Lost to follow-up for appointments in a dedicated dry eye clinic.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Dry eye is a prevalent condition with significant socioeconomic burden. This study evaluates the extent and reasons for loss to follow-up (LTF) in a dedicated dry eye clinic. LTF refers to patient who discontinued visits for >2 years. METHOD:The proportion of patients LTF and the demographics in a cohort of dry eye patients (2006 to 2010) were determined. A telephone survey was prospectively conducted for patients who were LTF. RESULTS:Of 505 patients, 240 (47.5%) were LTF. Associated demographic factors for LTF were male sex, non-Chinese ethnicity, and age group <30 years old (all P<0.05). The reasons for LTF through the telephone survey (response rate 77.9%) were categorized into three broad groups, stabilized dry eye condition (47%), personal/social factors (25%) and perceived insufficiency of healthcare delivery (28%). Only two (1.1%) were considered as management failures. The younger patients (age <50 years) were more likely to become LTF (P<0.001) due to stabilized dry eye disease, compared to older patients who were more likely to be LTF due to personal/social reasons (P=0.02). Poor communication and service factors under healthcare delivery were found to be higher (P=0.002) in those who visited once before they were LTF (8.5%) compared to those who visited multiple times before they were LTF (0.1%). CONCLUSION:LTF was relatively common in hospital-based dry eye management. Female and older patients were less likely to stop consultation. Stabilized dry eye condition, common in younger patients, was the most common reason for LTF. Elderly patients have difficulty attending clinics due to nonmedical problems, which may require a more holistic approach.
Project description:PURPOSE: To determine whether proinflammatory cytokine genes were potential susceptibility candidate genes for Korean patients with non-Sjogren dry eye, we investigated the association of the interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), interleukin 6 (IL6), and interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) variations with this disease in Korean patients. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of unrelated non-Sjogren dry eye patients and healthy control individuals who visited the Eye Center and Health Promotion Center of St. Mary's Hospital in Seoul, Korea. For screening genetic variations in proinflammatory cytokine genes, the 511 (rs16944) and 31 (rs1143627) positions in the promoter region of IL1B, rs1143634 in exon 5 of IL1B, rs1800795 of the IL6 promoter, and Asp358Ala (rs8192284) of IL6R were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and direct sequencing. RESULTS: Among the polymorphisms, rs1143634 (F105F) in exon 5 of IL1B was significantly different between the patient and control groups. The frequency of the C/T genotype in dry eye patients was decreased relative to that of the control subjects (10.4% versus 3.9%, p=0.043, OR=3.337). For the IL6R gene, the genotypic and allelic distribution of rs8192284 was different between the dry eye patients and the controls: CC genotype (p=0.017, OR=2.12) and C allele (OR=1.26). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of genetic variation screening of proinflammatory cytokine genes in Korean non-Sjogren dry eye patients. It is suggested that rs1143634 of IL1B and rs8192284 of IL6R act as susceptibility variations in Korean non-Sjogren dry eye patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To survey ophthalmologists about current practice patterns regarding the evaluation of dry eye patients and referrals for a Sjogren syndrome (SS) workup. METHODS:An online survey was sent to ophthalmologists affiliated with the Scheie Eye Institute or Wills Eye Hospital using REDCap in August 2015. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. RESULTS:Four hundred seventy-four survey invitations were sent out and 101 (21%) ophthalmologists completed the survey. The common traditional dry eye test performed was corneal fluorescein staining (62%) and the most common newer dry eye test performed was tear osmolarity (18%). Half of respondents (51%) refer fewer than 5% of their dry eye patients for SS workups, with 18% reporting that they never refer any patients. The most common reasons for referrals included positive review of systems (60%), severe dry eye symptoms (51%) or ocular signs (47%), or dry eye that is refractory to treatment (42%). The majority (83%) felt that there is a need for an evidence-based standardized screening tool for dry eye patients to decide who should be referred for evaluation for SS. CONCLUSIONS:Ophthalmologists continue to prefer the use of traditional dry eye tests in practice, with the most common test being corneal fluorescein staining. There is an underreferral of dry eye patients for SS workups, which is contributing to the continued underdiagnosis of the disease. Most respondents felt that there was a need for an evidence-based standardized screening tool to decide which dry eye patients should be referred for SS evaluations.