Lin28a protects against hypoxia/reoxygenation induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis by alleviating mitochondrial dysfunction under high glucose/high fat conditions.
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Lin28a in protecting against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis under high glucose/high fat (HG/HF) conditions.Primary cardiomyocytes which were isolated from neonatal mouse were randomized to be treated with lentivirus carrying Lin28a siRNA, Lin28acDNA 72 h before H/R (9 h/2 h). Cardiomyocytes biomarkers release (LDH and CK), cardiomyocytes apoptosis, mitochondria biogenesis and morphology, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, ATP content and inflammatory cytokines levels after H/R injury in high glucose/high fat conditions were compared between groups. The target proteins of Lin28a were examined by western blot analysis.Our results revealed that Lin28a cDNA transfection (overexpression) significantly inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptotic index, improved mitochondria biogenesis, increased ATP production and reduced ROS production as compared with the H/R group in HG/HF conditions. Lin28a siRNA transfection (knockdown) rendered the cardiomyocytes more susceptible to H/R injury as evidenced by increased apoptotic index, impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, decreased ATP production and increased ROS level. Interestingly, these effects of Lin28a were blocked by pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Lin28a overexpression increased, while Lin28a knockdown inhibited IGF1R, Nrf-1, Tfam, p-IRS-1, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-p70s6k, p-AMPK expression levels after H/R injury in HG/HF conditions. Moreover, pretreatment with wortmannin abolished the effects of Lin28a on the expression levels of p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-p70s6k, p-AMPK.The present results suggest that Lin28a inhibits cardiomyocytes apoptosis by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and function under high glucose/high fat conditions. The mechanism responsible for the effects of Lin28a is associated with the PI3K/Akt dependent pathway.
Project description:The insulin-PI3K-mTOR pathway exhibits a variety of cardiovascular activities including protection against I/R injury. Lin28a enhanced glucose uptake and insulin-sensitivity via insulin-PI3K-mTOR signalling pathway. However, the role of lin28a on experimental cardiac I/R injury in diabetic mice are not well understood. Diabetic mice underwent 30 min. of ischaemia followed by 3 hrs of reperfusion. Animals were randomized to be treated with lentivirus carrying lin28a siRNA (siLin28a) or lin28a cDNA (Lin28a) 72 hrs before coronary artery ligation. Myocardial infarct size (IS), cardiac function, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondria morphology in diabetic mice who underwent cardiac I/R injury were compared between groups. The target proteins of lin28a were examined by western blot analysis. Lin28a overexpression significantly reduced myocardial IS, improved LV ejection fraction (LVEF), decreased myocardial apoptotic index and alleviated mitochondria cristae destruction in diabetic mice underwent cardiac I/R injury. Lin28a knockdown exacerbated cardiac I/R injury as demonstrated by increased IS, decreased LVEF, increased apoptotic index and aggravated mitochondria cristae destruction. Interestingly, pre-treatment with rapamycin abolished the beneficial effects of lin28a overexpression. Lin28a overexpression increased, while Lin28a knockdown decreased the expression of IGF1R, p-Akt, p-mTOR and p-p70s6k after cardiac I/R injury in diabetic mice. Rapamycin pre-treatment abolished the effects of increased p-mTOR and p-p70s6k expression exerted by lin28a overexpression. This study indicates that lin28a overexpression reduces IS, improves cardiac function, decreases cardiomyocyte apoptosis index and alleviates cardiomyocyte mitochondria impairment after cardiac I/R injury in diabetic mice. The mechanism responsible for the effects of lin28a is associated with the insulin-PI3K-mTOR dependent pathway.
Project description:The pathophysiological mechanisms for vascular lesions in diabetes mellitus (DM) are complex, among which endothelial dysfunction plays a vital role. Therapeutic target against endothelial injury may provide critical venues for treatment of diabetic vascular diseases. We recently identified that salusin-? contributed to high glucose-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. However, the roles of salusin-? in DM-induced endothelial dysfunction remain largely elusive. Male C57BL/6J mice were used to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in high glucose/high fat (HG/HF) medium. We demonstrated increased expression of salusin-? in diabetic aortic tissues and high-glucose/high-fat- (HG/HF-) incubated HUVECs. Disruption of salusin-? by shRNA abrogated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inflammation, and nitrotyrosine content of HUVECs cultured in HG/HF medium. The HG/HF-mediated decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) expression was restored by salusin-? shRNA, and PPAR? inhibitor T0070907 abolished the protective actions of salusin-? shRNA on endothelial injury in HG/HF-treated HUVECs. Salusin-? silencing obviously improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and nitrative stress in diabetic aorta. Taken together, our results highlighted the essential role of salusin-? in pathological endothelial dysfunction, and salusin-? may be a promising target in treatment of vascular complications of DM.
