Internalizing cancer antibodies from phage libraries selected on tumor cells and yeast-displayed tumor antigens.
ABSTRACT: A number of approaches have been utilized to generate antibodies to cancer cell surface receptors that can be used as potential therapeutics. A number of these therapeutic approaches, including antibody-drug conjugates, immunotoxins, and targeted nucleic acid delivery, require antibodies that not only bind receptor but also undergo internalization into the cell upon binding. We previously reported on the ability to generate cancer cell binding and internalizing antibodies directly from human phage antibody libraries selected for internalization into cancer cell lines. While a number of useful antibodies have been generated using this approach, limitations include the inability to direct the selections to specific antigens and to identify the antigen bound by the antibodies. Here we show that these limitations can be overcome by using yeast-displayed antigens known to be associated with a cell type to select the phage antibody output after several rounds of selection on a mammalian cell line. We used this approach to generate several human phage antibodies to yeast-displayed EphA2 and CD44. The antibodies bound both yeast-displayed and mammalian cell surface antigens, and were endocytosed upon binding to mammalian cells. This approach is generalizable to many mammalian cell surface proteins, results in the generation of functional internalizing antibodies, and does not require antigen expression and purification for antibody generation.
Project description:Many therapeutic targets are cell surface receptors, which can be challenging antigens for antibody generation. For many therapeutic applications, one needs antibodies that not only bind the cell surface receptor but also are internalized into the cell. This allows use of the antibody to deliver various payloads into the cell to achieve a therapeutic effect. Phage antibody technology has proven a powerful tool for the generation and optimization of human antibodies to any antigen. While applied to the generation of antibodies to purified proteins, it is possible to directly select cell binding and internalizing antibodies on cells. Potential advantages of this approach include: cell surface receptors are in native conformation on intact cells while this might not be so for recombinant proteins; antibodies can be selected for both cell binding and internalization properties; the antibodies can be used to identify their tumor associated antigens; and such antibodies can be used for human treatment directly since they are human in sequence. This review will discuss the factors that impact the successful selection of cell binding and internalizing antibodies. These factors include the cell types used for selection, the impact of different phage antibody library formats, and the specific selection protocols used.
Project description:We present a strategy to discover recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to specific cancers and demonstrate this approach using basal subtype breast cancers. A phage antibody library was depleted of antibodies to common cell surface molecules by incubation with luminal breast cancer cell lines, and then selected on a single basal-like breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) for binding associated receptor-mediated endocytosis. Additional profiling against two luminal and four basal-like cell lines revealed 61 unique basal-specific mAbs from a pool of 1440 phage antibodies. The unique mAbs were further screened on nine basal and seven luminal cell lines to identify those with the greatest affinity, specificity, and internalizing capability for basal-like breast cancer cells. Among the internalizing basal-specific mAbs were those recognizing four transmembrane receptors (EphA2, CD44, CD73 and EGFR), identified by immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry and yeast-displayed antigen screening. Basal-like breast cancer expression of these four receptors was confirmed using a bioinformatic approach, and expression microarray data on 683 intrinsically subtyped primary breast tumors. This overall approach, which sequentially employs phage display antibody library selection, antigen identification and bioinformatic confirmation of antigen expression by cancer subtypes, offers efficient production of high-affinity mAbs with diagnostic and therapeutic utility against specific cancer subtypes.
Project description:Humoral immunity against diverse pathogens is rapidly elicited from natural antibody repertoires of limited complexity. But the organizing principles underlying the antibody repertoires that facilitate this immunity are not well-understood. We used HER2 as a model immunogen and reverse-engineered murine antibody response through constructing an artificial antibody library encoded with rudimentary sequence and structural characteristics learned from high throughput sequencing of antibody variable domains. Antibodies selected in vitro from the phage-displayed synthetic antibody library bound to the model immunogen with high affinity and specificities, which reproduced the specificities of natural antibody responses. We conclude that natural antibody structural repertoires are shaped to allow functional antibodies to be encoded efficiently, within the complexity limit of an individual antibody repertoire, to bind to diverse protein antigens with high specificity and affinity. Phage-displayed synthetic antibody libraries, in conjunction with high-throughput sequencing, can thus be designed to replicate natural antibody responses and to generate novel antibodies against diverse antigens.
