Frontolimbic brain networks predict depressive symptoms in temporal lobe epilepsy.
ABSTRACT: Psychiatric co-morbidities in epilepsy are of great concern. The current study investigated the relative contribution of structural and functional connectivity (FC) between medial temporal (MT) and prefrontal regions in predicting levels of depressive symptoms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Twenty-one patients with TLE [11 left TLE (LTLE); 10 right TLE (RTLE)] and 20 controls participated. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fasciculus (UF), and mean diffusivity (MD) of the amygdala (AM) and hippocampus (HC). Functional MRI was performed to obtain FC strengths between the AM and HC and prefrontal regions of interest including anterior prefrontal (APF), orbitofrontal, and inferior frontal regions. Participants self-reported depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Greater depressive symptoms were associated with stronger FC of ipsilateral HC-APF, lower FA of the bilateral UF, and higher MD of the ipsilateral HC in LTLE, and with lower FA of the contralateral UF in RTLE. Regression analyses indicated that FC of the ipsilateral HC-APF was the strongest contributor to depression in LTLE, explaining 68.7% of the variance in depression scores. Both functional and microstructural measures of frontolimbic dysfunction were associated with depressive symptoms. These connectivity variables may be moderating which patients present with depression symptoms. In particular, FC MRI may provide a more sensitive measure of depression-related dysfunction, at least in patients with LTLE. Employing sensitive measures of frontolimbic network dysfunction in TLE may help provide new insight into mood disorders in epilepsy that could eventually guide treatment planning.
Project description:Depression is a common comorbidity in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) that is thought to have a neurobiological basis. This study investigated the functional connectivity (FC) of medial temporal networks in depression symptomatology of TLE and the relative contribution of structural versus FC measures. Volumetric MRI and functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) were performed on nineteen patients with TLE and 20 controls. The hippocampi and amygdalae were selected as seeds, and five prefrontal and five cingulate regions of interest (ROIs) were selected as targets. Low-frequency blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals were isolated from fcMRI data, and ROIs with synchronous signal fluctuations with the seeds were identified. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. The patients with TLE showed greater ipsilateral hippocampal atrophy (HA) and reduced FC between the ipsilateral hippocampus and the ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC). Neither HA nor hippocampal-vPCC FC asymmetry was a robust contributor to depressive symptoms. Rather, hippocampal-anterior prefrontal FC was a stronger contributor to depressive symptoms in left TLE (LTLE). Conversely, right amygdala FC was correlated with depressive symptoms in both patient groups, with a positive and negative correlation in LTLE and right TLE (RTLE), respectively. Frontolimbic network dysfunction is a strong contributor to levels of depressive symptoms in TLE and a better contributor than HA in LTLE. In addition, the right amygdala may play a role in depression symptomatology regardless of the side of the epileptogenic focus. These findings may inform the treatment of depressive symptoms in TLE and inspire future research to help guide surgical planning.
Project description:Past studies reported more widespread structural brain abnormalities in patients with left compared to right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the profile of these differences remains unknown. This study investigated the relationship between cortical thinning, white matter compromise, epilepsy variables, and the side of seizure onset, in patients with TLE.We performed diffusion tensor imaging tractography and cortical thickness analyses of 18 patients with left TLE (LTLE), 18 patients with right TLE (RTLE), and 36 controls. We investigated the relationship among brain structural abnormalities, side of seizure onset, age of seizure onset, and disease duration.Patients with TLE displayed cortical thinning and white matter compromise, predominately on the side ipsilateral to the seizure onset. Relative to RTLE, patients with LTLE showed more widespread abnormalities, particularly in white matter fiber tracts. Greater compromise in white matter integrity was associated with earlier age of seizure onset, whereas cortical thinning was marginally associated with disease duration.These data support previous findings of LTLE showing greater structural compromise than RTLE, and suggest that mechanisms may not be uniform for gray and white matter compromise in patients with LTLE and RTLE. These results may indicate that LTLE is different from RTLE, possibly due to greater vulnerability of the left hemisphere to early injury and the progressive effects of seizures.
Project description:Quantification of volumetric correlation may be sensitive to disease alterations undetected by standard voxel based morphometry (VBM) such as subtle, synchronous alterations in regional volumes, and may provide complementary evidence of the structural impact of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) on the brain. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences of regional volumetric correlation in right (RTLE) and left (LTLE) TLE patients compared to healthy controls. A T1 weighted 3T MRI was acquired (1mm(3)) in 44 drug resistant unilateral TLE patients (n=26 RTLE, n=18 LTLE) and 44 individually age and gender matched healthy controls. Images were processed using a standard VBM framework and volumetric correlation was calculated across subjects in 90 regions and compared between patients and controls. Results were summarized across hemispheres and region groups. There was increased correlation involving the contralateral homologues of the seizure foci/network in the limbic, subcortical and temporal regions in both RTLE and LTLE. Outside these regions, results implied widespread correlated alterations across several contralateral lobes in LTLE, with more focal changes in RTLE. These findings complement previous volumetric studies in TLE describing more ipsilateral atrophy, by revealing subtle coordinated volumetric changes to identify a more widespread effect of TLE across the brain.