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Recent initiatives to target the personal, social and clinical needs of people with long-term health conditions have had limited impact within primary care. Evidence of the importance of social networks to support people with long-term conditions points to the need for self-management approaches which align personal circumstances with valued activities. The Patient-Led Assessment for Network Support (PLANS) intervention is a needs-led assessment for patients to prioritise their health and social needs and provide access to local community services and activities. Exploring the work and practices of patients and telephone workers are important for understanding and evaluating the workability and implementation of new interventions. METHODS: Qualitative methods (interviews, focus group, observations) were used to explore the experience of PLANS from the perspectives of participants and the telephone support workers who delivered it (as part of an RCT) and the reasons why the intervention worked or not. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used as a sensitising tool to evaluate: the relevance of PLANS to patients (coherence); the processes of engagement (cognitive participation); the work done for PLANS to happen (collective action); the perceived benefits and costs of PLANS (reflexive monitoring). 20 patients in the intervention arm of a clinical trial were interviewed and their telephone support calls were recorded and a focus group with 3 telephone support workers was conducted. RESULTS: Analysis of the interviews, support calls and focus group identified three themes in relation to the delivery and experience of PLANS. These are: formulation of 'health' in the context of everyday life; trajectories and tipping points: disrupting everyday routines; precarious trust in networks. The relevance of these themes are considered using NPT constructs in terms of the work that is entailed in engaging with PLANS, taking action, and who is implicated this process. CONCLUSIONS: PLANS gives scope to align long-term condition management to everyday life priorities and valued aspects of life. This approach can improve engagement with health-relevant practices by situating them within everyday contexts. This has potential to increase utilisation of local resources with potential cost-saving benefits for the NHS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN45433299.
Project description:Importance:Dry eye is a common ocular surface condition with significant influence on patient quality of life and societal economic burden. There is an urgent need to prioritize new research for dry eye. Objective:To identify and rank research questions and outcomes important to patients with dry eye. Design, Setting, and Participants:This study was conducted using the following 6 steps: (1) identifying research questions from a previous survey of clinicians who treat patients with dry eye; (2) identifying outcomes from existing research (systematic reviews and their cited clinical trials in the Cochrane Eyes and Vision US Satellite database of eyes and vision reviews, and National Eye Institute-funded clinical trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov) as of June 13, 2017; (3) identifying a sample of patients with dry eye from the email subscribers to the online newsletter KeratoScoop; (4) and (5) conducting a 2-round Delphi survey of those patients online in November and December 2017, respectively; and (6) designating and ranking questions and outcomes as important. Main Outcomes and Measures:Importance assigned to research questions and outcomes for dry eye. A research question or outcome ranked by at least 75% of patients as 6 or higher on a scale of 0 to 10 was considered important. Results:Among the 420 patients from 15 countries who completed both rounds of the Delphi survey, most were 60 years of age or older (233 [56%]), female (348 [83%]), white (393 [94%]), and of non-Hispanic ethnicity (398 [95%]). Among the 12 questions that clinicians had previously prioritized, patients rated 8 as important. The top 3 questions pertained to effectiveness of patient education, environmental modifications, and topical anti-inflammatory eye drops for dry eye. Among the 109 outcomes identified in existing research on dry eye, patients rated 26 as important. Ten of these 26 were unpopular in existing research, with fewer than 10% of 158 studies reporting these outcomes. Of the 10 most important outcomes, 9 were associated with symptoms or quality of life. The 3 outcomes rated most important by patients were ocular burning or stinging, ocular discomfort, and ocular pain. Conclusions and Relevance:This study identified research questions and outcomes important to patients with dry eye. A considerable gap was noted between outcomes in existing research on dry eye and outcomes patients consider important. Future research on dry eye should consider addressing the important research questions and outcomes identified herein, taking into account the patient perspective.
