Selective use of sequential digital dermoscopy imaging allows a cost reduction in the melanoma detection process: a belgian study of patients with a single or a small number of atypical nevi.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is a technique which improves melanoma detection. Optical dermoscopy uses a handheld optical device to observe the skin lesions without recording the images. Sequential digital dermoscopy imaging (SDDI) allows storage of the pictures and their comparison over time. Few studies have compared optical dermoscopy and SDDI from an economic perspective. OBJECTIVE: The present observational study focused on patients with one-to-three atypical melanocytic lesions, i.e. lesions considered as suspicious by optical dermoscopy. It aimed to calculate the "extra-costs" related to the process of melanoma detection. These extra-costs were defined as the costs of excision and pathology of benign lesions and/or the costs of follow-up by SDDI. The objective was to compare these extra-costs when using optical dermoscopy exclusively versus optical dermoscopy with selective use of SDDI. METHODS: In a first group of patients, dermatologists were adequately trained in optical dermoscopy but worked without access to SDDI. They excised all suspicious lesions to rule out melanoma. In a second group, the dermatologists were trained in optical and digital dermoscopy. They had the opportunity of choosing between immediate excision or follow-up by SDDI (with delayed excision if significant change was observed). The comparison of extra-costs in both groups was made possible by a decision tree model and by the division of the extra-costs by the number of melanomas diagnosed in each group. Belgian official tariffs and charges were used. RESULTS: The extra-costs in the first and in the second group were respectively €1,613 and €1,052 per melanoma excised. The difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Using the Belgian official tariffs and charges, we demonstrated that the selective use of SDDI for patients with one-to-three atypical melanocytic lesions resulted in a significant cost reduction.
Project description:Introduction The incidence and mortality of melanoma are rising rapidly. Despite ongoing research and the introduction of new therapeutic methods, advanced melanoma is still considered incurable. Early detection and surgical excision of the tumor increases patients’ survival. Since the diagnostic protocol includes surgical excision of all suspicious lesions, it is burdened with a high rate of unnecessary excisions that cause unwanted scarring. This is why the development of accurate diagnostic techniques is crucial. The most common diagnostic tool in early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma is dermoscopy, though there are emerging new techniques, such as reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Aim To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of reflectance confocal microscopy as a secondary examination in melanocytic lesions previously diagnosed as melanomas by means of dermoscopy. Material and methods Forty-six melanocytic lesions presenting dermoscopic features of cutaneous malignant melanoma were examined by means of reflectance confocal microscopy. Results The RCM evaluation showed sensitivity at the level of 100% and specificity at 62%. Conclusions It can be estimated that double evaluation of melanocytic lesions by dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy may allow up to 62% of unnecessary excisions to be avoided.
Project description:Dermoscopy is a convenient tool to diagnose melanocytic lesions, especially nevus and melanoma. Various pigmented structures, including pigment network, dots and globules, and streaks, are observed in dermoscopy. Usually, 2D vertical images are used to explain the correlation of dermoscopy and histopathology. However, because the image of dermoscopy is horizontal, it is difficult for the horizontal view of dermoscopy to refer to the vertical view of histopathology. In our study, we digitally reconstructed 2D horizontal top-down view images and 3D aerial images from 50-100 serial 2D vertical sections by using high-speed scanner and 3D software in 6 cases of melanocytic lesion. Our new technology intuitively explained the histopathological structures corresponding to the dermoscopic structures. This technique could be used as a good educational tool for beginners.
