development of therapies that regulate parkin activity may be crucial in the treatment of PD.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. We report for the first time that the Drosophila histone deacetylase 6 (dHDAC6) plays a critical role in the protection of DA neurons and the formation of alpha-synuclein inclusions by using a Drosophila PD model constructed by ectopic expression of human alpha-synuclein. Depletion of dHDAC6 significantly enhances the effects caused by ectopic expression of alpha-synuclein, namely, loss of DA neurons, retinal degeneration, and locomotor dysfunction. Expression of alpha-synuclein in the DA neurons leads to fewer inclusions in the brains of dHDAC6 mutant flies than in wild-type flies. Conversely, overexpression of dHDAC6 is able to suppress the alpha-synuclein-induced DA neuron loss and retinal degeneration and promote inclusion formation. Furthermore, mutation of dHDAC6 reinforces the accumulation of oligomers that are suggested to be a toxic form of alpha-synuclein. We propose that alpha-synuclein inclusion formation in the presence of dHDAC6 protects DA neurons from being damaged by oligomers, which may uncover a common mechanism for synucleinopathies.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by Lewy body formation and death of dopaminergic neurons. Mutations in alpha-synuclein and parkin cause familial forms of PD. Synphilin-1 was shown to interact with alpha-synuclein and to promote the formation of cytosolic inclusions. We now report that synphilin-1 interacts with the E3 ubiquitin-ligases SIAH-1 and SIAH-2. SIAH proteins ubiquitylate synphilin-1 both in vitro and in vivo, promoting its degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Inability of the proteasome to degrade synphilin-1/SIAH complex leads to a robust formation of ubiquitylated cytosolic inclusions. Ubiquitylation is required for inclusion formation, because a catalytically inactive mutant of SIAH-1, which still binds to synphilin-1, fails to promote inclusions. Like synphilin-1, alpha-synuclein associates with SIAH in intact cells, but the interaction with SIAH-2 was much stronger that with SIAH-1. In vitro experiments show that SIAH-2 monoubiquitylates alpha-synuclein. Further evidence that SIAH proteins may play a role in inclusion formation comes from the demonstration of SIAH immunoreactivity in Lewy bodies of PD patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, as well as the formation of intraneuronal inclusions known as Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in the substantia nigra. Accumulations of nitrated alpha-synuclein are demonstrated in the signature inclusions of Parkinson's disease. However, whether the nitration of alpha-synuclein is relevant to the pathogenesis of PD is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, effect of nitrated alpha-synuclein to dopaminergic (DA) neurons was determined by delivering nitrated recombinant TAT-alpha-synuclein intracellular. We provide evidence to show that the nitrated alpha-synuclein was toxic to cultured dopaminergic SHSY-5Y neurons and primary mesencephalic DA neurons to a much greater degree than unnitrated alpha-synuclein. Moreover, we show that administration of nitrated alpha-synuclein to the substantia nigra pars compacta of rats caused severe reductions in the number of DA neurons therein, and led to the down-regulation of D(2)R in the striatum in vivo. Furthermore, when administered to the substantia nigra of rats, nitrated alpha-synuclein caused PD-like motor dysfunctions, such as reduced locomotion and motor asymmetry, however unmodified alpha-synuclein had significantly less severe behavioral effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide evidence that alpha-synuclein, principally in its nitrated form, induce DA neuron death and may be a major factor in the etiology of PD.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, Lewy body formation, and loss of dopaminergic neurons. Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is thought to inhibit PD progression by removing damaged mitochondria and suppressing the accumulation of ?-synuclein and other protein aggregates. The present study describes a protein-based therapy for PD enabled by the development of a cell-permeable Parkin protein (iCP-Parkin) with enhanced solubility and optimized intracellular delivery. iCP-Parkin recovered damaged mitochondria by promoting mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis and suppressed toxic accumulations of ?-synuclein in cells and animals. Last, iCP-Parkin prevented and reversed declines in tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine expression concomitant with improved motor function induced by mitochondrial poisons or enforced ?-synuclein expression. These results point to common, therapeutically tractable features in PD pathophysiology, and suggest that motor deficits in PD may be reversed, thus providing opportunities for therapeutic intervention after the onset of motor symptoms.