Project description:To investigate the epidemiology of eye-related emergency department (ED) visits and to determine if visual acuity (VA) could be an indicator for determining the timing for managing ocular emergencies, we have conducted the retrospective study which included patients visited the ED for eye-related reasons and had received ophthalmology consultations at a referral center in Taiwan in 2015. Among 46,514 consultations, 5,493 were ophthalmology consultations (11.8%). After exclusion, 5,422 were eligible for analysis. Among them, 1,165 (21.5%) had not likely emergent diagnoses, 4,048 (74.7%) had likely emergent diagnoses, and 209 patients (3.9%) could not be determined. The logMAR VA was 0.31?±?0.48, 0.66?±?0.78, and 1.00?±?0.94 in groups with not likely emergent, likely emergent, and undetermined diagnoses, respectively. Among all eye-related ED visits, 10.3% of patients received ophthalmologic intervention or were admitted to the ophthalmology ward. A LogMAR VA score of 0.45 (decimal equivalent of 0.4) had the highest discrimination power for identifying whether a patient needed ophthalmology intervention or admission to ophthalmology ward (area under the curve: 0.802, sensitivity: 0.800, specificity: 0.672). In our study, we found VA could be an indicator for determining the priority and time of ocular emergencies requiring ophthalmic intervention in patients visiting the ED for eye-related reasons.
Project description:Since the first definition of dry eye, rapid progress has been made in this field over the past decades that has guided profound changes in the definition, classification, diagnosis and management of the disease. Although dry eye is one of the most frequently encountered ocular conditions, various "old" misconceptions persist, in particular among comprehensive ophthalmologists not specialized in ocular surface diseases. These misconceptions hamper the correct diagnosis and the proper management of dry eye in the routine clinical practice. In the present review, we described the 10 most common misconceptions related to dry eye and provided an evidence-based guide for reconsidering them using the format "false myth versus medical fact". These misconceptions concern the dry eye definition and classification (#1, #2, #3), disease physiopathology (#4), diagnosis (#5), symptoms (#6, #7) and treatment (#8, #9, #10). Nowadays, dry eye is still an under-recognized and evolving disease that poses significant clinical challenges to ophthalmologists. The two major reasons behind these challenges include the heterogeneity of the conditions that fall under the umbrella term of dry eye and the common discrepancy between signs and symptoms.
Project description:Dry eye syndrome is commonly thought of as an inflammatory disease, and we have previously presented data showing the effectiveness of topical TNF-? blocker agents for the treatment of this condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the TNF-? blocking agent HL036337 compared to cyclosporine A for the treatment of dry eye induced inflammation in order to establish whether HL036337 represents a more effective method for suppressing inflammation. The efficacy of HL036337 and cyclosporine A was determined using an experimental murine dry eye model.The TNF-? blocker HL036337 is a modified form of TNF receptor I. Using dry eye induced C57BL/6 mice (n = 45), corneal erosion was measured at day 4 and 7 after topical treatment with cyclosporine A or HL036337. To determine the effective treatment dose, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 mg/mL of HL036337 were topically administered twice per day to dry eye induced murine corneas for 1 week.The optimal concentration of the TNF-? blocker HL036337 for treatment of dry eye induced corneal erosion was determined to be 1 mg/mL. Dry eye induced corneal erosion was improved after 1 week with topically applied cyclosporine A and HL036337 at 1 mg/mL.HL036337 administered topically at 1 mg/mL effectively improved corneal erosion induced by dry eye. This finding may also suggest that inhibition of TNF-? can improve dry eye syndrome.
