Development of a double antibody sandwich ELISA for West Nile virus detection using monoclonal antibodies against non-structural protein 1.
ABSTRACT: The early diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is important for successful clinical management and epidemiological control. The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of flavivirus, a highly conserved and secreted glycoprotein, is abundant in the serum of flavivirus-infected patients and represents a useful early diagnostic marker. We developed a WNV-specific NS1 antigen-capture ELISA using two mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognised distinct epitopes of the NS1 protein of WNV as capture and detection antibodies. The antigen-capture ELISA displayed exclusive specificity to WNV without cross-reaction with other related members of the flavivirus family, including the dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Additionally, the specificity was presented as no false positive in normal (0/1003) and DENV-infected (0/107) human serum specimens. The detection limit of the antigen-capture ELISA was as low as 15 pg/ml of recombinant WNV NS1 protein (rWNV-NS1) and 6.1 plaque-forming units (PFU)/0.1 ml of WNV-infected culture supernatant. In mice infected with WNV, the NS1 protein was readily detected in serum as early as one day after WNV infection, prior to the development of clinical signs of the disease. The sensitivity of the NS1 capture ELISA (93.7%) was significantly higher (79.4%) than that of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in 63 serum samples from WNV-infected mice (p?=?0.035). This newly developed NS1 antigen-capture ELISA with high sensitivity and specificity could be used as an efficient method for the early diagnosis of WNV infection in animals or humans.
Project description:IgM antibody- and IgG antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (MAC/GAC-ELISAs) targeted at envelope protein (E) of dengue viruses (DENV), West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are widely used as serodiagnostic tests for presumptive confirmation of viral infection. Antibodies directed against the flavivirus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) have been proposed as serological markers of natural infections among vaccinated populations. The aim of the current study is to optimize an IgM and IgG antibody-capture ELISA (MAC/GAC-ELISA) to detect anti-NS1 antibodies and compare it with anti-E MAC/GAC-ELISA. Plasmids to express premembrane/envelope (prM/E) or NS1 proteins of six medically important flaviviruses, including dengue viruses (DENV-1 to DENV-4), West Nile virus (WNV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), were constructed. These plasmids were used for the production of prM/E-containing virus-like particles (VLPs) and secreted NS1 (sNS1) from COS-1 cells. Archived clinical specimens from patients with confirmed DENV, JEV, and WNV infections, along with naive sera, were subjected to NS1-MAC/GAC-ELISAs before or after depletion of anti-prM/E antibodies by preabsorption with or without VLPs. Human serum specimens from previously confirmed DENV infections showed significantly enhanced positive-to-negative (P/N) ratios for NS1-MAC/GAC-ELISAs after the depletion of anti-prM/E antibodies. No statistical differences in sensitivities and specificities were found between the newly developed NS1- and VLP-MAC/GAC-ELISAs. Further application of the assays to WNV- and JEV-infected serum panels showed similar results. A novel approach to perform MAC/GAC-ELISAs for NS1 antibody detection was successfully developed with great potential to differentiate antibodies elicited by the tetravalent chimeric yellow fever-17D/dengue vaccine or DENV infection.
