Expression patterns of ?-defensin and cathelicidin genes in parenchyma of bovine mammary gland infected with coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative Staphylococci.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mastitis is still considered to be the most economically important infectious disease in dairy cattle breeding. The immune response in mammary gland tissues could help in developing support strategies to combat this disease. The role of neutrophils and macrophages in the innate response of mammary gland is well known. However, the immune response in mammary gland tissues, including levels of antimicrobial peptide transcripts, has not been well recognized. Moreover, most studies are conducted in vitro, on cell cultures, or on artificially infected animals, with analysis being done within a several dozen hours after infection.The aim of the study was to examine the in vivo transcript levels of beta-defensin and cathelicidins genes in cow mammary gland secretory tissue (parenchyma) with the chronic, recurrent and incurable mammary gland inflammation induced by coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative Staphyloccoci vs. bacteria-free tissue. RESULTS: The mRNA of DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, BNBD10 and LAP genes, but not of TAP gene, were detected in all investigated samples regardless of the animals' age and microbiological status of the mammary gland, but at different levels. The expression of most of the beta-defensin genes was shown to be much higher in tissues derived from udders infected with bacteria (CoPS or CoNS) than from bacteria-free udders, regardless of parity. Cathelicidins (CATH4, CATH5 and CATH6) showed expression patterns contrasting those of ?-defensins, with the highest expression in tissues derived from bacteria-free udders. CONCLUSION: Increased expression of genes encoding ?-defensins in the infected udder confirms their crucial role in the defense of the cow mammary gland against mastitis. On the other hand, the elevated cathelicidin transcripts in non-infected tissues indicate their role in the maintenance of healthy mammary tissues. The expression levels of investigated genes are likely to depend on the duration of the infection and type of bacteria.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Health of mammary glands is fundamental for milk and dairy products hygiene and quality, with huge impacts on consumers welfare.<h4>Methods</h4>This study aims to investigate the microbial agents (bacteria, fungi and lentiviruses) isolated from 89 macroscopically healthy udders of regularly slaughtered small ruminants (41 sheep, 48 goats), also correlating their presence with the histological findings. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association between lesions and positivity for different microbial isolates, animal age and bacteria.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty-five samples were microbiologically negative; 138 different bacteria were isolated in 64 positive udders. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most prevalent bacteria isolated (46.42%), followed by environmental opportunists (34.76%), others (10.14%) and pathogens (8.68%). Most mammary glands showed coinfections (75%). Lentiviruses were detected in 39.3% of samples. Histologically, chronic non-suppurative mastitis was observed in 45/89 glands, followed by chronic mixed mastitis (12/89) and acute suppurative mastitis (4/89). Only 28 udders were normal. Histological lesions were significantly associated with the animal species and lentiviruses and coagulase-negative staphylococci infections. Goats had significantly higher risk to show chronic mixed mastitis compared to sheep. Goats showed a significantly lower risk (OR = 0.26; 95% CI [0.06-0.71]) of being infected by environmental opportunists compared to sheep, but higher risk (OR = 10.87; 95% CI [3.69-37.77]) of being infected with lentiviruses.<h4>Discussion</h4>The results of the present study suggest that macroscopically healthy glands of small ruminants could act as a reservoir of microbial agents for susceptible animals, representing a potential risk factor for the widespread of acute or chronic infection in the flock.
Project description:The external morphological traits of the mammary gland, and their relationships with somatic cell count (SCC) and the presence of intramammary infection (IMI), were studied in 30 Serrana goats, Transmontano ecotype. Globular-shaped udders were the most predominant, with slightly separated and symmetrical halves, presenting some degree of suspension. Funnel-shaped teats were the most prevalent shape with an opening of 120° to 160° degrees. Significant differences were observed between healthy group and the coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS)-infected group for udder cleft, teat perimeter and distance between teats parameters; and between healthy group and CNS or Staphylococcus aureus groups for degree of separation, teat shape and udder shape (p < 0.05). The udder shape, symmetry, degree of suspension and degree of separation parameters showed to be different depending on SCC (p < 0.05). The udder perimeter and udder depth traits showed differences between the lowest and the middle SCC group. We concluded that bifurcated pendular udders, with vertical loose teats and located close to each other, are more likely to have IMI, and have the highest SCC. The inclusion in breeding programs of certain mammary conformation traits would not only help to improve milk production, but would also decrease the susceptibility to IMI of the herd.
