Does obesity modify the relationship between exposure to occupational factors and musculoskeletal pain in men? Results from the GAZEL cohort study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To analyze relationships between physical occupational exposures, post-retirement shoulder/knee pain, and obesity. METHODS: 9 415 male participants (aged 63-73 in 2012) from the French GAZEL cohort answered self-administered questionnaires in 2006 and 2012. Occupational exposures retrospectively assessed in 2006 included arm elevation and squatting (never, <10 years, ≥10 years). "Severe" shoulder and knee pain were defined as ≥5 on an 8-point scale. BMI was self-reported. RESULTS: Mean BMI was 26.59 kg/m2 +/-3.5 in 2012. Long-term occupational exposure to arm elevation and squatting predicted severe shoulder and knee pain after retirement. Obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) was a risk factor for severe shoulder pain (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.03, 1.90). Overweight (adjusted OR 1.71; 1.28,2.29) and obesity (adjusted OR 3.21; 1.90,5.41) were risk factors for severe knee pain. In stratified models, associations between long-term squatting and severe knee pain varied by BMI. CONCLUSION: Obesity plays a role in relationships between occupational exposures and musculoskeletal pain. Further prospective studies should use BMI in analyses of musculoskeletal pain and occupational factors, and continue to clarify this relationship.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the association between occupational exposures and knee osteoarthritis (OA).<h4>Methods</h4>We systematically searched for observational studies that examined the relationship between occupational exposures and knee OA and total knee replacement. Four databases were searched up to October 1, 2019. Two reviewers independently assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and evidence quality using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Subgroup meta-analyses were conducted for important study characteristics and each type of occupational exposure. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated for the meta-analysis using random-effects models.<h4>Results</h4>Eighty eligible studies were identified including 25 case-control (n = 20,505 total participants), 36 cross-sectional (n = 139,463 total participants), and 19 cohort studies (n = 16,824,492 total participants). A synthesis of 71 studies suggested increased odds of knee OA (OR 1.52 [95% CI 1.37-1.69]) by combining different physically demanding jobs and occupational activities as compared to sedentary occupations and/or low-exposure groups. Odds of knee OA were greater in males and in industry-based studies and studies assessing lifetime occupational exposures. There were 9 specific job titles that were associated with knee OA, including farmer, builder, metal worker, and floor layer. Occupational lifting, kneeling, climbing, squatting, and standing were all associated with higher odds of knee OA as compared to the odds of knee OA in sedentary workers.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Strenuous, physically demanding occupations and occupational activities were associated with increased odds of knee OA as supported by moderate-quality evidence. Specifically, agricultural and construction sectors, which typically involve heavy lifting, frequent climbing, prolonged kneeling, squatting, and standing, carried increased odds of knee OA.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To identify occupations with a high risk of disability retirement due to a shoulder lesion and to examine the effect of physical and psychosocial work-related factors on occupational differences in disability retirement.<h4>Methods</h4>We followed Finnish wage earners aged 30-59 years (n?=?1,135,654) from 2005 to 2014 for full disability retirement due to a shoulder lesion. The work-related exposures were assessed with job exposure matrices. We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates and hazard ratios to test for the association between occupation and disability retirement due to a shoulder lesion. We also examined the contribution of work-related exposures to the excess risk of disability retirement.<h4>Results</h4>As compared to professionals, the age-adjusted risk of disability retirement was increased among men in all occupational groups except managers and customer service clerks and among women in several occupational groups. Adjustment for education attenuated the occupational differences considerably, particularly among women. The physical work-related factors fully explained the excess risk of disability retirement due to a shoulder lesion among male finance and sales associate professionals and administrative secretaries as well as among agricultural and fishery workers. In women, the physical work-related factors fully explained the excess risk among construction workers, electricians and plumbers. For both genders, the contribution of psychosocial factors to excess risk of disability retirement was modest and seen for monotonous work only.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A reduction of the level of physical work load factors as well as monotonousness of work has a potential to prevent work disability due to a shoulder lesion.