Project description:The front-line assay for the presumptive serodiagnosis of acute Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) infections is the premembrane/envelope (prM/E)-specific IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Due to antibody cross-reactivity, MAC-ELISA-positive samples may be confirmed with a time-consuming plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). In the present study, we applied a previously developed anti-nonstructural protein 1 (NS1)-specific MAC-ELISA (NS1-MAC-ELISA) on archived acute-phase serum specimens from patients with confirmed JEV and WNV infections and compared the results with prM/E containing virus-like particle-specific MAC-ELISA (VLP-MAC-ELISA). Paired-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses revealed no statistical differences in the overall assay performances of the VLP- and NS1-MAC-ELISAs. The two methods had high sensitivities of 100% but slightly lower specificities that ranged between 80% and 100%. When the NS1-MAC-ELISA was used to confirm positive results in the VLP-MAC-ELISA, the specificity of serodiagnosis, especially for JEV infection, was increased to 90% when applied in areas where JEV cocirculates with WNV, or to 100% when applied in areas that were endemic for JEV. The results also showed that using multiple antigens could resolve the cross-reactivity in the assays. Significantly higher positive-to-negative (P/N) values were consistently obtained with the homologous antigens than those with the heterologous antigens. JEV or WNV was reliably identified as the currently infecting flavivirus by a higher ratio of JEV-to-WNV P/N values or vice versa. In summary of the above-described results, the diagnostic algorithm combining the use of multiantigen VLP- and NS1-MAC-ELISAs was developed and can be practically applied to obtain a more specific and reliable result for the serodiagnosis of JEV and WNV infections without the need for PRNT. The developed algorithm should provide great utility in diagnostic and surveillance activities in which test accuracy is of utmost importance for effective disease intervention.
Project description:Even in countries that are currently not facing a flavivirus epidemic, the spread of mosquito-borne flaviviruses presents an increasing public threat, owing to climate change, international travel, and other factors. Many of these countries lack the resources (viral strains, clinical specimens, etc.) needed for the research that could help cope with the threat imposed by flaviviruses, and therefore, an alternative approach is needed. Using an in silico approach to global databases, we aimed to design and develop flavivirus NS1 recombinant proteins with due consideration towards antigenic variation. NS1 genes analyzed in this study included a total of 6,823 sequences, from Dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and Yellow fever virus (YKV). We extracted and analyzed 316 DENV NS1 sequence types (STs), 59 JEV STs, 75 WNV STs, 30 YFV STs, and 43 ZIKV STs using a simple algorithm based on phylogenetic analysis. STs were reclassified according to the variation of the major epitope by MHC II binding. 78 DENV epitope type (EpT), 29 JEV EpTs, 29 WNV EpTs, 12 YFV EpTs, and 5 ZIKV EpTs were extracted according to their major epitopes. Also, frequency results showed that there were dominant EpTs in all flavivirus. Fifteen STs were selected and purified for the expression of recombinant antigen in Escherichia coli by sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction. Our study details a novel in silico approach for the development of flavivirus diagnostics, including a simple way to screen the important peptide regions.
Project description:Current diagnosis of human flaviviral infections relies heavily on serological techniques such as the immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Broad application of this assay is hindered by a lack of standardized human positive-control sera that react with the wide variety of flaviviruses that can cause human disease, e.g., dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). We have created a human-murine chimeric antibody combining the variable regions of the broadly flavivirus cross-reactive murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) 6B6C-1 and the constant region of human IgM to produce a standardized reagent capable of replacing human positive-control sera in a MAC-ELISA for the diagnosis of all human flaviviral infections. The human-murine chimeric IgM antibody secreted from plasmid-transformed Sp2/0-Ag14 cells had a level of serological activity identical to that of 6B6C-1 as measured by ELISA, immunoblotting, and MAC-ELISA for multiple members of the flavivirus genus, including WNV, SLEV, YFV, DENV, and JEV.
Project description:Recent epidemics of West Nile virus (WNV) around the world have been associated with significant rates of mortality and morbidity in humans. To develop standard WNV diagnostic tools that can differentiate WNV from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to WNV envelope (E) protein were produced and characterized by isotyping, reactivity with denatured and native antigens, affinity assay, immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and epitope competition, as well as cross-reactivity with JEV. Two of the MAbs (6A11 and 4B3) showed stronger reactivity with E protein than the others (2F5 and 6H7) in Western blot analysis. 4B3 could bind with denatured antigen, as well as native antigens in indirect ELISA, flow cytometry analysis, and IFA; whereas 2F5 showed highest affinity with native antigen. 4B3 and 2F5 were therefore used to establish an antigen capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA) detection system. The sensitivity of this AC-ELISA was 3.95 TCID(50)/0.1 ml for WNV-infected cell culture supernatant. Notably, these MAbs showed no cross-reactivity with JEV, which suggests that they are useful for further development of highly sensitive, easy handling, and less time-consuming detection kits/tools in WNV surveillance in areas where JEV is epidemic.