Project description:Many forms of antibody-based targeted therapeutics, including antibody drug conjugates, utilize the internalizing function of the targeting antibody to gain intracellular entry into tumor cells. Ideal antibodies for developing such therapeutics should be capable of both tumor-selective binding and efficient endocytosis. The macropinocytosis pathway is capable of both rapid and bulk endocytosis, and recent studies have demonstrated that it is selectively up-regulated by cancer cells. We hypothesize that receptor-dependent macropinocytosis can be achieved using tumor-targeting antibodies that internalize via the macropinocytosis pathway, improving potency and selectivity of the antibody-based targeted therapeutic. Although phage antibody display libraries have been utilized to find antibodies that bind and internalize to target cells, no methods have been described to screen for antibodies that internalize specifically via macropinocytosis. We hereby describe a novel screening strategy to identify phage antibodies that bind and rapidly enter tumor cells via macropinocytosis. We utilized an automated microscopic imaging-based, High Content Analysis platform to identify novel internalizing phage antibodies that colocalize with macropinocytic markers from antibody libraries that we have generated previously by laser capture microdissection-based selection, which are enriched for internalizing antibodies binding to tumor cells in situ residing in their tissue microenvironment (Ruan, W., Sassoon, A., An, F., Simko, J. P., and Liu, B. (2006) Identification of clinically significant tumor antigens by selecting phage antibody library on tumor cells in situ using laser capture microdissection. Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 5, 2364-2373). Full-length human IgG molecules derived from macropinocytosing phage antibodies retained the ability to internalize via macropinocytosis, validating our screening strategy. The target antigen for a cross-species binding antibody with a highly active macropinocytosis activity was identified as ephrin type-A receptor 2. Antibody-toxin conjugates created using this macropinocytosing IgG were capable of potent and receptor-dependent killing of a panel of EphA2-positive tumor cell lines in vitro. These studies identify novel methods to screen for and validate antibodies capable of receptor-dependent macropinocytosis, allowing further exploration of this highly efficient and tumor-selective internalization pathway for targeted therapy development.
Project description:Mesothelioma is a malignancy of the mesothelium and current treatments are generally ineffective. One promising area of anticancer drug development is to explore tumor susceptibility to targeted therapy. To achieve efficient, targeted intracellular delivery of therapeutic agents to mesothelioma cells, we selected a naive human single-chain (scFv) phage antibody display library directly on the surface of live mesothelioma cells to identify internalizing antibodies that target mesothelioma-associated cell surface antigens. We have identified a panel of internalizing scFvs that bind to mesothelioma cell lines derived from both epithelioid (M28) and sarcomatous (VAMT-1) types of this disease. Most importantly, these antibodies stain mesothelioma cells in situ and therefore define a panel of clinically represented tumor antigens. We have further exploited the internalizing function of these scFvs to achieve targeted intracellular drug delivery to mesothelioma cells. We showed that scFv-targeted immunoliposomes were efficiently and specifically taken up by both epithelioid and sarcomatous mesothelioma cells, but not control cells, and immunoliposomes encapsulating the small-molecule drug topotecan caused targeted killing of both types of mesothelioma cells in vitro.
Project description:Antibodies are indispensable tools in biochemical research and play an expanding role as therapeutics. While hybridoma technology is the dominant method for antibody production, phage display is an emerging technology. Here, we developed and employed a high-throughput pipeline that enables selection of antibodies against hundreds of antigens in parallel. Binding selections using a phage-displayed synthetic antigen-binding fragment (Fab) library against 110 human SH3 domains yielded hundreds of Fabs targeting 58 antigens. Affinity assays demonstrated that representative Fabs bind tightly and specifically to their targets. Furthermore, we developed an efficient affinity maturation strategy adaptable to high-throughput, which increased affinity dramatically but did not compromise specificity. Finally, we tested Fabs in common cell biology applications and confirmed recognition of the full-length antigen in immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays. In summary, we have established a rapid and robust high-throughput methodology that can be applied to generate highly functional and renewable antibodies targeting protein domains on a proteome-wide scale.