Project description:Mitochondrial dynamics is associated with mitochondrial function, which is associated with diabetes. Although an important indicator of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, to the best of our knowledge, CLPP and its effects on mitochondrial dynamics in islet cells have not been studied to date. We analyzed the effects of CLPP on mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial function in the mice islet ?-cell line Min6 under high glucose and high fat conditions. Min6 cells were assigned to: Normal, HG, HG+NC, HG+siCLPP, HF, HF+NC and HF+ siCLPP groups. High glucose and high fat can promote the mRNA and protein expression of CLPP in mitochondria. The increase of mitochondrial fission, the decrese of mitochondrial fusion, and the damage of mintocondrial ultrastructure were significant in the siCLPP cell groups as compared to no-siCLPP treated groups. Meanwhile, mitochondrial functions of MIN6 cells treated with siCLPP were impaired, such as ATP decreased, ROS increased, mitochondrial membrane potential decreased. In addition, cell insulin secretion decreased and cell apoptosis rate increased in siCLPP groups. These results revealed that mitochondrial unfolded protein response geneCLPP alleviated high glucose and high fat-induced mitochondrial dynamics imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Project description:Increasing evidence has implicated the important role of mitochondrial pathology in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), while the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the pathogenesis of DCM and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: Obese diabetic (db/db) and lean control (db/+) mice were used in this study. Mitochondrial dynamics were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy in vivo and by confocal microscopy in vitro. Results: Diabetic hearts from 12-week-old db/db mice showed excessive mitochondrial fission and significant reduced expression of Mfn2, while there was no significant alteration or slight change in the expression of other dynamic-related proteins. Reconstitution of Mfn2 in diabetic hearts inhibited mitochondrial fission and prevented the progression of DCM. In an in-vitro study, cardiomyocytes cultured in high-glucose and high-fat (HG/HF) medium showed excessive mitochondrial fission and decreased Mfn2 expression. Reconstitution of Mfn2 restored mitochondrial membrane potential, suppressed mitochondrial oxidative stress and improved mitochondrial function in HG/HF-treated cardiomyocytes through promoting mitochondrial fusion. In addition, the down-regulation of Mfn2 expression in HG/HF-treated cardiomyocytes was induced by reduced expression of PPAR?, which positively regulated the expression of Mfn2 by directly binding to its promoter. Conclusion: Our study provides the first evidence that imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics induced by down-regulated Mfn2 contributes to the development of DCM. Targeting mitochondrial dynamics by regulating Mfn2 might be a potential therapeutic strategy for DCM.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia-induced endothelial hyperpermeability is crucial to cardiovascular disorders and macro-vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on endothelial hyperpermeability and the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) pathway. METHODS: Male Wistar rats fed on a high fat diet (HF) were treated with GTPs (0, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 g/L in drinking water) for 26 weeks. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were treated with high glucose (HG, 33 mmol/L) and GTPs (0.0, 0.4, or 4 ?g/mL) for 24 hours in vitro. The endothelial permeabilities in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by Evans blue injection method and efflux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran, respectively. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) and 2', 7'-dichloro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe, respectively. Protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits were determined by Western-blot. RESULTS: HF diet-fed increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in rat aorta while HG treatments increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in cultured BAECs. Co-treatment with GTPs alleviated those changes both in vivo and in vitro. In in vitro studies, GTPs treatments protected against the HG-induced over-expressions of p22phox and p67phox. Diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, alleviated the hyperpermeability induced by HG. CONCLUSIONS: GTPs could alleviate endothelial hyperpermeabilities in HF diet-fed rat aorta and in HG treated BAECs. The decrease of ROS production resulting from down-regulation of NADPH oxidase contributed to the alleviation of endothelial hyperpermeability.
Project description:Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a progressive kidney disease due to glomerular capillary damage in diabetic patients. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with DN progression. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediates oxidative stress and damage of cardiomyocytes in diabetic mice. Here we demonstrated that AG1478, a specific inhibitor of EGFR, blocked EGFR and AKT phosphorylation in diabetic mice. Oxidative stress and ER stress markers were eliminated after AG1478 administration. AG1478 decreased pro-fibrotic genes TGF-? and collagen IV. Furthermore, we found that high glucose (HG) induced oxidative stress and ER stress, and subsequently increased ATF4 and CHOP. These changes were eliminated by either AG1478 or ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) administration. These results were confirmed by knock-down approaches in renal mesangial SV40 cells. However, AG1478, not NAC, reversed HG induced EGFR and AKT phosphorylation. These results suggest that EGFR/AKT/ROS/ER stress signaling plays an essential role in DN development and inhibiting EGFR may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy in diabetic kidney diseases.