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To systematically review the evidence for an increased risk of osteoarthritis in the hip, knee, hand, wrist, finger, ankle, foot, shoulder, neck, and spine related to diverse occupational activities of men and women and to examine dose-response information related to the frequency, intensity, and duration of work exposures and the risk of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS:Established guidelines for systematic reviews in occupational health and safety studies were followed. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to December 2017. Studies were reviewed for relevance, quality was appraised, and data were extracted and synthesized. RESULTS:Sixty-nine studies from 23 countries yielded strong and moderate evidence for lifting, cumulative physical loads, full-body vibration, and kneeling/squatting/bending as increasing the risks of developing OA in men and women. Strong and moderate evidence existed for no increased risk of OA related to sitting, standing, and walking (hip and knee OA), lifting and carrying (knee OA), climbing ladders (knee OA), driving (knee OA), and highly repetitive tasks (hand OA). Variability in dose-response data resulted in an inability to synthesize these data. CONCLUSION:Evidence points to the potential for OA occupational recommendations and practice considerations to be developed for women and men. However, research attention is needed to overcome deficits in the measurement and recall of specific work activities so that recommendations and practice considerations can provide the specificity needed to be adopted in workplaces.
Project description:Knee osteoarthritis (kOA) risk is increased by obesity and physical activities (PA) which mechanically stress the joint. We examined the associations of midlife kOA with body mass index (BMI) and activity exposure across adult life and their interaction.Data are from a UK birth cohort of 2597 participants with a clinical assessment for kOA at age 53. At ages 36, 43 and 53 BMI (kg/m2), self-reported leisure-time PA, and occupational activity (kneeling/squatting; lifting; climbing; sitting; assigned using a job-exposure matrix) were ascertained. Associations were explored using the multiplicative logistic model.BMI was strongly and positively associated with kOA in men and women. Men and women in manual occupations also had greater odds of kOA; there was a weak suggestion that kOA risk was higher among men exposed to lifting or kneeling at work. For men, the only evidence of a multiplicative interaction between BMI and activities was for lifting (p = 0.01) at age 43; BMI conferred higher kOA risk among those most-likely to lift at work (OR per increase in BMI z-score: 3.55, 95% CI: 1.72-7.33). For women, the only evidence of an interaction was between BMI and leisure-time PA (p = 0.005) at age 43; BMI conferred higher kOA risk among those at higher PA levels (OR per increase in BMI z-score: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.26-2.00 in inactive; 1.70, 95% CI: 1.14-2.55 (less-active); and 4.44; 95% CI: 2.26-8.36 (most-active).At the very least, our study suggests that more active individuals (at work and in leisure) may see a greater reduction in risk of kOA from avoiding a high BMI than those less active.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Denmark, exercise therapy in combination with work modification is the first-choice treatment for persons with shoulder complaints and high occupational shoulder exposures. To obtain this treatment they must visit several healthcare providers, which makes usual care fragmented and uncoordinated. Therefore, we developed a new intervention which unifies the expertise that is needed. The main hypotheses are that a group-based Shoulder-Café intervention will more effectively reduce (1) shoulder complaints and (2) occupational shoulder exposures than an individual-based Shoulder-Guidance intervention (active control - enhanced usual care). METHODS:A cluster-randomised trial is conducted including 120 employees with high occupational shoulder exposures. Companies (clusters) are randomised to either Shoulder-Café or Shoulder-Guidance with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Participants are 18-65?years old and have an Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS)???40. Both interventions include a home-based shoulder-exercise programme, assessment of shoulder exposures by technical measurements and self-report, and general information on how to reduce shoulder exposures. The Shoulder-Café course also includes three café meetings with physiotherapist-supervised exercises, clinical shoulder evaluation, education on shoulder anatomy, workplace-orientated counselling, and an opportunity for a workplace visit by a health and safety consultant. The primary outcomes are the OSS at 6-month follow-up (hypothesis I), and the mean number of min/day with the arm elevated >?60° shortly after the end of the intervention (hypothesis II). We will use a mixed-model analysis that allows for company clustering, and data will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. DISCUSSION:Persons with shoulder complaints and high occupational shoulder exposures are an obvious target group for secondary prevention efforts. We developed the Shoulder-Café to reduce shoulder complaints and shoulder exposures while unifying the expertise that is needed to evaluate and treat shoulder complaints. If the intervention is effective, it would warrant widespread implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT03159910. Registered on 18 May 2017.