Project description:An automated melanocytic lesion image-analysis algorithm is described that aims to reproduce the decision-making of a dermatologist. The utility of the algorithm lies in its ability to identify lesions requiring excision from lesions not requiring excision. Using only wavelet coefficients as features, and testing three different machine learning algorithms, a cohort of 250 images of pigmented lesions is classified based on expert dermatologists' recommendations of either excision (165 images) or no excision (85 images). It is shown that the best algorithm utilises the Shannon4 wavelet coupled to the support vector machine, where the latter is used as the classifier. In this case the algorithm, utilising only 22 othogonal features, achieves a 10-fold cross validation sensitivity and specificity of 0.96 and 0.87, resulting in a diagnostic-odds ratio of 261. The advantages of this method over diagnostic algorithms-which make a melanoma/no melanoma decision-are twofold: first, by reproducing the decision-making of a dermatologist, the average number of lesions excised per melanoma among practioners in general can be reduced without compromising the detection of melanoma; and second, the intractable problem of clinically differentiating between many atypical dysplastic naevi and melanoma is avoided. Since many atypical naevi that require excision on clinical grounds will not be melanoma, the algorithm-in contrast to diagnostic algorithms-can aim for perfect specificities without clinical concerns, thus lowering the excision rate of non-melanoma. Finally, the algorithm has been implemented as a smart phone application to investigate its utility in clinical practice and to streamline the assimilation of hitherto unseen tested images into the training set.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Computer vision may aid in melanoma detection. OBJECTIVE:We sought to compare melanoma diagnostic accuracy of computer algorithms to dermatologists using dermoscopic images. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study using 100 randomly selected dermoscopic images (50 melanomas, 44 nevi, and 6 lentigines) from an international computer vision melanoma challenge dataset (n = 379), along with individual algorithm results from 25 teams. We used 5 methods (nonlearned and machine learning) to combine individual automated predictions into "fusion" algorithms. In a companion study, 8 dermatologists classified the lesions in the 100 images as either benign or malignant. RESULTS:The average sensitivity and specificity of dermatologists in classification was 82% and 59%. At 82% sensitivity, dermatologist specificity was similar to the top challenge algorithm (59% vs. 62%, P = .68) but lower than the best-performing fusion algorithm (59% vs. 76%, P = .02). Receiver operating characteristic area of the top fusion algorithm was greater than the mean receiver operating characteristic area of dermatologists (0.86 vs. 0.71, P = .001). LIMITATIONS:The dataset lacked the full spectrum of skin lesions encountered in clinical practice, particularly banal lesions. Readers and algorithms were not provided clinical data (eg, age or lesion history/symptoms). Results obtained using our study design cannot be extrapolated to clinical practice. CONCLUSION:Deep learning computer vision systems classified melanoma dermoscopy images with accuracy that exceeded some but not all dermatologists.
Project description:Spitz nevi, atypical Spitz tumors and spitzoid melanomas ('spitzoid lesions') represent controversial and poorly understood cutaneous melanocytic lesions that are difficult to diagnose histologically. It is unknown how these terms are used by pathologists.We describe use of Spitz-related terminology using data from the Melanoma Pathology (M-Path) study database comprising pathologists' interpretations of biopsy slides, a nation-wide study evaluating practicing US pathologists' (N?=?187) diagnoses of melanocytic lesions (8976 independent diagnostic assessments on 240 total test cases, with 1 slide per case).Most pathologists (90%) used the Spitz-related terminology. However, significant variation exists in which specific lesions were diagnosed as spitzoid and in the corresponding treatment recommendations. Recommendations ranged from 'no further treatment' to 'wide excision of 10?mm or greater' with no category capturing more than 50% of responses. For spitzoid melanoma diagnoses, 90% of pathologists recommended excision with ?10?mm margin. Pathologists report less confidence in diagnosing these lesions compared with other melanocytic proliferations and are more likely to request second opinions and additional clinical information (all p?<?0.05).Spitzoid lesions are often not classified in any standardized way, evoke uncertainty in diagnosis by pathologists, and elicit variability in treatment recommendations.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Having many melanocytic naevi or 'moles' on the skin is the strongest predictor of melanoma; thus, much can be learnt from investigating naevi in the general population. We aim to improve the understanding of the epidemiology and biology of naevi by conducting a 3-year prospective study of melanocytic naevi in adults. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a population-based cohort study of melanocytic naevi in 200 adults aged 20-69 years recruited via the Australian electoral roll. At baseline, participants will complete a questionnaire on their sun behaviour and health and undergo a clinical examination. Three-dimensional (3D) total-body photography will be used to record the images of skin lesions. Pigmented naevi will be analysed in terms of number, diameter, colour and border irregularity using automated analysis software (excluding scalp, beneath underwear and soles of feet). All naevi ?5?mm will be recorded using the integrated dermoscopy photographic system. A saliva sample will be obtained at baseline for genomic DNA analysis of pigmentation, naevus and melanoma-associated genes using the Illumina HumanCoreExome platform. The sun behaviour and health follow-up questionnaire, clinical examination and 3D total-body photography will be repeated every 6 months for 3 years. The first 50 participants will also undergo manual counts of naevi ?2?mm and ?5?mm at baseline, 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. Microbiopsy and excision of naevi of research interest is planned to commence at the 18-month time point among those who agree to donate samples for detailed histopathological and molecular assessment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study was approved by the Metro South Health Human Research Ethics Committee in April 2016 (approval number: HREC/16/QPAH/125). The findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications and presentations at conferences.
