Tissue-Specific Induction of Mouse ZIP8 and ZIP14 Divalent Cation/Bicarbonate Symporters by, and Cytokine Response to, Inflammatory Signals.
ABSTRACT: Mouse Slc39a8 and Slc39a14 genes encode ZIP8 and ZIP14, respectively, which are ubiquitous divalent cation/(HCO3-)2 symporters responsible for uptake of Zn2+, Fe2+, and Mn2+ into cells. Cd2+ and other toxic nonessential metals can displace essential cations, thereby entering vertebrate cells. Whereas Slc39a8 encodes a single protein, Slc39a14 has 2 exons 4 which, via alternative splicing, give rise to ZIP14A and ZIP14B; why differences exist in cell type-specific expression of ZIP14A and ZIP14B remains unknown. Inflammatory stimuli have been associated with upregulation of ZIP8 and ZIP14, but a systematic study of many tissues simultaneously in a laboratory animal following inflammatory cytokine exposure has not yet been reported. Herein, we show that C57BL/6J male mice--treated intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide or the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or interleukin-6 (IL6)--exhibited quantatively very different, highly tissue-specific, and markedly time-dependent up- and downregulation of ZIP8, ZIP14A, and ZIP14B messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in 12 tissues. The magnitude of inflammatory response was confirmed by measuring the proinflammatory cytokine TNF, IL6, and interleukin-1? mRNA levels in the same tissues of these animals. Our data suggest that most if not all tissues use ZIP8, ZIP14A, and/or ZIP14B for Zn2+ uptake, some tissues under basal conditions and others moreso when inflammatory stressors are present; collectively, this might lead to substantial alterations in plasma Zn2+ levels due to Zn2+ redistribution not just in liver but across many vital organs. In the context of cadmium-mediated toxicity, our data suggest that tissues other than liver, kidney, and lung should also be considered.
Project description:Zinc ion (Zn2+) is essential for life; its deficiency in the human body could cause stunted growth, anemia and susceptibility to infection. The Zn transporter ZIP8 (also known as SLC39A8) is an important Zn2+ importer; aberrant Zn2+ influx mediated by ZIP8 can lead to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and inflammatory diseases. ZIP8 also mediates the cellular uptake of divalent metal ions including iron, manganese, and the toxic heavy metal cadmium. Individuals with SLC39A8 mutations and transgenic mouse models are starting to reveal the critical role that this gene plays in embryonic development and the metabolism of essential metal ions. Here we summarize our current understanding of ZIP8's function and regulation, at both the molecular and biological levels. We also review the association of ZIP8 with various diseases and its linkage with complex disorders like obesity, hypertension, and schizophrenia as revealed by several large genome-wide association studies.
Project description:ZIP8 (SLC39A8) belongs to the ZIP family of metal-ion transporters. Among the ZIP proteins, ZIP8 is most closely related to ZIP14, which can transport iron, zinc, manganese, and cadmium. Here we investigated the iron transport ability of ZIP8, its subcellular localization, pH dependence, and regulation by iron. Transfection of HEK 293T cells with ZIP8 cDNA enhanced the uptake of (59)Fe and (65)Zn by 200 and 40%, respectively, compared with controls. Excess iron inhibited the uptake of zinc and vice versa. In RNA-injected Xenopus oocytes, ZIP8-mediated (55)Fe(2+) transport was saturable (K(0.5) of ?0.7 ?m) and inhibited by zinc. ZIP8 also mediated the uptake of (109)Cd(2+), (57)Co(2+), (65)Zn(2+) > (54)Mn(2+), but not (64)Cu (I or II). By using immunofluorescence analysis, we found that ZIP8 expressed in HEK 293T cells localized to the plasma membrane and partially in early endosomes. Iron loading increased total and cell-surface levels of ZIP8 in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. We also determined by using site-directed mutagenesis that asparagine residues 40, 88, and 96 of rat ZIP8 are glycosylated and that N-glycosylation is not required for iron or zinc transport. Analysis of 20 different human tissues revealed abundant ZIP8 expression in lung and placenta and showed that its expression profile differs markedly from ZIP14, suggesting nonredundant functions. Suppression of endogenous ZIP8 expression in BeWo cells, a placental cell line, reduced iron uptake by ?40%, suggesting that ZIP8 participates in placental iron transport. Collectively, these data identify ZIP8 as an iron transport protein that may function in iron metabolism.