Project description:Historically, persons scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have reported severe pain with low demand activities such as walking, but recent data suggests that TKA recipients may have less preoperative pain. Little is known about people who elect TKA with low levels of preoperative pain. To better understand current TKA utilization, we evaluated the association between preoperative pain and difficulty performing high demand activities, such as kneeling and squatting, among TKA recipients.We used baseline data from a randomized control trial designed to improve physical activity following TKA. Prior to TKA, participants were categorized according to Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Pain scores: Low (0-25), Medium (26-40), and High (41-100). Within each group, limitations in both low demand and high demand activities were assessed.The sample consisted of 202 persons with a mean age of 65 (SD 8) years; 21 %, 34 %, and 45 % were categorized in the Low, Medium, and High Pain groups, respectively. Of the Low Pain group, 60 % reported at least one of the following functional limitations: limited flexion, limp, limited walking distance, and limitations in work or housework. While only 12 % of the Low Pain group reported at least moderate pain with walking on a flat surface, nearly all endorsed at least moderate difficulty with squatting and kneeling.A substantial number of persons scheduled for TKA report Low WOMAC Pain (≤25) prior to surgery. Persons with Low WOMAC Pain scheduled for TKA frequently report substantial difficulty with high demand activities such as kneeling and squatting. Studies of TKA appropriateness and effectiveness for patients with low WOMAC Pain should include measures of these activities.Identifier NCT01970631 ; Registered 23 October 2013.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine the association of education and physical work load factors on the occupational differences in disability retirement due to knee osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN:Longitudinal study. SETTING:Linkage of several nationwide registers and a job exposure matrix in Finland. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1 135 654 Finns aged 30-60 years in gainful employment were followed from 2005 to 2013 for full disability retirement due to knee OA. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates and examined the association of occupation, education and physical work load factors with disability retirement using competing risk regression model. Disability retirement due to other causes than knee OA, old-age retirement and death were treated as competing risk. RESULTS:A total of 6117 persons had disability retirement due to knee OA. Women had a higher age-adjusted incidence rate than men (72 vs 60 per 100 000 person-years, respectively). In men, a very high risk of disability retirement was found among construction workers, electricians and plumbers (HR 16.6, 95% CI 12.5 to 22.2), service workers (HR 12.7, 95% CI 9.2 to 17.4) and in women among building caretakers, cleaners, assistant nurses and kitchen workers (HR 15.5, 95% CI 11.7 to 20.6), as compared with professionals. The observed occupational differences were largely explained by educational level and noticeably mediated by physical work load factors in both genders. CONCLUSION:Our observational study suggests that the risk of disability retirement among manual workers is strongly attributed to the physically heavy work.
Project description:The aim was to determine the association of occupational arm inclination with shoulder pain in construction and health care workers.Arm inclination relative to the vertical was measured with an accelerometer placed on the dominant upper arm for up to four full days at baseline in 62 construction workers and 63 health care workers. The pain intensity in the shoulder and mechanical and psychosocial work factors were measured by self-reports at baseline and prospectively after 6 months. The associations between exposures and shoulder pain were analyzed with multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions.For the total study population working with the dominant arm at inclinations > 30° and >120° was associated with lower levels of shoulder pain both cross-sectionally and after 6 months. Associations were attenuated when adjusting for individual and social factors, psychological state, and exposure during leisure time, especially for the high inclination levels. Analyses, only including subjects with no pain at baseline revealed no significant associations. While stratified analysis showed negative associations in the construction worker group, there were no significant association in health care workers. Compared to the number of hypotheses tested, the number of significant findings was low. Adjustment by Bonferroni-correction made almost all findings insignificant.All analyses reflected a negative association between arm inclination and shoulder pain, but few analyses showed these associations to be statistically significant. If there is a relationship between arm inclination and shoulder pain, these findings could indicate that pain-avoidance may modify how workers perform their tasks.
