Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel gene family in rice, identification, characterization and experimental analysis of expression response to plant hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are Ca2+-permeable cation transport channels, which are present in both animal and plant systems. They have been implicated in the uptake of both essential and toxic cations, Ca2+ signaling, pathogen defense, and thermotolerance in plants. To date there has not been a genome-wide overview of the CNGC gene family in any economically important crop, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). There is an urgent need for a thorough genome-wide analysis and experimental verification of this gene family in rice. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 16 full length rice CNGC genes distributed on chromosomes 1-6, 9 and 12, were identified by employing comprehensive bioinformatics analyses. Based on phylogeny, the family of OsCNGCs was classified into four major groups (I-IV) and two sub-groups (IV-A and IV- B). Likewise, the CNGCs from all plant lineages clustered into four groups (I-IV), where group II was conserved in all land plants. Gene duplication analysis revealed that both chromosomal segmentation (OsCNGC1 and 2, 10 and 11, 15 and 16) and tandem duplications (OsCNGC1 and 2) significantly contributed to the expansion of this gene family. Motif composition and protein sequence analysis revealed that the CNGC specific domain "cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD)" comprises a "phosphate binding cassette" (PBC) and a "hinge" region that is highly conserved among the OsCNGCs. In addition, OsCNGC proteins also contain various other functional motifs and post-translational modification sites. We successively built a stringent motif: (LI-X(2)-[GS]-X-[FV]-X-G--ELL-X-W-X(12,22)-SA-X(2)-T-X(7)-[EQ]-AF-X-L) that recognizes the rice CNGCs specifically. Prediction of cis-acting regulatory elements in 5' upstream sequences and expression analyses through quantitative qPCR demonstrated that OsCNGC genes were highly responsive to multiple stimuli including hormonal (abscisic acid, indoleacetic acid, kinetin and ethylene), biotic (Pseudomonas fuscovaginae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) and abiotic (cold) stress. CONCLUSIONS: There are 16 CNGC genes in rice, which were probably expanded through chromosomal segmentation and tandem duplications and comprise a PBC and a "hinge" region in the CNBD domain, featured by a stringent motif. The various cis-acting regulatory elements in the upstream sequences may be responsible for responding to multiple stimuli, including hormonal, biotic and abiotic stresses.
Project description:Cyclic nucleotide gated channels (CNGCs) play multifaceted roles in plants, particularly with respect to signaling processes associated with abiotic stress signaling and during host-pathogen interactions. Despite key roles during plant survival and response to environment, little is known about the activity and function of CNGC family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a key stable food around the globe. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification of CNGC family in wheat and identified a total 47 TaCNGCs in wheat, classifying these genes into four major groups (I-IV) with two sub-groups (IVa and IVb). Sequence analysis revealed the presence of several conserved motifs, including a phosphate binding cassette (PBC) and a "hinge" region, both of which have been hypothesized to be critical for the function of wheat CNGCs. During wheat infection with Pst, the transcript levels of TaCNGC14 and TaCNGC16, both members of group IVb, showed significant induction during a compatible interaction, while a reduction in gene expression was observed in incompatible interactions. In addition, TaCNGC14 and TaCNGC16 mRNA accumulation was significantly influenced by exogenously applied hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and salicylic acid (SA), suggesting a role in hormone signaling and/or perception. Silencing of TaCNGC14 and TaCNGC16 limited Pst growth and increased wheat resistance against Pst. The results presented herein contribute to our understanding of the wheat CNGC gene family and the mechanism of TaCNGCs signaling during wheat-Pst interaction.
Project description:Ligand-gated cation channels are a frequent component of signaling cascades in eukaryotes. Eukaryotes contain numerous diverse gene families encoding ion channels, some of which are shared and some of which are unique to particular kingdoms. Among the many different types are cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs). CNGCs are cation channels with varying degrees of ion conduction selectivity. They are implicated in numerous signaling pathways and permit diffusion of divalent and monovalent cations, including Ca(2+) and K(+). CNGCs are present in both plant and animal cells, typically in the plasma membrane; recent studies have also documented their presence in prokaryotes. All eukaryote CNGC polypeptides have a cyclic nucleotide-binding domain and a calmodulin binding domain as well as a six transmembrane/one pore tertiary structure. This review summarizes existing knowledge about the functional domains present in these cation-conducting channels, and considers the evidence indicating that plant and animal CNGCs evolved separately. Additionally, an amino acid motif that is only found in the phosphate binding cassette and hinge regions of plant CNGCs, and is present in all experimentally confirmed CNGCs but no other channels was identified. This CNGC-specific amino acid motif provides an additional diagnostic tool to identify plant CNGCs, and can increase confidence in the annotation of open reading frames in newly sequenced genomes as putative CNGCs. Conversely, the absence of the motif in some plant sequences currently identified as probable CNGCs may suggest that they are misannotated or protein fragments.