Project description:Phage display screening allows the study of functional protein-protein interactions at the cell surface, but investigating intracellular organelles remains a challenge. Here we introduce internalizing-phage libraries to identify clones that enter mammalian cells through a receptor-independent mechanism and target-specific organelles as a tool to select ligand peptides and identify their intracellular receptors. We demonstrate that penetratin, an antennapedia-derived peptide, can be displayed on the phage envelope and mediate receptor-independent uptake of internalizing phage into cells. We also show that an internalizing-phage construct displaying an established mitochondria-specific localization signal targets mitochondria, and that an internalizing-phage random peptide library selects for peptide motifs that localize to different intracellular compartments. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate that one such peptide, if chemically fused to penetratin, is internalized receptor-independently, localizes to mitochondria, and promotes cell death. This combinatorial platform technology has potential applications in cell biology and drug development.
Project description:Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are widely used in many fields due to their high specificity and ability to recognize a broad range of antigens. IL-17A can induce a rapid inflammatory response both alone and synergistically with other proinflammatory cytokines. Accumulating evidence suggests that therapeutic intervention of IL-17A signaling offers an attractive treatment option for autoimmune diseases and cancer. Here, we present a combinatorial approach for optimizing the affinity and thermostability of a novel anti-hIL-17A antibody. From a large naïve phage-displayed library, we isolated the anti-IL-17A mAb 7H9 that can neutralize the effects of recombinant human IL-17A. However, the modest neutralization potency and poor thermostability limit its therapeutic applications. In vitro affinity optimization was then used to generate 8D3 by using yeast-displayed random mutagenesis libraries. This resulted in four key amino acid changes and provided an approximately 15-fold potency increase in a cell-based neutralization assay. Complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of 8D3 were further grafted onto the stable framework of the huFv 4D5 to improve thermostability. The resulting hybrid antibody 9NT/S has superior stabilization and affinities beyond its original antibody. Human fibrosarcoma cell-based assays and in vivo analyses in mice indicated that the anti-IL-17A antibody 9NT/S efficiently inhibited the secretion of IL-17A-induced proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, this lead anti-IL-17A mAb might be used as a potential best-in-class candidate for treating IL-17A related diseases.
Project description:Cell surface antigens are important targets for monoclonal antibodies, but they are often difficult to work with due to their association with the cell membrane. Phage display is a versatile technique that can be applied to generate binders against difficult targets. Here we used antibody phage display to isolate a binder for a rare and specialized cell, the human corneal endothelial cell. The human corneal endothelium is a medically important cell layer; defects in this layer account for about half of all corneal transplants. Despite its importance, no specific antigens have been found to mark this cell type. By panning a phage library directly on human corneal endothelial cells, we isolated an antibody that bound to these cells and not the other types of corneal cells. Subsequently, we identified the antibody's putative target to be CD166 by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. This approach can be used to isolate antibodies against other poorly-characterized cell types, such as stem cells or cancer cells, without any prior knowledge of their discriminating markers.
Project description:The development of antibodies to low molecular weight haptens remains challenging due to both the low immunogenicity of many haptens and the cross-reactivity of the protein carriers used to generate the immune response. Recombinant antibodies and novel display technologies have greatly advanced antibody development; however, new techniques are still required to select rare hapten-specific antibodies from large recombinant libraries. In the present study, we used a combination of phage and yeast display to screen an immune antibody library (size, 4.4 × 10(6)) against hapten markers for petroleum contamination (phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes). Selection via phage display was used first to enrich the library between 20- and 100-fold for clones that bound to phenanthrene-protein conjugates. The enriched libraries were subsequently transferred to a yeast display system and a newly developed competitive FACS procedure was employed to select rare hapten-specific clones. Competitive FACS increased the frequency of hapten-specific scFvs in our yeast-displayed scFvs from 0.025 to 0.005% in the original library to between 13 and 35% in selected pools. The presence of hapten-specific scFvs was confirmed by competitive ELISA using periplasmic protein. Three distinct antibody clones that recognize phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes were selected, and their distinctive binding properties were characterized. To our knowledge, these are first antibodies that can distinguish between methylated (petrogenic) versus unmethylated (pyrogenic) phenanthrenes; such antibodies will be useful in detecting the sources of environmental contamination. This selection method could be generally adopted in the selection of other hapten-specific recombinant antibodies.