Project description:The alveolar epithelia of the lungs require manganese (Mn) as an essential nutrient, but also provide an entry route for airborne Mn that can cause neurotoxicity. Transporters involved in Mn uptake by alveolar epithelial cells are unknown. Recently, two members of the Zrt- and Irt-like protein (ZIP) family of metal transporters, ZIP8 and ZIP14, have been identified as crucial Mn importers in vivo. ZIP8 is by far most abundantly expressed in the lungs, whereas ZIP14 expression in the lungs is low compared to other tissues. We hypothesized that Mn uptake by alveolar epithelial cells is primarily mediated by ZIP8. To test our hypothesis, we used A549 cells, a type II alveolar cell line. Mirroring the in vivo situation, A549 cells expressed higher levels of ZIP8 than cell models for the liver, intestines, and kidney. Quantification of ZIP8 and ZIP14 revealed a strong enrichment of ZIP8 over ZIP14 in A549 cells. Using siRNA technology, we identified ZIP8 and ZIP14 as the major transporters mediating Mn uptake by A549 cells. To our surprise, knockdown of either ZIP8 or ZIP14 impaired Mn accumulation to a similar extent, which we traced back to similar amounts of ZIP8 and ZIP14 at the plasma membrane. Our study highlights the importance of both ZIP8 and ZIP14 in Mn metabolism of alveolar epithelial cells.
Project description:It has been known for decades that cadmium (Cd) must enter the cell to cause damage, but there was no mechanism to explain genetic differences in response to Cd toxicity until 2005. Starting with the mouse Cdm locus associated with differences in Cd-induced testicular necrosis between inbred strains, a 24.6-centiMorgan region on chromosome 3 was reduced ultimately to 880 kb; in this segment is the Slc39a8 gene encoding the ZIP8 Zn(2+)/HCO(3)(-) symporter. In endothelial cells of the testis vasculature, Cd-sensitive mice exhibit high ZIP8 expression, Cd-resistant mice exhibit very low expression. A 168.7-kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) from a 129S6 (Cd-sensitive) BAC library containing the Slc39a8 gene was inserted into the Cd-resistant C57BL/6J genome: Cd treatment produced testicular necrosis in BAC-transgenic BTZIP8-3 mice but not in non-transgenic littermates, thereby proving that the Slc39a8 gene is indeed the Cdm locus. Cd-induced renal failure also occurred in these BTZIP8-3 mice. Immunohistochemistry showed highly expressed ZIP8 protein in the renal proximal tubular epithelial apical surface, suggesting that ZIP8 participates in Cd-induced renal failure. Slc39a14, most closely evolutionarily related to Slc39a8, encodes differentially-spliced products ZIP14A and ZIP14B that display properties similar to ZIP8. ZIP8 in alveolar cells brings environmental Cd into the organism and ZIP14 in intestinal enterocytes carries Cd into the organism and into the hepatocyte. We believe these two transporters function endogenously as Zn(2+)/HCO(3)(-) symporters important in combating inflammation and carrying out other physiological functions; Cd is able to displace the endogenous cation, enter the cell, and produce tissue damage and disease.