Project description:There has been much debate about the optimal graft choice for an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Anterior knee pain is a common donor site problem when using a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) graft. However, knowledge of the characteristics of anterior knee pain during different daily activities is still limited. This study aimed to determine the incidence of anterior knee pain and to quantify the degree of pain during a range of daily living activities. Thirty-five patients who were scheduled to undergo an ACL reconstruction with an autologous BPTB graft between February 2015 and December 2016 were enrolled. A visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain was recorded during each of the following activities: ascending at 30-degree slope, ascending and descending stairs, running, jumping, squatting, kneeling, sitting cross-legged, and sitting one-legged. Demographic data, the range of motion, the area of decreased sensation, and the IKDC score were collected and compared 3 and 6 months postoperatively. The 35 male patients had a mean age of 29.7 years. Postoperatively, the mean IKDC scores were 58.1?±?9.8?at 3 months and 72.7?±?10.5?at 6 months. The incidences of overall anterior knee pain were 62.9% and 34.3% at the 3- and 6-month time points. Kneeling was the only activity that produced severe pain. At 3 months postoperatively, kneeling's mean VAS pain score was 3.9?±?2.9 (2.9, 4.9; 95% CI for mean for 17 patients [48.5%] with considerable pain), whereas at 6 months postoperatively, it was 2?±?2.5 (1.2-2.9; 95% CI for mean for 9 patients [25.7%] with considerable pain). The area of numbness of the proximal leg decreased from 12.8?±?18.3?cm2 (6.4, 19.2; 95% CI for mean) to 3.2?±?9.1?cm2 (0.1, 6.5; 95% CI for mean) at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Kneeling was the most challenging activity in terms of creating considerable levels of anterior knee pain in patients who had undergone an ACL reconstruction using a BPTB graft. Other knee activities, however, did not create moderate or severe degrees of anterior knee pain. Both anterior knee pain and numbness at the proximal leg improved over time.Trial registration number: TCTR2018-0630002.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity is a mechanical risk factor for osteoarthritis. In individuals with obesity, knee joint pain is prevalent. Weight loss reduces joint loads, and therefore potentially delays disease progression; however, how the knee joint responds to weight loss in individuals with obesity and knee pain is not clear. RESEARCH QUESTION:To assess the effect of weight loss on knee joint kinematics during gait in individuals with obesity and knee pain. METHODS:We recruited individuals with obesity (BMI???35) and knee pain who were participating in a weight loss program which included bariatric surgery or medical management. At baseline and 1 year follow-up, participants walked on a treadmill, and their knee joint kinematics were assessed using a dual-fluoroscopic imaging system and subject-specific magnetic resonance imaging knee joint models. Gait changes were represented by change in range of tibiofemoral motion, i.e., excursions in flexion-extension, adduction-abduction, internal-external rotation, anterior-posterior translation, medial-lateral translation, and superior-inferior translation during gait. RESULTS:Twelve individuals with obesity and knee pain completed the gait analysis at baseline and 1?year follow-up. Participants lost on average 10.4% (standard deviation: 17.2%) of their baseline body weight. Reduction in body weight was associated with increased range of flexion-extension (r = -0.75, p?<?0.01) and decreased range of adduction-abduction (r?=?0.60, p?=?0.04) during gait. The reduction in body weight was also associated with self-reported pain decrease (r?=?0.62, p?=?0.04); however, the change in pain was not significantly associated with kinematic changes. SIGNIFICANCE:Weight loss was associated with improved gait kinematics in the sagittal and frontal planes. The change in gait pattern in individuals with obesity and knee pain was not associated with the change in pain given a reduction in body weight.