Project description:Dry eye is a highly prevalent, chronic, and multifactorial disease that compromises quality of life and generates socioeconomic burdens. The pathogenic factors of dry eye disease (DED) include tear secretion abnormalities, tear film instability, and ocular surface inflammation. An effective intervention targeting the pathogenic factors is needed to control this disease. Here we applied α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) twice a day to the ocular surface of a scopolamine-induced dry eye rat model. The results showed that α-MSH at different doses ameliorated tear secretion, tear film stability, and corneal integrity, and corrected overexpression of proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, in ocular surface of the dry eye rats. Moreover, α-MSH, at 10(-4) μg/μl, maintained corneal morphology, inhibited apoptosis, and restored the number and size of conjunctival goblet cells in the dry eye rats. Mechanistically, α-MSH activated both PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways in the dry eye corneas and conjunctivas; pharmacological blockade of either pathway abolished α-MSH's protective effects, suggesting that both pathways are necessary for α-MSH's protection under dry eye condition. The peliotropic protective functions and explicit signaling mechanism of α-MSH warrant translation of the α-MSH-containing eye drop into a novel and effective intervention to DED.
Project description:<b>Background</b>: Traditional eye medicine (TEM) is frequently used to treat microbial keratitis (MK) in many parts of Africa. Few reports have suggested that this is associated with a worse outcome. We undertook this large prospective study to determine how TEM use impacts presentation and outcome of MK and to explore reasons why people use TEM for treatment in Uganda. <b>Methods</b>: In a mixed method prospective cohort study, we enrolled patients presenting with MK at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018 and collected information on history, TEM use, microbiology and 3-month outcomes. We conducted qualitative interviews with patients, carers traditional healers on reasons why people use TEM. Outcome measures included presenting vision and at 3-months, comparing TEM Users versus Non-Users. A thematic coding framework was deployed to explore reasons for use of TEM. <b>Results</b>: Out of 313 participants enrolled, 188 reported TEM use. TEM Users had a delayed presentation; median presenting time 18 days versus 14 days, p= 0.005; had larger ulcers 5.6 mm versus 4.3 mm p=0.0005; a worse presenting visual acuity median logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (Log MAR) 1.5 versus 0.6, p=0.005; and, a worse visual acuity at 3 months median Log MAR 0.6 versus 0.2, p=0.010. In a multivariable logistic regression model, distance from the eye hospital and delayed presentation were associated with TEM use. Reasons for TEM use included lack of confidence in conventional medicine, health system breakdown, poverty, fear of the eye hospital, cultural belief in TEM, influence from traditional healers, personal circumstances and ignorance. <b>Conclusion</b>: TEM users had poorer clinical presentation and outcomes. Capacity building of the primary health centres to improve access to eye care and community behavioural change initiatives against TEM use should be encouraged.
Project description:Dry eye is a common clinical condition diagnosed by cumulative evidence of symptoms and signs. Many new treatments in dry eye are either expensive, invasive, have potential for side effects, or are not easily accessible. In severe dry eye, the ideal modality of treatment to begin with is often not clear as specific molecular disturbances are not evident from just examination of clinical manifestations. Assessing the effects of ongoing treatment is not straight forward since there is lack of agreement between clinical signs and symptoms. There is a need to have more objective methods of selecting treatment for dry eye and monitoring the effect of treatment. Recently, there are many new technologies applied to the discovery of tear biomarkers, for e.g., mass spectrometry based proteomics techniques and multiplex assays such as the bead-based sandwich indirect immunofluorescent assays. Tear proteins assays have even been made available as point-of-care devices. This review focuses on the evidence for the involvements of tear proteins in dry eye, possible changes in tear concentrations with therapy and the strength of evidence regarding dry eye pathology. Much remains to be done in terms of developing office-based assays and ascertaining their reliability, but current evidence suggests that tear proteins have a role in the clinical practice of dry eye.