Project description:SLC39A8 is an evolutionarily highly conserved gene that encodes the ZIP8 metal cation transporter in all vertebrates. SLC39A8 is ubiquitously expressed, including pluripotent embryonic stem cells; SLC39A8 expression occurs in every cell type examined. Uptake of ZIP8-mediated Mn2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Se4+, and Co2+ represents endogenous functions-moving these cations into the cell. By way of mouse genetic differences, the phenotype of "subcutaneous cadmium-induced testicular necrosis" was assigned to the Cdm locus in the 1970s. This led to identification of the mouse Slc39a8 gene, its most closely related Slc39a14 gene, and creation of Slc39a8-overexpressing, Slc39a8(neo/neo) knockdown, and cell type-specific conditional knockout mouse lines; the Slc39a8(-/-) global knockout mouse is early-embryolethal. Slc39a8(neo/neo) hypomorphs die between gestational day 16.5 and postnatal day 1-exhibiting severe anemia, dysregulated hematopoiesis, hypoplastic spleen, dysorganogenesis, stunted growth, and hypomorphic limbs. Not surprisingly, genome-wide association studies subsequently revealed human SLC39A8-deficiency variants exhibiting striking pleiotropy-defects correlated with clinical disorders in virtually every organ, tissue, and cell-type: numerous developmental and congenital disorders, the immune system, cardiovascular system, kidney, lung, liver, coagulation system, central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, eye, and gastrointestinal tract. Traits with which SLC39A8-deficiency variants are currently associated include Mn2+-deficient hypoglycosylation; numerous birth defects; Leigh syndrome-like mitochondrial redox deficiency; decreased serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels; increased body mass index; greater risk of coronary artery disease, hypotension, cardiovascular death, allergy, ischemic stroke, schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn disease, myopia, and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; systemic lupus erythematosus with primary Sjögren syndrome; decreased height; and inadvertent participation in the inflammatory progression of osteoarthritis.
Project description:Previously this laboratory characterized Slc39a8-encoded ZIP8 as a Zn(2+)/(HCO(3)(-))(2) symporter; yet, the overall physiological importance of ZIP8 at the whole-organism level remains unclear. Herein we describe the phenotype of the hypomorphic Slc39a8(neo/neo) mouse which has retained the neomycin-resistance gene in intron 3, hence causing significantly decreased ZIP8 mRNA and protein levels in embryo, fetus, placenta, yolk sac, and several tissues of neonates. The Slc39a8(neo) allele is associated with diminished zinc and iron uptake in mouse fetal fibroblast and liver-derived cultures; consequently, Slc39a8(neo/neo) newborns exhibit diminished zinc and iron levels in several tissues. Slc39a8(neo/neo) homozygotes from gestational day(GD)-11.5 onward are pale, growth-stunted, and die between GD18.5 and 48 h postnatally. Defects include: severely hypoplastic spleen; hypoplasia of liver, kidney, lung, and lower limbs. Histologically, Slc39a8(neo/neo) neonates show decreased numbers of hematopoietic islands in yolk sac and liver. Low hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, serum iron, and total iron-binding capacity confirmed severe anemia. Flow cytometry of fetal liver cells revealed the erythroid series strikingly affected in the hypomorph. Zinc-dependent 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, required for heme synthesis, was not different between Slc39a8(+/+) and Slc39a8(neo/neo) offspring. To demonstrate further that the mouse phenotype is due to ZIP8 deficiency, we bred Slc39a8(+/neo) with BAC-transgenic BTZIP8-3 line (carrying three extra copies of the Slc39a8 allele); this cross generated viable Slc39a8(neo/neo)_BTZIP8-3(+/+) pups showing none of the above-mentioned congenital defects-proving Slc39a8(neo/neo) causes the described phenotype. Our study demonstrates that ZIP8-mediated zinc transport plays an unappreciated critical role during in utero and neonatal growth, organ morphogenesis, and hematopoiesis.
Project description:Genetic variants at the solute carrier family 39 member 8 (SLC39A8) gene locus are associated with the regulation of whole-blood manganese (Mn) and multiple physiological traits. SLC39A8 encodes ZIP8, a divalent metal ion transporter best known for zinc transport. Here, we hypothesized that ZIP8 regulates Mn homeostasis and Mn-dependent enzymes to influence metabolism. We generated Slc39a8-inducible global-knockout (ZIP8-iKO) and liver-specific-knockout (ZIP8-LSKO) mice and observed markedly decreased Mn levels in multiple organs and whole blood of both mouse models. By contrast, liver-specific overexpression of human ZIP8 (adeno-associated virus-ZIP8 [AAV-ZIP8]) resulted in increased tissue and whole blood Mn levels. ZIP8 expression was localized to the hepatocyte canalicular membrane, and bile Mn levels were increased in ZIP8-LSKO and decreased in AAV-ZIP8 mice. ZIP8-LSKO mice also displayed decreased liver and kidney activity of the Mn-dependent enzyme arginase. Both ZIP8-iKO and ZIP8-LSKO mice had defective protein N-glycosylation, and humans homozygous for the minor allele at the lead SLC39A8 variant showed hypogalactosylation, consistent with decreased activity of another Mn-dependent enzyme, β-1,4-galactosyltransferase. In summary, hepatic ZIP8 reclaims Mn from bile and regulates whole-body Mn homeostasis, thereby modulating the activity of Mn-dependent enzymes. This work provides a mechanistic basis for the association of SLC39A8 with whole-blood Mn, potentially linking SLC39A8 variants with other physiological traits.