Project description:Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs) are calcium-permeable channels that are involved in various biological functions. Nevertheless, phylogeny and function of plant CNGCs are not well understood. In this study, 333 CNGC genes from 15 plant species were identified using comprehensive bioinformatics approaches. Extensive bioinformatics analyses demonstrated that CNGCs of Group IVa were distinct to those of other groups in gene structure and amino acid sequence of cyclic nucleotide-binding domain. A CNGC-specific motif that recognizes all identified plant CNGCs was generated. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CNGC proteins of flowering plant species formed five groups. However, CNGCs of the non-vascular plant Physcomitrella patens clustered only in two groups (IVa and IVb), while those of the vascular non-flowering plant Selaginella moellendorffii gathered in four (IVa, IVb, I and II). These data suggest that Group IV CNGCs are most ancient and Group III CNGCs are most recently evolved in flowering plants. Furthermore, silencing analyses revealed that a set of CNGC genes might be involved in disease resistance and abiotic stress responses in tomato and function of SlCNGCs does not correlate with the group that they are belonging to. Our results indicate that Group IVa CNGCs are structurally but not functionally unique among plant CNGCs.
Project description:The cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (CNGC) family affects the uptake of cations, growth, pathogen defence, and thermotolerance in plants. However, the systematic identification, origin and function of this gene family has not been performed in Brassica oleracea, an important vegetable crop and genomic model organism.In present study, we identified 26 CNGC genes in B. oleracea genome, which are non-randomly localized on eight chromosomes, and classified into four major (I-IV) and two sub-groups (i.e., IV-a and IV-b). The BoCNGC family is asymmetrically fractioned into the following three sub-genomes: least fractionated (14 genes), most fractionated-I (10), and most fractionated-II (2). The syntenic map of BoCNGC genes exhibited strong relationships with the model Arabidopsis thaliana and B. rapa CNGC genes and provided markers for defining the regions of conserved synteny among the three genomes. Both whole-genome triplication along with segmental and tandem duplications contributed to the expansion of this gene family. We predicted the characteristics of BoCNGCs regarding exon-intron organisations, motif compositions and post-translational modifications, which diversified their structures and functions. Using orthologous Arabidopsis CNGCs as a reference, we found that most CNGCs were associated with various protein-protein interaction networks involving CNGCs and other signalling and stress related proteins. We revealed that five microRNAs (i.e., bol-miR5021, bol-miR838d, bol-miR414b, bol-miR4234, and bol-miR_new2) have target sites in nine BoCNGC genes. The BoCNGC genes were differentially expressed in seven B. oleracea tissues including leaf, stem, callus, silique, bud, root and flower. The transcript abundance levels quantified by qRT-PCR assays revealed that BoCNGC genes from phylogenetic Groups I and IV were particularly sensitive to cold stress and infections with bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, suggesting their importance in abiotic and biotic stress responses.Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis represents a rich data resource for studying new plant gene families. Our data may also be useful for breeding new B. oleracea cultivars with improved productivity, quality, and stress resistance.
Project description:Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are a class of nonselective cationic channels that are widely found in animals and plants. Plant CNGCs participate in numerous biological functions that vary from development to stress tolerance. Most CNGC genes have been identified in plant genomes, but no such comprehensive study has yet been conducted on Chinese cabbage. In this study, thirty BrCNGC genes were identified, divided into five groups, and used for evolutionary analysis. We assigned names of all individual CNGC members on the basis of phylogenetic relationship with A. thaliana CNGCs. All BrCNGC genes were randomly distributed on chromosomes, and the A08 chromosome did not carry any CNGC gene. The CNGC genes of Chinese cabbage and A. thaliana from the same group displayed similar conserved motifs and gene structures. Especially the closer the homology, the higher the similarity. Quantitative expression analysis showed that most of the CNGC genes were expressed under four stresses, indicating that they play a key role in the stress response of Chinese cabbage. Expression patterns of 12 BrCNGC in the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and siliques showed that BrCNGC8 and BrCNGC16 were specifically expressed only in flowers but not in other parts. This study lays a theoretical foundation for future research on the function of the CNGC gene family in Chinese cabbage.