Project description:Recent advances in cancer genomics have enabled the discovery of many cancer-predisposing genes that are being used to classify new familial melanoma/cancer syndromes. In addition to CDKN2A and CDK4, germline variants in TERT, MITF, and BAP1 have been added to the list of genes harboring melanoma-predisposing mutations. These newer entities may have escaped earlier description in part because of more advanced technologies now being used and in part because of their mixed cancer phenotype as opposed to a melanoma-focused syndrome. Dermatologists should be aware of (and be able to recognize) the clinical signs in high-risk patients in different contexts. Personal and family histories of cancer should always be sought in patients with multiple nevi or a positive history for melanoma, and should be updated annually. Various features that are unique to specific disorders, such as the appearance of melanocytic BAP1-mutated atypical intradermal tumors in cases of BAP1 melanoma syndrome, should also be recognized early. These patients should be offered regular screenings with the use of dermoscopy and total body photography, as needed. More importantly, referral to other specialists may be needed if a risk for internal malignancy is suspected. It is important to have in mind that these patients tend to develop multiple melanomas, along with various internal organ malignancies, often at younger ages; a multidisciplinary approach to their cancer screening and treatment is ideal.
Project description:Non-melanoma-skin cancer is an emerging clinical problem in the elderly, fair skinned population which predominantly affects patients aged older than 70 years. Its steady increase in incidence rates and morbidity is paralleled by related medical costs. Despite the fact that many elderly patients are in need of care and are living in nursing homes, specific data on the prevalence of skin cancer in home care and the institutional long-term care setting is currently lacking. A representative multicenter prevalence study was conducted in a random sample of ten institutional long-term care facilities in the federal state of Berlin, Germany. In total, n = 223 residents were included. Actinic keratoses, the precursor lesions of invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma were the most common epithelial skin lesions (21.1%, 95% CI 16.2 to 26.9). Non-melanoma skin cancer was diagnosed in 16 residents (7.2%, 95% CI 4.5 to 11.3). None of the residents had a malignant melanoma. Only few bivariate associations were detected between non-melanoma skin cancer and demographic, biographic and functional characteristics. Male sex was significantly associated with actinic keratosis whereas female sex was associated with non-melanoma skin cancer. Smoking was associated with an increased occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer. Regular dermatology check-ups in nursing homes would be needed but already now due to financial limitations, lack of time in daily clinical practice and limited number of practising dermatologists, it is not the current standard. With respect to the worldwide growing aging population new programs and decisions are required. Overall, primary health care professionals should play a more active role in early diagnosis of skin cancer in nursing home residents. Dermoscopy courses, web-based or smartphone-based applications and teledermatology may support health care professionals to provide elderly nursing home residents an early diagnosis of skin cancer.
Project description:Melanomas that clinically mimic seborrheic keratosis (SK) can delay diagnosis and adequate treatment. However, little is known about the value of dermoscopy in recognizing these difficult-to-diagnose melanomas.To describe the dermoscopic features of SK-like melanomas to understand their clinical morphology.This observational retrospective study used 134 clinical and dermoscopic images of histopathologically proven melanomas in 134 patients treated in 9 skin cancer centers in Spain, France, Italy, and Austria. Without knowledge that the definite diagnosis for all the lesions was melanoma, 2 dermoscopy-trained observers evaluated the clinical descriptions and 48 dermoscopic features (including all melanocytic and nonmelanocytic criteria) of all 134 images and classified each dermoscopically as SK or not SK. The total dermoscopy score and the 7-point checklist score were assessed. Images of the lesions and patient data were collected from July 15, 2013, through July 31, 2014.Frequencies of specific morphologic patterns of (clinically and dermoscopically) SK-like melanomas, patient demographics, and interobserver agreement of criteria were evaluated.Of the 134 cases collected from 72 men and 61 women, all of whom were white and who had a mean (SD) age of 55.6 (17.5) years, 110 (82.1%) revealed dermoscopic features suggestive of melanoma, including pigment network (74 [55.2%]), blue-white veil (72 [53.7%]), globules and dots (68 [50.7%]), pseudopods or streaks (47 [35.1%]), and blue-black sign (43 [32.3%]). The remaining 24 cases (17.9%) were considered likely SKs, even by dermoscopy. Overall, lesions showed a scaly and hyperkeratotic surface (45 [33.6%]), yellowish keratin (42 [31.3%]), comedo-like openings (41 [30.5%]), and milia-like cysts (30 [22.4%]). The entire sample achieved a mean (SD) total dermoscopy score of 4.7 (1.6) and a 7-point checklist score of 4.4 (2.3), while dermoscopically SK-like melanomas achieved a total dermoscopy score of only 4.2 (1.3) and a 7-point checklist score of 2.0 (1.9), both in the range of benignity. The most helpful criteria in correctly diagnosing SK-like melanomas were the presence of blue-white veil, pseudopods or streaks, and pigment network. Multivariate analysis found only the blue-black sign to be significantly associated with a correct diagnosis, while hyperkeratosis and fissures and ridges were independent risk markers of dermoscopically SK-like melanomas.Seborrheic keratosis-like melanomas can be dermoscopically challenging, but the presence of the blue-black sign, pigment network, pseudopods or streaks, and/or blue-white veil, despite the presence of other SK features, allows the correct diagnosis of most of the difficult melanoma cases.