Project description:In patients with iron overload disorders, increasing number of reports of renal dysfunction and renal iron deposition support an association between increased iron exposure and renal injury. In systemic iron overload, elevated circulating levels of transferrin-bound (TBI) and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) are filtered to the renal proximal tubules, where they may cause injury. However, the mechanisms of tubular iron handling remain elusive. To unravel molecular renal proximal tubular NTBI and TBI handling, human conditionally immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cells (ciPTECs) were incubated with 55Fe as NTBI and fluorescently labeled holo-transferrin as TBI. Ferrous iron importers ZIP8 and ZIP14 were localized in the ciPTEC plasma membrane. Whereas silencing of either ZIP8 or ZIP14 alone did not affect 55Fe uptake, combined silencing significantly reduced 55Fe uptake compared to control (p?<?0.05). Furthermore, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and ZIP14, but not ZIP8, colocalized with early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1). TfR1 and ZIP14 also colocalized with uptake of fluorescently labeled transferrin. Furthermore, ZIP14 silencing decreased 55Fe uptake after 55Fe-Transferrin exposure (p?<?0.05), suggesting ZIP14 could be involved in early endosomal transport of TBI-derived iron into the cytosol. Our data suggest that human proximal tubular epithelial cells take up TBI and NTBI, where ZIP8 and ZIP14 are both involved in NTBI uptake, but ZIP14, not ZIP8, mediates TBI-derived iron uptake. This knowledge provides more insights in the mechanisms of renal iron handling and suggests that ZIP8 and ZIP14 could be potential targets for limiting renal iron reabsorption and enhancing urinary iron excretion in systemic iron overload disorders.
Project description:Zinc, iron, and manganese are essential trace elements that serve as catalytic or structural components of larger molecules that are indispensable for life. The three metal ions possess similar chemical properties and have been shown to compete for uptake in a variety of tissues, suggesting that they share common transport proteins. Two likely candidates are the recently identified transmembrane proteins ZIP14 and ZIP8, which have been shown to mediate the cellular uptake of a number of divalent metal ions including zinc, iron, manganese, and cadmium. Although knockout and transgenic mouse models are beginning to define the physiologic roles of ZIP14 and ZIP8 in the handling of zinc and cadmium, their roles in the metabolism of iron and manganese remain to be defined. Here we review similarities and differences in ZIP14 and ZIP8 in terms of structure, metal transport, tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and regulation. We also discuss potential roles of these proteins in the metabolism of zinc, iron, manganese, and cadmium as well as recent associations with human diseases.
Project description:Previously this laboratory has identified the mouse Slc39a8 gene encoding the ZIP8 transporter, important in cadmium uptake. ZIP8 functions endogenously as a electroneutral Zn(2+)/(HCO(3)(-))(2) symporter, moving both ions into the cell. The overall physiological importance of ZIP8 remains unclear. Herein we describe generation of a mouse line carrying the Slc39a8(neo) allele, containing the Frt-flanked neomycin-resistance (neo) mini-cassette in intron 3 and loxP sites in introns 3 and 6. Cre recombinase functions correctly in Escherichia coli and in adeno-Cre-infected mouse fetal fibroblasts, but does not function in the intact mouse for reasons not clear. Slc39a8(neo) is a hypomorphic allele, because Slc39a8(neo/neo) homozygotes exhibit dramatically decreased ZIP8 expression in embryo, fetus, and visceral yolk sac - in comparison to their littermate wild-type controls. This ZIP8 hypomorph will be instrumental in studying developmental and in utero physiological functions of the ZIP8 transporter.