Project description:Recessive mutations in parkin are the most common cause of familial early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies suggest that certain parkin mutants may exert dominant toxic effects to cultured cells and such dominant toxicity can lead to progressive dopaminergic (DA) neuron degeneration in Drosophila. To explore whether mutant parkin could exert similar pathogenic effects to mammalian DA neurons in vivo, we developed a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic mouse model expressing a C-terminal truncated human mutant parkin (Parkin-Q311X) in DA neurons driven by a dopamine transporter promoter. Parkin-Q311X mice exhibit multiple late-onset and progressive hypokinetic motor deficits. Stereological analyses reveal that the mutant mice develop age-dependent DA neuron degeneration in substantia nigra accompanied by a significant loss of DA neuron terminals in the striatum. Neurochemical analyses reveal a significant reduction of the striatal dopamine level in mutant mice, which is significantly correlated with their hypokinetic motor deficits. Finally, mutant Parkin-Q311X mice, but not wild-type controls, exhibit age-dependent accumulation of proteinase K-resistant endogenous alpha-synuclein in substantia nigra and colocalized with 3-nitrotyrosine, a marker for oxidative protein damage. Hence, our study provides the first mammalian genetic evidence that dominant toxicity of a parkin mutant is sufficient to elicit age-dependent hypokinetic motor deficits and DA neuron loss in vivo, and uncovers a causal relationship between dominant parkin toxicity and progressive alpha-synuclein accumulation in DA neurons. Our study underscores the need to further explore the putative link between parkin dominant toxicity and PD.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 1-2% of the general population over age 60. It is characterized by a rather selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of ?-synuclein-enriched Lewy body inclusions. Mutations in the Parkin gene (PARK2) are the major cause of autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism. The Parkin protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with various cellular functions, including the induction of mitophagy upon mitochondrial depolarizaton, but the full repertoire of Parkin-binding proteins remains poorly defined. Here we employed tandem affinity purification interaction screens with subsequent mass spectrometry to profile binding partners of Parkin. Using this approach for two different cell types (HEK293T and SH-SY5Y neuronal cells), we identified a total of 203 candidate Parkin-binding proteins. For the candidate proteins and the proteins known to cause heritable forms of parkinsonism, protein-protein interaction data were derived from public databases, and the associated biological processes and pathways were analyzed and compared. Functional similarity between the candidates and the proteins involved in monogenic parkinsonism was investigated, and additional confirmatory evidence was obtained using published genetic interaction data from Drosophila melanogaster. Based on the results of the different analyses, a prioritization score was assigned to each candidate Parkin-binding protein. Two of the top ranking candidates were tested by co-immunoprecipitation, and interaction to Parkin was confirmed for one of them. New candidates for involvement in cell death processes, protein folding, the fission/fusion machinery, and the mitophagy pathway were identified, which provide a resource for further elucidating Parkin function.
Project description:Tianma Gouteng Yin (TGY) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction widely used to treat symptoms associated with typical Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, the neuroprotective effects of water extract of TGY were tested on rotenone-intoxicated and human α-synuclein transgenic Drosophila PD models. In addition, the neuroprotective effect of TGY was also evaluated in the human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line treated with rotenone and the rotenone intoxicated hemi-parkinsonian rats. In rotenone-induced PD models, TGY improved survival rate, alleviated impaired locomotor function of Drosophila, mitigated the loss of dopaminergic neurons in hemi-parkinsonian rats and alleviated apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells; in α-synuclein transgenic Drosophila, TGY reduced the level of α-synuclein and prevented degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Conclusively, TGY is neuroprotective in PD models both in vivo and in vitro.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in aggregates called Lewy bodies. Several mutated genes have been found in familial PD patients, including SNCA (?-synuclein), PARK2 (parkin), PINK1, PARK7 (DJ-1), LRRK2 and ATP13A2 Many pathogenic mutations of PARK2, which encodes the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin, result in loss of function, leading to accumulation of parkin substrates and consequently contributing to dopaminergic cell death. ISG15 is a member of the ubiquitin-like modifier family and is induced by stimulation with type I interferons. Similar to ubiquitin and ubiquitination, covalent conjugation of ISG15 to target proteins (ISGylation) regulates their biochemical properties. In this study, we identified parkin as a novel target of ISGylation specifically mediated by the ISG15-E3 ligase HERC5. In addition, we identified two ISGylation sites, Lys-349 and Lys-369, in the in-between-ring domain of parkin. ISGylation of these sites promotes parkin's ubiquitin E3 ligase activity by suppressing the intramolecular interaction that maintains its autoinhibited conformation and increases its cytoprotective effect. In conclusion, covalent ISG15 conjugation is a novel mode of modulating parkin activity, and alteration in this pathway may be associated with PD pathogenesis.
Project description:In the case of Parkinson's disease (PD), classical animal models have utilized dopaminergic neurotoxins such as 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) and 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). More recently, human genetic linkage studies have identified several genes in familial forms of PD. Transgenic models have been made that explore the function of PD-linked genes (e.g. alpha-synuclein, DJ-1, LRRK2, Parkin, UCH-L1, PINK1). Recent evidence suggests mitochondrial dysfunction may play a major role in PD. Manipulation of mitochondrial respiratory genes (e.g. mitochondrial transcription factor A or TFAM) also elicits a PD phenotype in mice. Transgenic mice (MitoPark) were developed that have TFAM selectively knocked out in dopaminergic neurons. The nigral dopamine neurons of MitoPark mice show respiratory chain dysfunction, accompanied by the development of intraneuronal inclusions and eventual cell death. In early adulthood, the MitoPark mice show a slowly progressing loss of motor function that accompanies these cellular changes. The MitoPark mouse enables further study of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in DA neurons as an important mechanism in the development of PD. Transgenic technology has allowed new insights into mechanisms of neurodegeneration for a number of neurological disorders. This paper will summarize recent studies on several transgenic models of PD.
Project description:Mutation of the parkin gene, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, is the major cause of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (ARJP). Although various substrates for parkin have been identified, the mechanisms that regulate the ubiquitin ligase activity of parkin are poorly understood. Here we report that 14-3-3eta, a chaperone-like protein present abundantly in neurons, could bind to parkin and negatively regulate its ubiquitin ligase activity. Furthermore, 14-3-3eta could bind to the linker region of parkin but not parkin with ARJP-causing R42P, K161N, and T240R mutations. Intriguingly, alpha-synuclein (alpha-SN), another familial Parkinson's disease (PD) gene product, abrogated the 14-3-3eta-induced suppression of parkin activity. alpha-SN could bind tightly to 14-3-3eta and consequently sequester it from the parkin-14-3-3eta complex. PD-causing A30P and A53T mutants of alpha-SN could not bind 14-3-3eta, and failed to activate parkin. Our findings indicate that 14-3-3eta is a regulator that functionally links parkin and alpha-SN. The alpha-SN-positive and 14-3-3eta-negative control of parkin activity sheds new light on the pathophysiological roles of parkin.