Genome Sequence of Coxsackievirus A6, Isolated during a Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Finland in 2008.
ABSTRACT: Reports of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks caused by coxsackievirus A6 have increased worldwide after the report of the first outbreak in Finland in 2008. The complete genome of the first outbreak strain from a vesicle fluid specimen was determined.
Project description:In Thailand, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is usually caused by enterovirus 71 or coxsackievirus A16. To determine the cause of a large outbreak of HFMD in Thailand during June-August 2012, we examined patient specimens. Coxsackievirus A6 was the causative agent. To improve prevention and control, causes of HFMD should be monitored.
Project description:Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health issue in Asia and has global pandemic potential. Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was detected in 514/2,230 (23%) of HFMD patients admitted to 3 major hospitals in southern Vietnam during 2011-2015. Of these patients, 93 (18%) had severe HFMD. Phylogenetic analysis of 98 genome sequences revealed they belonged to cluster A and had been circulating in Vietnam for 2 years before emergence. CV-A6 movement among localities within Vietnam occurred frequently, whereas viral movement across international borders appeared rare. Skyline plots identified fluctuations in the relative genetic diversity of CV-A6 corresponding to large CV-A6-associated HFMD outbreaks worldwide. These data show that CV-A6 is an emerging pathogen and emphasize the necessity of active surveillance and understanding the mechanisms that shape the pathogen evolution and emergence, which is essential for development and implementation of intervention strategies.
Project description:An outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) that occurred in a Juku in Fengtai District, Beijing, China, in 2015 was monitored by the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiological investigation showed that 11 cases occurred from two classes in the preschool art training department in the Juku. Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was identified as the causative pathogen of the outbreak via sequences analysis of products of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CV-A6 strains isolated in this study clustered with epidemic strains isolated in China since 2013. The outbreak ended quickly with effective measures. This event indicates that continuous surveillance of HFMD etiological agents other than enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 is necessary.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is usually caused by Enterovirus 71(EV71), and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) in Guangzhou, the biggest city of South China. However, Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) were observed increased dramatically from 2010-2012. METHODS: In order to understand and to describe the epidemiologic and genetic characteristics of CV-A6, specimens of 5482 suspected HFMD cases were collected and examined by real-time fluorescence PCR. All samples positive for enteroviruses were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Phylogenetic analysis of CV-A6 based on the VP1 sequences was performed to investigate molecular and evolutionary characteristics. RESULTS: Coxsackievirus A6 increased dramatically from 9.04% in 2010 to 23.21% in 2012 and became one of the main causative agents of HFMD in Guangzhou. CV-A6 attack rates were highest in one to two year olds (33.14%). Typical clinic symptoms of CV-A6 HFMD include fever (589/720, 81.81%), maculopopular rash and vesicular exanthema around the perioral area (408/720, 56.66%), intraoral (545/720, 75.69%), the buttock (395/720, 54.86%), the trunk (244/720, 33.89%), the knee (188/720, 26.11%), and the dorsal aspects of hands (437/720, 60.69%). Phylogenetic analysis showed the CV-A6 isolates in this study belonged to Cluster A1 and were similar to those found in Shanghai in 2011 and 2012 (JX495148, KC414735), Shenzhen in 2011 (JX473394), Japan in 2011 (AB649243, AB649246), France in 2010(HE572928), Thailand in 2012(JX556564) and Israel in 2012 and 2013(.KF991010, KF991012).
Project description:Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) caused hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with a unique manifestation of epididymitis. The patient underwent operation due to suspicion of testicular torsion. Epididymitis was diagnosed by ultrasound examination. Enterovirus was detected from epididymal fluid by PCR and typed by partial sequencing of viral protein 1 as CV-A6.
Project description:Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) is an emerging pathogen associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Its genetic characterization and pathogenic properties are largely unknown. Here, we report 39 circulating CV-A6 strains isolated in 2013 from HFMD patients in northeast China. Three major clusters of CV-A6 were identified and related to CV-A6, mostly from Shanghai, indicating that domestic CV-A6 strains were responsible for HFMD emerging in northeast China. Four full-length CV-A6 genomes representing each cluster were sequenced and analyzed further. Bootscanning tests indicated that all four CV-A6-Changchun strains were most likely recombinants between the CV-A6 prototype Gdula and prototype CV-A4 or CV-A4-related viruses, while the recombination pattern was related to, yet distinct from, the strains isolated from other regions of China. Furthermore, different CV-A6 strains showed different capabilities of viral replication, release, and pathogenesis in a mouse model. Further analyses indicated that viral protein 2C contributed to the diverse pathogenic abilities of CV-A6 by causing autophagy and inducing cell death. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report lethal and nonlethal strains of CV-A6 associated with HFMD. The 2C protein region may play a key role in the pathogenicity of CV-A6 strains.IMPORTANCE Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major and persistent threat to infants and children. Besides the most common pathogens, such as enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), other enteroviruses are increasingly contributing to HFMD. The present study focused on the recently emerged CV-A6 strain. We found that CV-A6 strains isolated in Changchun City in northeast China were associated with domestic origins. These Changchun viruses were novel recombinants of the CV-A6 prototype Gdula and CV-A4. Our results imply that measures to control CV-A6 transmission are urgently needed. Further analyses revealed differing pathogenicities in strains isolated in a neonatal mouse model. One of the possible causes has been narrowed down to the viral protein 2C, using phylogenetic studies, viral sequences, and direct tests on cultured human cells. Thus, the viral 2C protein is a promising target for antiviral drugs to prevent CV-A6-induced tissue