Project description:Microstructural white matter tract correlations have been shown to reflect known patterns of phylogenetic development and functional specialization in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to establish intertract correlations in a group of controls and to examine potential deviations from normality in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated intertract correlations in 28 healthy controls, 21 left TLE (LTLE) and 23 right TLE (RTLE). Nine tracts were investigated, comprising the parahippocampal fasciculi, the uncinate fasciculi, the arcuate fasciculi, the frontoparietal tracts, and the fornix. An abnormal increase in tract correlations was observed in LTLE, while RTLE showed intertract correlations similar to controls. In the control group, tract correlations increased with increasing fractional anisotropy (FA), while in the TLE groups tract correlations increased with decreasing FA. Cluster analyses revealed agglomeration of bilateral pairs of homologous tracts in healthy subjects, with such pairs separated in our LTLE and RTLE groups. Discriminant analyses aimed at distinguishing LTLE from RTLE, revealing that tract correlations produce higher rates of accurate group classification than FA values. Our results confirm and extend previous work by showing that LTLE compared to RTLE patients display not only more extensive losses in microstructural orientation but also more aberrant intertract correlations. Aberrant correlations may be related to pathologic processes (i.e., seizure spread) or to adaptive processes aimed at preserving key cognitive functions. Our data suggest that tract correlations may have predictive value in distinguishing LTLE from RTLE, potentially moving diffusion imaging to a place of greater prominence in clinical practice.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Cognitive problems, especially disturbances in episodic memory, and hippocampal sclerosis are common in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but little is known about the relationship of hippocampal morphology with memory. We aimed to relate hippocampal surface-shape patterns to verbal and visual learning.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed hippocampal surface shapes on high-resolution magnetic resonance images and the Adult Memory and Information Processing Battery in 145 unilateral refractory TLE patients undergoing epilepsy surgery, a validation set of 55 unilateral refractory TLE patients, and 39 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers.<h4>Results</h4>Both left TLE (LTLE) and right TLE (RTLE) patients had lower verbal (LTLE 44 ± 11; RTLE 45 ± 10) and visual learning (LTLE 34 ± 8, RTLE 30 ± 8) scores than healthy controls (verbal 58 ± 8, visual 39 ± 6; p < 0.001). Verbal learning was more impaired the greater the atrophy of the left superolateral hippocampal head. In contrast, visual memory was worse with greater bilateral inferomedial hippocampal atrophy. Postsurgical verbal memory decline was more common in LTLE than in RTLE (reliable change index in LTLE 27% vs RTLE 7%, p = 0.006), whereas there were no differences in postsurgical visual memory decline between those groups. Preoperative atrophy of the left hippocampal tail predicted postsurgical verbal memory decline.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Memory deficits in TLE are associated with specific morphological alterations of the hippocampus, which could help stratify TLE patients into those at high versus low risk of presurgical or postsurgical memory deficits. This knowledge could improve planning and prognosis of selective epilepsy surgery and neuropsychological counseling in TLE. ANN NEUROL 2020 ANN NEUROL 2020;88:170-182.
Project description:Background: We hypothesized that right and left temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE and LTLE, respectively) have distinctive spatial patterns of white matter (WM) changes that can be differentiated and interpreted with the use of multiple diffusion parameters. We compared the global microstructure of fiber bundles with regard to WM alterations in both RTLE and LTLE, addressing some of the methodological issues of previous studies. Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging data from 17 patients with RTLE (age: 40.7 ± 10.4), 15 patients with LTLE (age: 37.3 ± 10.4), and 15 controls (age: 34.8 ± 11.2) were used in the study. WM integrity was quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), longitudinal diffusivity (LD), and radial diffusivity (RD). The diffusion parameters were compared between the groups in tracts representing the core of the fiber bundles. The volumes of hippocampi and amygdala were subsequently compared across the groups, while the data were adjusted for the effect of hippocampal sclerosis. Results: Significantly reduced FA and increased MD, LD, and RD were found bilaterally over widespread brain regions in RTLE. An increase in MD and RD values was observed in widespread WM fiber bundles ipsilaterally in LTLE, largely overlapping with regions where FA was lower, while no increase in LD was observed. We also found a difference between the LTLE and RTLE groups for the right hippocampal volume (with and without adjustment for HS), whereas no significant volume differences were found between patients and controls. Conclusions: It appears that patients with RTLE exhibit a more widespread pattern of WM alterations that extend far beyond the temporal lobe in both ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere; furthermore, these changes seem to reflect more severe damage related to chronic degeneration. Conversely, more restrained changes in the LTLE may imply a pattern of less severe axonal damage, more restricted to ipsilateral hemisphere. Comprehensive finding of more prominent hippocampal atrophy in the RTLE raises an interesting issue of seizure-induced implications on gray matter and WM microstructure that may not necessarily mean a straightforward causal relationship. Further correlations of diffusion-derived metrics with neuropsychological and functional imaging measures may provide complementary information on underlying WM abnormalities with regard to functional hemispheric specialization.