Project description:Chitin is a N-acetyl-d-glucosamine biopolymer that can be recognized by chitin-binding proteins. Although mammals lack chitin synthase, they induce proteins responsible for detecting chitin in response to bacterial infections. Our aim was to investigate whether chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) has a potential role in the innate immunity of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) infected mammary gland. CHI3L1 protein was found to be secreted in whey of naturally coliform-affected quarters compared to whey samples isolated from healthy udders. In addition, gene expression of CHI3L1 was confirmed in udder tissue of cows experimentally infected with a mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC) strain. Despite the known anatomical differences, the bovine udders' innate immune response was mimicked by applying an experimental mouse model using MPEC or non-MPEC isolates. The effect of CHI3L1 expression in the murine mammary gland in response to coliform bacteria was investigated through the use of CHI3L1-/- mice as well as through treatment with either a pan-caspase inhibitor or chitin particles in wild-type mice. The local induction of CHI3L1 postinfection with different E. coli strains was demonstrated to be independent of both bacterial growth and mammary interleukin (IL)-8 levels. Indeed, CHI3L1 emerged as a regulator impacting on the transcytosis of Ly6G-positive cells from the interstitial space into the alveolar lumen of the mammary tissue. Furthermore, CHI3L1 was found to be upstream regulated by caspase activity and had a major downstream effect on the local pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, including IL-1beta, IL-6, and RANTES/CCL5. In conclusion, CHI3L1 was demonstrated to play a key role in the cytokine and caspase signaling during E. coli triggered inflammation of the mammary gland.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling in vivo in bovine secretory tissue from healthy (H) mammary gland and during infections with coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) and coagulase-positive Staphylococci (CoPS). The aim of this study was to examinate the global gene expression profiles of mammary gland tissues of infected and healthy (control) cows. Transcriptomes were compared of in the mammary glands of Holstein Friesian cows in two experiments, (H) vs (CoNS) cows and (H) vs (CoPS).
Project description:Genome-wide gene expression profiling allows for identification of genes involved in the defense response of the host against pathogens. As presented here, transcriptomic analysis and bioinformatics tools were applied in order to identify genes expressed in the mammary gland parenchyma of cows naturally infected with coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci.In cows infected with coagulase-positive Staphylococci, being in 1st or 2nd lactation, 1700 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. However, examination of the 3rd or 4th lactations revealed 2200 DEGs. Gene ontology functional classification showed the molecular functions of the DEGs overrepresented the activity of cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors. In cows infected with coagulase-negative Staphylococci, in the 1st or 2nd lactations 418 DEGs, while in the 3rd or 4th lactations, 1200 DEGs were identified that involved in molecular functions such as protein, calcium ion and lipid binding, chemokine activity, and protein homodimerization. Gene network analysis showed DEGs associated with inflammation, cell migration, and immune response to infection, development of cells and tissues, and humoral responses to infections caused by both types of Staphylococci.A coagulase-positive Staphylococci infection caused a markedly stronger host response than that of coagulase-negative, resulting in vastly increased DEGs. A significant increase in the expression of the FOS, TNF, and genes encoding the major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC) was observed. It suggests these genes play a key role in the synchronization of the immune response of the cow's parenchyma against mastitis-causing bacteria. Moreover, the following genes that belong to several physiological pathways (KEGG pathways) were selected for further studies as candidate genes of mammary gland immune response for use in Marker Assisted Selection (MAS): chemokine signaling pathway (CCL2, CXCL5, HCK, CCR1), cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) pathway (BOLA-DQA2, BOLA-DQA1, F11R, ITGAL, CD86), antigen processing and presentation pathway (CD8A, PDIA3, LGMN, IFI30, HSPA1A), and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway (TNF, IL8, IL18, NFKBIA).