Project description:In our previous study, we have demonstrated in the context of WNV-?NS1 vaccine (a replication-defective West Nile virus (WNV) lacking NS1) that the NS1 trans-complementation system may offer a promising platform for the development of safe and efficient flavivirus vaccines only requiring one dose. Here, we produced high titer (107 IU/ml) replication-defective Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) with NS1 deletion (JEV-?NS1) in the BHK-21 cell line stably expressing NS1 (BHKNS1) using the same strategy. JEV-?NS1 appeared safe with a remarkable genetic stability and high degrees of attenuation of in vivo neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence. Meanwhile, it was demonstrated to be highly immunogenic in mice after a single dose, providing similar degrees of protection to SA14-14-2 vaccine (a most widely used live attenuated JEV vaccine), with healthy condition, undetectable viremia and gradually rising body weight. Importantly, we also found JEV-?NS1 induced robust cross-protective immune responses against the challenge of heterologous West Nile virus (WNV), another important member in the same JEV serocomplex, accounting for up to 80% survival rate following a single dose of immunization relative to mock-vaccinated mice. These results not only support the identification of the NS1-deleted flavivirus vaccines with a satisfied balance between safety and efficacy, but also demonstrate the potential of the JEV-?NS1 as an alternative vaccine candidate against both JEV and WNV challenge.
Project description:West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus which causes encephalitis especially in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Previous studies have suggested the protective role of the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathway against WNV entry into the brain, while the WNV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) interferes with the TLR3 signaling pathway, besides being a component of viral genome replication machinery. In this study, we investigated whether immunization with NS1 could protect against WNV neuroinvasion in the context of TLR3 deficiency. We immunized mice with either an intact or deleted TLR3 system (TLR3KO) with WNV envelope glycoprotein (gE) protein, NS1, or a combination of gE and NS1. Immunization with gE or gE/NS1, but not with NS1 alone, induced WNV neutralizing antibodies and protected against WNV brain invasion and inflammation. The presence of intact TLR3 signaling had no apparent effect on WNV brain invasion. However, mock-immunized TLR3KO mice had higher inflammatory cell invasion upon WNV brain infection than NS1-immunized TLR3KO mice and wild type mice. Thus, immunization against NS1 may reduce brain inflammation in a context of TLR3 signaling deficiency.
Project description:Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that is closely related to other emerging viral pathogens, including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). JEV infection can result in meningitis and encephalitis, which in severe cases cause permanent brain damage and death. JEV occurs predominantly in rural areas throughout Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Far East, causing around 68,000 cases of infection worldwide each year. In this report, we present a 2.1-Å-resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal ?-ladder domain of JEV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1-C). The surface charge distribution of JEV NS1-C is similar to those of WNV and ZIKV but differs from that of DENV. Analysis of the JEV NS1-C structure, with in silico molecular dynamics simulation and experimental solution small-angle X-ray scattering, indicates extensive loop flexibility on the exterior of the protein. This, together with the surface charge distribution, indicates that flexibility influences the protein-protein interactions that govern pathogenicity. These factors also affect the interaction of NS1 with the 22NS1 monoclonal antibody, which is protective against West Nile virus infection. Liposome and heparin binding assays indicate that only the N-terminal region of NS1 mediates interaction with membranes and that sulfate binding sites common to NS1 structures are not glycosaminoglycan binding interfaces. This report highlights several differences between flavivirus NS1 proteins and contributes to our understanding of their structure-pathogenic function relationships.IMPORTANCE JEV is a major cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Despite extensive vaccination, epidemics still occur. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) plays a role in viral replication, and, because it is secreted, it can exhibit a wide range of interactions with host proteins. NS1 sequence and protein folds are conserved within the Flavivirus genus, but variations in NS1 protein-protein interactions among viruses likely contribute to differences in pathogenesis. Here, we compared characteristics of the C-terminal ?-ladder domain of NS1 between flaviviruses, including surface charge, loop flexibility, epitope cross-reactivity, membrane adherence, and glycosaminoglycan binding. These structural features are central to NS1 functionality and may provide insight into the development of diagnostic tests and therapeutics.