Project description:Mechanisms underlying plant non-host resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), the pathogen causing rice leaf streak disease, are largely unknown. Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs) are calcium-permeable channels that are involved in various biological processes including plant resistance. In this study, functions of two tomato CNGC genes SlCNGC1 and SlCNGC14 in non-host resistance to Xoc were analyzed. Silencing of SlCNGC1 and SlCNGC14 in tomato significantly enhanced Xoc-induced hypersensitive response (HR) and non-host resistance, demonstrating that both SlCNGC1 and SlCNGC14 negatively regulate non-host resistance related HR and non-host resistance to Xoc in tomato. Silencing of SlCNGC1 and SlCNGC14 strikingly increased Xoc-induced callose deposition and strongly promoted both Xoc-induced and flg22-elicited H2O2, indicating that these two SlCNGCs repress callose deposition and ROS accumulation to attenuate non-host resistance and PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Importantly, silencing of SlCNGC1 and SlCNGC14 apparently compromised cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation, implying that SlCNGC1 and SlCNGC14 function as Ca2+ channels and negatively regulate non-host resistance and PTI-related responses through modulating cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation. SlCNGC14 seemed to play a stronger regulatory role in the non-host resistance and PTI compared to SlCNGC1. Our results reveal the contribution of CNGCs and probably also Ca2+ signaling pathway to non-host resistance and PTI.
Project description:Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) form non-selective cation entry pathways regulated by calmodulin (CaM), a universal Ca(2+) sensor in eukaryotes. Although CaM binding has been shown to be important for Ca(2+)-dependent feedback regulation of CNGC activity, the CaM-binding properties of these channels have been investigated in a few cases only. We show that CNGC20 from Arabidopsis thaliana binds CaM in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and interacts with all AtCaM isoforms but not with the CaM-like proteins CML8 and CML9. CaM interaction with the full-length channel was demonstrated in planta, using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. This interaction occurred at the plasma membrane, in accordance with our localization data of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused CNGC20 proteins. The CaM-binding site was mapped to an isoleucine glutamine (IQ) motif, which has not been characterized in plant CNGCs so far. Our results show that compared with the overlapping binding sites for cyclic nucleotides and CaM in CNGCs studied so far, they are sequentially organized in CNGC20. The presence of two alternative CaM-binding modes indicates that ligand regulation of plant CNGCs is more complex than previously expected. Since the IQ domain is conserved among plant CNGCs, this domain adds to the variability of Ca(2+)-dependent channel control mechanisms underlining the functional diversity within this multigene family.
Project description:Cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) regulate multiple intracellular processes and are thus of a great general interest for molecular and structural biologists. To study the allosteric mechanism of different cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB) domains, we compared cAMP-bound and cAMP-free structures (PKA, Epac, and two ionic channels) using a new bioinformatics method: local spatial pattern alignment. Our analysis highlights four major conserved structural motifs: 1) the phosphate binding cassette (PBC), which binds the cAMP ribose-phosphate, 2) the "hinge," a flexible helix, which contacts the PBC, 3) the beta(2,3) loop, which provides precise positioning of an invariant arginine from the PBC, and 4) a conserved structural element consisting of an N-terminal helix, an eight residue loop and the A-helix (N3A-motif). The PBC and the hinge were included in the previously reported allosteric model, whereas the definition of the beta(2,3) loop and the N3A-motif as conserved elements is novel. The N3A-motif is found in all cis-regulated CNB domains, and we present a model for an allosteric mechanism in these domains. Catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) represents a trans-regulated CNB domain family: it does not contain the N3A-motif, and its long range allosteric interactions are substantially different from the cis-regulated CNB domains.
Project description:The coordinated control of Ca2+ signaling is essential for development in eukaryotes. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC) family members mediate Ca2+ influx from cellular stores in plants (Charpentier et al., 2016; Gao et al., 2016; Frietsch et al., 2007; Urquhart et al., 2007). Here, we report the unusual genetic behavior of a quantitative gain-of-function CNGC mutation (brush) in Lotus japonicus resulting in a leaky tetrameric channel. brush resides in a cluster of redundant CNGCs encoding subunits which resemble metazoan voltage-gated potassium (Kv1-Kv4) channels in assembly and gating properties. The recessive mongenic brush mutation impaired root development and infection by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. The brush allele exhibited quantitative behavior since overexpression of the cluster subunits was required to suppress the brush phenotype. The results reveal a mechanism by which quantitative competition between channel subunits for tetramer assembly can impact the phenotype of the mutation carrier.
Project description:Recently we have reported that the αC-helix in the cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD) is required for channel regulation and function of cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels (CNGCs) in Arabidopsis. A mutation at arginine 557 to cysteine (R557C) in the αC-helix of the CNBD caused an alteration in channel regulation. Protein sequence alignments revealed that R557 is located in a region that is important for calmodulin (CaM) binding. It has been hypothesized that CaM negatively regulates plant CNGCs similar to their counter parts in animals. However, only a handful of studies has been published so far and we still do not have much information about the regulation of CNGCs by CaM. Here, we conducted in silico binding prediction of CaM and Arabidopsis CNGC12 (AtCNGC12) to further study the role of R557. Our analysis revealed that R557 forms salt bridges with both D79 and E83 in AtCaM1. Interestingly, a mutation of R557 to C causes the loss of these salt bridges. Our data further suggests that this alteration in CaM binding causes the observed altered channel regulation and that R557 plays an important role in CaM binding.