Project description:Investigating the innate immune response mediators released in milk has manifold implications, spanning from elucidation of the role played by mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in fighting microbial infections to the discovery of novel diagnostic markers for monitoring udder health in dairy animals. Here, we investigated the mammary gland response following a two-step experimental infection of lactating sheep with the mastitis-associated bacterium Streptococcus uberis. The establishment of infection was confirmed both clinically and by molecular methods, including PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization of mammary tissues. Proteomic investigation of the milk fat globule (MFG), a complex vesicle released by lactating MECs, enabled detection of enrichment of several proteins involved in inflammation, chemotaxis of immune cells, and antimicrobial defense, including cathelicidins and calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9), in infected animals, suggesting the consistent involvement of MECs in the innate immune response to pathogens. The ability of MECs to produce and release antimicrobial and immune defense proteins was then demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and confocal immunomicroscopy of cathelicidin and the calprotectin subunit S100A9 on mammary tissues. The time course of their release in milk was also assessed by Western immunoblotting along the course of the experimental infection, revealing the rapid increase of these proteins in the MFG fraction in response to the presence of bacteria. Our results support an active role of MECs in the innate immune response of the mammary gland and provide new potential for the development of novel and more sensitive tools for monitoring mastitis in dairy animals.
Project description:Bovine mastitis is a widespread disease in dairy cows, and is often caused by bacterial mammary gland infection. Mastitis causes reduced milk production and leads to excessive use of antibiotics. We present meta-analysis of transcriptional profiles of bovine mastitis from 10 studies and 307 microarrays, allowing identification of much larger sets of affected genes than any individual study. Combining multiple studies provides insight into the molecular effects of Escherichia coli infection in vivo and uncovers differences between the consequences of E. coli vs. Staphylococcus aureus infection of primary mammary epithelial cells (PMECs). In udders, live E. coli elicits inflammatory and immune defenses through numerous cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, E. coli infection causes downregulation of genes encoding lipid biosynthesis enzymes that are involved in milk production. Additionally, host metabolism is generally suppressed. Finally, defensins and bacteria-recognition genes are upregulated, while the expression of the extracellular matrix protein transcripts is silenced. In PMECs, heat-inactivated E. coli elicits expression of ribosomal, cytoskeletal and angiogenic signaling genes, and causes suppression of the cell cycle and energy production genes. We hypothesize that heat-inactivated E. coli may have prophylactic effects against mastitis. Heat-inactivated S. aureus promotes stronger inflammatory and immune defenses than E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide by itself induces MHC antigen presentation components, an effect not seen in response to E. coli bacteria. These results provide the basis for strategies to prevent and treat mastitis and may lead to the reduction in the use of antibiotics.
Project description:Mycoplasma agalactiae is a worldwide serious pathogen of small ruminants that usually spreads through the mammary route causing acute to subacute mastitis progressing to chronic persistent disease that is hard to eradicate. Knowledge of mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in the mammary gland are still insufficient, especially the host-pathogen interplay that enables it to reside in a chronic subclinical state. This study reports transcriptome profiling of mammary tissue from udders of sheep experimentally infected with M. agalactiae type strain PG2 in comparison with uninfected control animals using Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed in the infected udders and RT-qPCR analyses of selected DEGs showed their expression profiles to be in agreement with results from RNA-Seq. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed majority of the DEGs to be associated with mycoplasma defense responses that are directly or indirectly involved in host innate and adaptive immune responses. Similar RNA-Seq analyses were also performed with spleen cells of the same sheep to know the specific systemic transcriptome responses. Spleen cells exhibited a comparatively lower number of DEGs suggesting a less prominent host response in this organ. To our knowledge this is the first study that describes host transcriptomics of M. agalactiae infection and the related immune-inflammatory responses. The data provides useful information to further dissect the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying mycoplasma mastitis, which is a prerequisite for designing effective intervention strategies.
Project description:1. A lactating-sheep mammary gland was perfused for 12h in the presence of l-[2-(14)C]-citrulline and received adequate quantities of glucose, acetate and amino acids. Two lactating-goat udders were similarly perfused in the presence of either l-[carbamoyl-(14)C,-2-(14)C]citrulline or l-[carbamoyl-(14)C,1-(14)C]citrulline and l-[4-(3)H]arginine. 2. In these experiments, [(14)C]citrulline was substantially oxidized to CO(2) and converted into arginine and proline of casein. 3. The specific radioactivities of arginine, ornithine and proline of the plasma increased after passage through the udders, demonstrating that [(14)C]citrulline is metabolized by the mammary gland. 4. The presence of two unknown radioactive metabolites of [(14)C]citrulline was detected in the perfusate. These substances were not found after incubation in vitro of oxygenated blood in the presence of the radioactive precursor. 5. From these experiments, it is concluded that citrulline is metabolized in mammary tissue by way of arginine to urea, ornithine and proline.