damage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Evidence of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in neonates is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical symptoms, pathogens, possible transmission routes, and prognosis of neonatal HFMD in Shanghai. METHODS:This was a case-control study based on the HFMD registry surveillance system. All neonates and infected family members were enrolled between 2016 and 2017 in Shanghai. Neonates with HFMD were followed for at least half a year. Detailed questionnaires, medical history, and physical examination were recorded. Routine blood examination, liver and renal function, immunophenotypes of peripheral blood lymphocytes (CD3, CD4, and CD8 T-cells; NK cells), immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG, and IgA, and cytokine interleukin (IL-1?, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-?) levels were measured. All rectal swab specimens were collected and genotyped for enterovirus, and phylogenetic analysis based on the VP1 sequences of coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was performed to investigate molecular and evolutionary characteristics. T-test or nonparametric test was used to evaluate the differences. Logistic analysis was applied to calculate the risk of clinical manifestations in the group of HFMD neonates and their paired siblings. RESULTS:There were 16 neonates among the 12,608 diagnosed patients with HFMD, accounting for 0.13%. All neonatal infections were transmitted by other members of the family, mainly the elder siblings, and were caused by CV-A6. CV-A6 was the emerging and predominant causative agent of HFMD in Shanghai. None of the neonates with HFMD experienced fever, onychomadesis, or severe complications. However, two elder sibling patients showed lethargy, and one developed hypoperfusion. In the elder siblings with HFMD, the proportion of white blood cells was generally higher than in neonates with HFMD. The immunologic function of the neonates with HFMD was basically normal. The levels of inflammatory markers were higher in both neonates and elder siblings with HFMD compared to age-matched controls. The clinical symptoms receded about 1 week after onset. None of the neonates had sequelae. CONCLUSIONS:In our study, CV-A6 infection in neonates was benign, but had the character of family clustering. Due to the two-child policy in China, elder siblings may be the main route of HFMD transmission.
Project description:Since 2008, Mainland China has undergone widespread outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In order to determine the characteristics of epidemics and enteroviruses (EV) associated with HFMD in Tianjin, in northern China, epidemiological and virological data from routine surveillance were collected and analyzed. In Tianjin, a persistent epidemic of HFMD was demonstrated during 2008-2013, involving 102,705 mild, 179 severe, and 16 fatal cases. Overall, 8234 specimens were collected from 7829 HFMD patients for EV detection during 2008-2013. Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) were the dominant serotypes during 2008-2012, and they were replaced by CV-A6 as the major causative agent in 2013. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete VP1 nucleotide sequences revealed that multiple CV-A6 lineages co-circulated in Tianjin, which grouped together with strains from China and other countries and split into two distinct clusters (clusters 1 and 2). Most Tianjin strains grouped in cluster 1 and were closely related to strains from several eastern and southern provinces of China during 2012 and 2013. Estimates from Bayesian MCMC analysis suggested that multiple lineages had been transmitted silently before the outbreaks at an estimated evolutionary rate of 4.10 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year without a specific distribution of rate variances among lineages. The sudden outbreak of CV-A6 in Tianjin during 2013 is attributed to indigenous CV-A6 lineages, which were linked to the wide spread of endemic strains around eastern and southern China.
Project description:Sporadic hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks and other infectious diseases in recent years have frequently been associated with certain human enterovirus (HEV) serotypes. This study explored the prevalences and genetic characteristics of non-HEV71 and non-coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) human enterovirus-associated HFMD infections in Shenzhen, China. A total of 2,411 clinical stool specimens were collected from hospital-based surveillance for HFMD from 2008 to 2012. The detection of HEV was performed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and RT-seminested PCR, and spatiotemporal phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the VP1 genes. A total of 1,803 (74.8%) strains comprising 28 different serotypes were detected. In the past 5 years, the predominant serotypes were HEV71 (60.0%), followed by CV-A16 (21.2%) and two uncommon serotypes, CV-A6 (13.0%) and CV-A10 (3.3%). However, CV-A6 replaced CV-A16 as the second most common serotype between 2010 and 2012. As an emerging pathogen, CV-A6 became as common a causative agent of HFMD as HEV71 in Shenzhen in 2012. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that little variation occurred in the Chinese HEV71 and CV-A16 strains. The genetic characteristics of the Chinese CV-A6 and CV-A10 strains displayed geographic differences. The CV-A6 and CV-A10 strains circulating in Shenzhen likely originated in Europe. It was found that human enteroviruses have a high mutation rate due to evolutionary pressure and frequent recombination (3.2 × 10(-3) to 6.4 ×10(-3) substitutions per site per year for HEV71, CV-A6, CV-A16, and CV-A10). Since certain serotypes are potential threats to the public health, this study provides further insights into the significance of the epidemiological surveillance of HFMD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hand, food, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious disease caused by enteroviruses infection. It is a health problem in young children under 5 years of age worldwide. The common causative agents are coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71). In recent years, coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) has emerged to be one of the major etiologic agents of HFMD worldwide including in Thailand. CASE DESCRIPTION: We reported cases with unusual skin manifestations of CA6-associated HFMD such as widespread severe cutaneous eruption, large vesicles (varicelliform), purpuric-like lesions or Gianotti-Crosti like eruptions. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION: Molecular characterization of the CA6 strains from those patients found that all were clustered in the same group of CA6 that are currently circulating in Thailand. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians need to be aware of the expanded range of cutaneous findings in CA6-associated HFMD in order to properly consider the diagnosis, management and prevention.