Full genome sequences of zebra-borne equine herpesvirus type 1 isolated from zebra, onager and Thomson's gazelle.
ABSTRACT: A strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) was isolated from zebra. This strain, called "zebra-borne EHV-1", was also isolated from an onager and a gazelle in zoological gardens in U.S.A. The full genome sequences of the 3 strains were determined. They shared 99% identities with each other, while they shared 98% and 95% identities with the horse derived EHV-1 and equine herpesvirus type 9, respectively. Sequence data indicated that the EHV-1 isolated from a polar bear in Germany is one of the zebra-borne EHV-1 and not a recombinant virus. These results indicated that zebra-borne EHV-1 is a subtype of EHV-1.
Project description:A 2-y-old female Grant's zebra ( Equus quagga [ burchellii] boehmi) was presented with a clinical history of depression, anorexia, and weakness of 1-wk duration. Postmortem examination identified ulcers on the tongue and palate; a large abscess adjacent to the larynx; left lung consolidation; mild swelling, darkening, and congestion of the liver with accentuation of the lobular pattern; and edema and congestion of the distal small and large intestines. Histologic examination identified necrotizing bronchopneumonia, necrotizing hepatitis, nephritis, and enterocolitis. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions were detected in syncytial cells and degenerate bronchial epithelium in the lungs and in some hepatocytes associated with necrotic foci. Bacterial cultures of the lung, liver, and laryngeal abscess failed to detect any significant pathogen. Lung and liver tested positive for equine herpesvirus with neuropathogenic marker by real-time PCR. Subsequently, equine herpesvirus was isolated in tissue culture, and the entire viral DNA polymerase gene (ORF30) was sequenced. The zebra lung isolate had a very close nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity to equid alphaherpesvirus 9 (EHV-9; 99.6% and 99.8%, respectively) in contrast to the neuropathogenic T953 strain of EHV-1 (94.7% and 96.6%, respectively). Although zebras are considered the natural host for EHV-9, we document an unusual acute systemic, fatal EHV-9 infection in a 2-y-old Grant's zebra.
Project description:Equine herpesvirus type 9 (EHV-9), which we isolated from a case of epizootic encephalitis in a herd of Thomson's gazelles (Gazella thomsoni) in 1993, has been known to cause fatal encephalitis in Thomson's gazelle, giraffe, and polar bear in natural infections. Our previous report indicated that EHV-9 was similar to the equine pathogen equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), which mainly causes abortion, respiratory infection, and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy. We determined the genome sequence of EHV-9. The genome has a length of 148,371 bp and all 80 of the open reading frames (ORFs) found in the genome of EHV-1. The nucleotide sequences of the ORFs in EHV-9 were 86 to 95% identical to those in EHV-1. The whole genome sequence should help to reveal the neuropathogenicity of EHV-9.
Project description:Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls.
Project description:Alphaherpesviruses are highly prevalent in equine populations and co-infections with more than one of these viruses' strains frequently diagnosed. Lytic replication and latency with subsequent reactivation, along with new episodes of disease, can be influenced by genetic diversity generated by spontaneous mutation and recombination. Latency enhances virus survival by providing an epidemiological strategy for long-term maintenance of divergent strains in animal populations. The alphaherpesviruses equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and 9 (EHV-9) have recently been shown to cross species barriers, including a recombinant EHV-1 observed in fatal infections of a polar bear and Asian rhinoceros. Little is known about the latency and genetic diversity of EHV-1 and EHV-9, especially among zoo and wild equids. Here, we report evidence of limited genetic diversity in EHV-9 in zebras, whereas there is substantial genetic variability in EHV-1. We demonstrate that zebras can be lytically and latently infected with both viruses concurrently. Such a co-occurrence of infection in zebras suggests that even relatively slow-evolving viruses such as equine herpesviruses have the potential to diversify rapidly by recombination. This has potential consequences for the diagnosis of these viruses and their management in wild and captive equid populations.
Project description:Translocation of animals in fragmented habitats is an important means of dispersal and gene flow, however, the movement of animals has led to the spread of various diseases globally and wildlife are often the reservoirs of these diseases. Currently, Cape mountain zebra are translocated within South Africa as a management method for augmentation of isolated and fragmented populations. The movement of pathogens due to translocations in local regions have gone largely unchecked, particularly where there may still be isolated regions that can be negatively affected. Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by Theilaria equi and/or Babesia caballi reported to occur in equids (Bhoora et al., 2010; Zweygarth et al., 2002). Here, the presence of T. equi and B. caballi was detected in 137 clinically healthy Cape mountain zebra from three South African reserves, Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP), De Hoop Nature Reserve (DHNR) and Karoo National Park (KNP) using the multiplex EP real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. We observed 100% prevalence for T. equi and identified only one animal from MZNP with B. caballi. These results affirm that precautions should be taken prior to founding new populations of Cape mountain zebra and that potential farms and properties adjacent to prospective reserves should be screened for the presence of the organisms in order to mitigate risks of infection to domestic animals.