Project description:We have investigated the signalling pathways involved in the stimulation of glycogen and fatty acid synthesis by insulin in rat fat cells using wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and rapamycin, which blocks activation of p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p70S6K). Insulin produced a decrease in the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 which is likely to be important in the observed stimulation of glycogen synthase. Both of these actions were found to be sensitive to inhibition by wortmannin. Activation of three processes is involved in the stimulation of fatty acid synthesis from glucose by insulin, namely glucose uptake, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Whereas wortmannin largely abolished the effects of insulin on glucose utilization and acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, it was without effect on the stimulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Although epidermal growth factor stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase to a greater extent than insulin, it was unable to mimic the effect of insulin on glycogen synthase, glycogen synthase kinase-3, glucose utilization, acetyl-CoA carboxylase or pyruvate dehydrogenase. Rapamycin also failed to have any appreciable effect on stimulation of these parameters by insulin, although it did block the effect of insulin on p70S6K. We conclude that the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for the effects of insulin on glycogen synthesis, glucose uptake and acetyl-Co-AN carboxylase, but is not involved in signalling to pyruvate dehydrogenase. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase or p70S6K, however, does not appear to be sufficient to bring about the stimulation of fatty acid or glycogen synthesis. Altogether is seems likely that at least four distinct signalling pathways are involved in the effects of insulin on rat fat cells.
Project description:Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability of an organism to eliminate these toxic intermediates. Although the Parkinson-susceptibility gene, Parkinson protein 7/DJ-1 (DJ-1), has been linked to the regulation of oxidative stress, the exact mechanism by which this occurs and its in vivo relevance have remained elusive. In the heart, oxidative stress is a major contributor to the development of heart failure (HF). Therefore, we hypothesized that DJ-1 inhibits the pathological consequences of ROS production in the heart, the organ with the highest oxidative burden. We report that DJ-1 is highly expressed in normal heart tissue but is markedly reduced in end-stage human HF. DJ-1-deficient mice subjected to oxidative stress by transaortic banding exhibited exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy and susceptibility to developing HF. This was accompanied by a Trp53 (p53)-dependent decrease in capillary density, an excessive oxidation of DNA, and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, key events in the development of HF. Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and progressive respiratory chain deficiency were also evident in cardiomyocytes lacking DJ-1. Our results provide compelling in vivo evidence that DJ-1 is a unique and nonredundant antioxidant that functions independent of other antioxidative pathways in the cellular defense against ROS.
Project description:Hypoxia/Reoxygenation (H/R) cardiac injury is of great importance in understanding Myocardial Infarctions, which affect a major part of the working population causing debilitating side effects and often-premature mortality. H/R injury primarily consists of apoptotic and necrotic death of cardiomyocytes due to a compromise in the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane. Major factors associated in the deregulation of the membrane include fluctuating reactive oxygen species (ROS), deregulation of mitochondrial permeability transport pore (MPTP), uncontrolled calcium (Ca2+) fluxes, and abnormal caspase-3 activity. Erythropoietin (EPO) is strongly inferred to be cardioprotective and acts by inhibiting the above-mentioned processes. Surprisingly, the underlying mechanism of EPO's action and H/R injury is yet to be fully investigated and elucidated. This study examined whether EPO maintains Ca2+ homeostasis and the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in cardiomyocytes when subjected to H/R injury and further explored the underlying mechanisms involved. H9C2 cells were exposed to different concentrations of EPO post-H/R, and 20 U/ml EPO was found to significantly increase cell viability by inhibiting the intracellular production of ROS and caspase-3 activity. The protective effect of EPO was abolished when H/R-induced H9C2 cells were treated with Wortmannin, an inhibitor of Akt, suggesting the mechanism of action through the activation Akt, a major survival pathway.
Project description:Loss of Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) protein expression confers a poor prognosis in sporadic and familial breast cancer patients, and the FOXP1 gene maps to a tumor suppressor locus at chromosome 3p14. Although correlation studies have indicated that FOXP1 has a role in tumor suppression, determination of the regulatory mechanism of FOXP1 is required to establish its function in breast cancer. It has previously been identified that FOXP1 is regulated by estrogen in breast cancer and that treatment with bisphenol A is effective for regulating the transformation of the normal human breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10F. In addition, FOXO-regulated activation of FOXP1 inhibits the apoptosis of MCF-10F cells following tamoxifen and Akt inhibitor VIII administration. The present study indicates that FOXP1 regulation occurs via a PI3K/Akt/p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) signaling pathway. Following treatment with wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells demonstrated decreased FOXP1 protein expression levels; this result was also observed in the small interfering (si)RNA silencing of Akt. By contrast, overexpression of Akt resulted in increased FOXP1 protein expression levels in the MDA-MB-231 cells compared with the control cell lysates. Furthermore, treatment with rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K cascade, resulted in decreased FOXP1 expression in the MCF7 cells, but not in the MDA-MB-231 cells, which were resistant to rapamycin-induced inhibition. In addition, silencing of p70S6K using siRNA produced a marked decrease in FOXP1 expression. These data indicate that FOXP1 protein expression is regulated by a PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling cascade in breast cancer.