Project description:We have previously shown that the connectivity of the hippocampus to other regions of the default mode network (DMN) is a strong indicator of memory ability in people with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recent work in the cognitive neuroscience literature has suggested that the anterior and posterior aspects of the hippocampus have distinct connections to the rest of the DMN and may support different memory operations. Further, structural analysis of epileptogenic hippocampi has found greater atrophy, characterized by mesial temporal sclerosis, in the anterior region of the hippocampus. Here, we used resting state FMRI data to parcellate the hippocampus according to its functional connectivity to the rest of the brain in people with left lateralized TLE (LTLE) and right lateralized TLE (RTLE), and in a group of neurologically healthy controls. We found similar anterior and posterior compartments in all groups. However, there was weaker connectivity of the epileptogenic hippocampus to multiple regions of the DMN. Both TLE groups showed reduced connectivity of the posterior hippocampus to key hubs of the DMN, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC). In the LTLE group, the anterior hippocampus also showed reduced connectivity to the DMN, and this effect was influenced by the presence of mesial temporal sclerosis. When we explored brain-behavior relationships, we found that reduced connectivity of the left anterior hippocampus to the DMN hubs related to poorer verbal memory ability in people with LTLE, and reduced connectivity of the right posterior hippocampus to the PCC related to poorer visual memory ability in those with RTLE. These findings may inform models regarding functional distinctions of the hippocampal anteroposterior axis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Executive dysfunction is observed in a sizable number of patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The frontostriatal network has been proposed to play a significant role in executive functioning, however, because of the complex architecture of these tracts, it is difficult to generate measures of fiber tract microstructure using standard diffusion tensor imaging. To examine the association between frontostriatal network compromise and executive dysfunction in TLE, we applied an advanced, multishell diffusion model, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), that isolates measures of intraaxonal diffusion and may provide better estimates of fiber tract compromise in TLE. METHODS:Restriction spectrum imaging scans were obtained from 32 patients with TLE [16 right TLE (RTLE); 16 left TLE (LTLE)] and 24 healthy controls (HC). An RSI-derived measure of intraaxonal anisotropic diffusion (neurite density; ND) was calculated for the inferior frontostriatal tract (IFS) and superior frontostriatal tract (SFS) and compared between patients with TLE and HC. Spearman correlations were performed to evaluate the relationships between ND of each tract and verbal (i.e., D-KEFS Category Switching Accuracy and Color-Word Interference Inhibition/Switching) and visuomotor (Trail Making Test) set-shifting performances in patients with TLE. RESULTS:Patients with TLE demonstrated reductions in ND of the left and right IFS, but not SFS, compared with HC. Reduction in ND of left and right IFS was associated with poorer performance on verbal set-shifting in TLE. Increases in extracellular diffusion (isotropic hindered; IH) were not associated with executive dysfunction in the patient group. SIGNIFICANCE:Restriction spectrum imaging-derived ND revealed microstructural changes within the IFS in patients with TLE, which was associated with poorer executive functioning. This suggests that axonal/myelin loss to fiber networks connecting the striatum to the inferior frontal cortex is likely contributing to executive dysfunction in TLE.
Project description:Pre-surgical evaluation of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) relies on information obtained from multiple neuroimaging modalities. The relationship between modalities and their combined power in predicting the seizure focus is currently unknown. We investigated asymmetries from three different modalities, PET (glucose metabolism), MRI (cortical thickness), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI; white matter anisotropy) in 28 left and 30 right TLE patients (LTLE and RTLE). Stepwise logistic regression models were built from each modality separately and from all three combined, while bootstrapped methods and split-sample validation verified the robustness of predictions. Among all multimodal asymmetries, three PET asymmetries formed the best predictive model (100% success in full sample, >95% success in split-sample validation). The combinations of PET with other modalities did not perform better than PET alone. Probabilistic classifications were obtained for new clinical cases, which showed correct lateralization for 7/7 new TLE patients (100%) and for 4/5 operated patients with discordant or non-informative PET reports (80%). Metabolism showed closer relationship with white matter in LTLE and closer relationship with gray matter in RTLE. Our data suggest that metabolism is a powerful modality that can predict seizure laterality with high accuracy, and offers high value for automated predictive models. The side of epileptogenic focus can affect the relationship of metabolism with brain structure. The data and tools necessary to obtain classifications for new TLE patients are made publicly available.