Project description:Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and neurological disease in equines and is endemic in most countries. The viral factors that influence EHV-1 disease severity are poorly understood, and this has hampered vaccine development. However, the N752D substitution in the viral DNA polymerase catalytic subunit has been shown statistically to be associated with neurological disease. This has given rise to the term "neuropathic strain," even though strains lacking the polymorphism have been recovered from cases of neurological disease. To broaden understanding of EHV-1 diversity in the field, 78 EHV-1 strains isolated over a period of 35 years were sequenced. The great majority of isolates originated from the United Kingdom and included in the collection were low passage isolates from respiratory, abortigenic and neurological outbreaks. Phylogenetic analysis of regions spanning 80% of the genome showed that up to 13 viral clades have been circulating in the United Kingdom and that most of these are continuing to circulate. Abortion isolates grouped into nine clades, and neurological isolates grouped into five. Most neurological isolates had the N752D substitution, whereas most abortion isolates did not, although three of the neurological isolates from linked outbreaks had a different polymorphism. Finally, bioinformatic analysis suggested that recombination has occurred between EHV-1 clades, between EHV-1 and equine herpesvirus 4, and between EHV-1 and equine herpesvirus 8.
Project description:A new strain of equine herpesvirus type 8 (EHV-8), Wh, has been isolated from horses in China, and its complete genome has been sequenced and analyzed. The result indicates that the new strain has the same constitution and arrangement of open read frames as EHV-1 and EHV-9. This work is the first announced complete genome sequence of EHV-8.
Project description:In the spring of 2015, two stallions reared in Farms A and B in Hokkaido in Japan showed symptoms of equine coital exanthema. Equine herpesvirus 3 (EHV-3) was isolated from penis swab samples of both stallions, and the isolates from each stallion in Farms A and B were designated as SS-1 and YS-1 strains, respectively. BamHI restriction profiles of SS-1 and Japanese reference strain Iwate-1 were indistinguishable, but the BamHI-A fragment of YS-1 was larger than those of SS-1 and Iwate-1 by 1.9 kbp because of the lack of two BamHI sites. Nucleotide sequence analyses of glycoprotein G (gG), gB, gC and VP13/14 coding regions revealed that SS-1 and YS-1 had 99.77% to 100% identities to each other. These results suggested that the origins of SS-1 and YS-1 were different. For a sero-epidemiological survey, serum neutralizing tests using SS-1 against 319 sera of horses from eight farms in Hokkaido were conducted. Six of the eight farms were EHV-3 antibody-positive, and positive rates ranged from 2.6% to 17.6%. To determine the infection time of four EHV-3 antibody-positive horses, a retrospective study was conducted. Infection time of the four horses was in the breeding season, and re-infection or reactivation of latently infected EHV-3 might have occurred in one horse. However, these four horses had never shown any clinical symptoms. The results suggested that several EHV-3 strains are distributed in Japan and that infection is maintained widely in horses without clinical symptoms.
Project description:Recombination in alphaherpesviruses allows evolution to occur in viruses that have an otherwise stable DNA genome with a low rate of nucleotide substitution. High-throughput sequencing of complete viral genomes has recently allowed natural (field) recombination to be studied in a number of different alphaherpesviruses, however, such studies have not been applied to equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) or equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4). These two equine alphaherpesviruses are genetically similar, but differ in their pathogenesis and epidemiology. Both cause economically significant disease in horse populations worldwide. This study used high-throughput sequencing to determine the full genome sequences of EHV-1 and EHV-4 isolates (11 and 14 isolates, respectively) from Australian or New Zealand horses. These sequences were then analysed and examined for evidence of recombination. Evidence of widespread recombination was detected in the genomes of the EHV-4 isolates. Only one potential recombination event was detected in the genomes of the EHV-1 isolates, even when the genomes from an additional 11 international EHV-1 isolates were analysed. The results from this study reveal another fundamental difference between the biology of EHV-1 and EHV-4. The results may also be used to help inform the future safe use of attenuated equine herpesvirus vaccines.
Project description:Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), an ?-herpesvirus of the family Herpesviridae, causes respiratory disease, abortion, and encephalomyelitis in horses. EHV-1 utilizes equine MHC class I molecules as entry receptors. However, hamster MHC class I molecules on EHV-1-susceptible CHO-K1 cells play no role in EHV-1 entry. To identify the MHC class I molecule region that is responsible for EHV-1 entry, domain exchange and site-directed mutagenesis experiments were performed, in which parts of the extracellular region of hamster MHC class I (clone C5) were replaced with corresponding sequences from equine MHC class I (clone A68). Substitution of alanine for glutamine at position 173 (Q173A) within the ?2 domain of the MHC class I molecule enabled hamster MHC class I C5 to mediate EHV-1 entry into cells. Conversely, substitution of glutamine for alanine at position 173 (A173Q) in equine MHC class I A68 resulted in loss of EHV-1 receptor function. Equine MHC class I clone 3.4, which possesses threonine at position 173, was unable to act as an EHV-1 receptor. Substitution of alanine for threonine at position 173 (T173A) enabled MHC class I 3.4 to mediate EHV-1 entry into cells. These results suggest that the amino acid residue at position 173 of the MHC class I molecule is involved in the efficiency of EHV-1 entry.