Project description:Dengue, caused by one of the four serologically distinct dengue viruses (DENV-1 to -?4), is a mosquito-borne disease of serious global health significance. Reliable and cost-effective diagnostic tests, along with effective vaccines and vector-control strategies, are highly required to reduce dengue morbidity and mortality. Evaluation studies revealed that many commercially available NS1 antigen (Ag) tests have limited sensitivity to DENV-4 serotype compared to the other three serotypes. These studies indicated the need for development of new NS1 Ag detection test with improved sensitivity to DENV-4. An NS1 capture enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) specific to DENV-4 may improve the detection of DENV-4 cases worldwide. In addition, a serotype-specific NS1 Ag test identifies both DENV and the infecting serotype.In this study, we used a small-ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO*) cloning vector to express a SUMO*-DENV-4 rNS1 fusion protein to develop NS1 DENV-4 specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). These newly developed MAbs were then optimized for use in an anti-NS1 DENV-4 capture ELISA. The serotype specificity and sensitivity of this ELISA was evaluated using (i) supernatants from DENV (1-4)-infected Vero cell cultures, (ii) rNS1s from all the four DENV (1-4) and, (iii) rNS1s of related flaviviruses (yellow fever virus; YFV and West Nile virus; WNV).From the evaluation studies of the newly developed MAbs, we identified three DENV-4 specific anti-NS1 MAbs: 3H7A9, 8A6F2 and 6D4B10. Two of these MAbs were optimal for use in a DENV-4 serotype-specific NS1 capture ELISA: MAb 8A6F2 as the capture antibody and 6D4B10 as a detection antibody.This ELISA was sensitive and specific to DENV-4 with no cross-reactivity to other three DENV (1-3) serotypes and other heterologous flaviviruses. Taken together these data indicated that our MAbs are useful reagents for the development of DENV-4 immunodiagnostic tests.
Project description:Seroprevalence rates of selected arboviruses in animal populations in Trinidad were determined using serum samples collected between 2006 and 2009 from horses (n=506), cattle (n=163), sheep (n=198), goats (n=82), pigs (n=184), birds (n=140), rodents (n=116), and other vertebrates (n=23). The sera were screened for antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), Ilheus virus (ILHV), Bussuquara virus (BSQV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), using hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA) and epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Antibodies to SLEV were detected in a total of 49 (9.7%) horses, 8 (4.9%) cattle, 1 (1.2%) goat, 2 (1.4%) wild birds, and 3 (2.2%) wild rodents by both methods. In contrast, antibodies to EEEV, VEEV, and WNV were detected only in horses, at rates of 4.3%, 0.8%, and 17.2%, respectively, by ELISA, and IgM capture ELISA was WNV-positive in 3 (0.6%) of these sera. Among locally bred unvaccinated horses that had never left Trinidad, seroprevalence rates against WNV were 12.1% and 17.2% by ELISA and HIA, respectively. The presence of WNV- and SLEV-specific antibodies in a representative sample of horse sera that were both ELISA- and HIA-seropositive was confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT). Antibodies to ILHV and BSQV were not detected in any of the serum samples tested (i.e., sera from horses, other livestock, and wild birds in the case of ILHV, and wild mammals in the case of BSQV). The data indicate the presence of WNV in Trinidad, and continuing low-level circulation of SLEV, EEEV, and VEEV.