The NF-?B regulator Bcl-3 governs dendritic cell antigen presentation functions in adaptive immunity.
ABSTRACT: Bcl-3 is an atypical member of the I?B family and modulates gene expression via interaction with p50/NF-?B1 or p52/NF-?B2 homodimers. We report in the present study that Bcl-3 is required in dendritic cells (DCs) to assure effective priming of CD4 and CD8 T cells. Lack of Bcl-3 in bone marrow-derived DCs blunted their ability to expand and promote effector functions of T cells upon Ag/adjuvant challenge in vitro and after adoptive transfers in vivo. Importantly, the critical role of Bcl-3 for priming of T cells was exposed upon Ag/adjuvant challenge of mice specifically ablated of Bcl-3 in DCs. Furthermore, Bcl-3 in endogenous DCs was necessary for contact hypersensitivity responses. Bcl-3 modestly aided maturation of DCs, but most consequentially, Bcl-3 promoted their survival, partially inhibiting expression of several antiapoptotic genes. Loss of Bcl-3 accelerated apoptosis of bone marrow-derived DCs during Ag presentation to T cells, and DC survival was markedly impaired in the context of inflammatory conditions in mice specifically lacking Bcl-3 in these cells. Conversely, selective overexpression of Bcl-3 in DCs extended their lifespan in vitro and in vivo, correlating with increased capacity to prime T cells. These results expose a previously unidentified function for Bcl-3 in DC survival and the generation of adaptive immunity.
Project description:Efficient cross-presentation of protein Ags to CTLs by dendritic cells (DCs) is essential for the success of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. In this study, we report a previously underappreciated pathway involving Ag entry into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) critically needed for T cell cross-priming induced by a DC-targeted vaccine. Directing the clinically relevant, melanoma Ag gp100 to mouse-derived DCs by molecular adjuvant and chaperone Grp170 substantially facilitates Ag access to the ER. Grp170 also strengthens the interaction of internalized protein Ag with molecular components involved in ER-associated protein dislocation and/or degradation, which culminates in cytosolic translocation for proteasome-dependent degradation and processing. Targeted disruption of protein retrotranslocation causes exclusive ER retention of tumor Ag in mouse bone marrow-derived DCs and splenic CD8(+) DCs. This results in the blockade of Ag ubiquitination and processing, which abrogates the priming of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the improved ER entry of tumor Ag serves as a molecular basis for the superior cross-presenting capacity of Grp170-based vaccine platform. The ER access and retrotranslocation represents a distinct pathway that operates within DCs for cross-presentation and is required for the activation of Ag-specific CTLs by certain vaccines. These results also reinforce the importance of the ER-associated protein quality control machinery and the mode of the Ag delivery in regulating DC-elicited immune outcomes.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) that drain the gut and skin are known to favor the establishment of T cell populations that home to the original site of DC-antigen (Ag) encounter by providing soluble "imprinting" signals to T cells in the lymph node (LN). To study the induction of lung T cell-trafficking, we used a protein-adjuvant murine intranasal and intramuscular immunization model to compare in vivo-activated Ag+ DCs in the lung and muscle-draining LNs. Higher frequencies of Ag+ CD11b+ DCs were observed in lung-draining mediastinal LNs (MedLN) compared to muscle-draining inguinal LNs (ILN). Ag+ CD11b+ MedLN DCs were qualitatively superior at priming CD4+ T cells, which then expressed CD49a and CXCR3, and preferentially trafficked into the lung parenchyma. CD11b+ DCs from the MedLN expressed higher levels of surface podoplanin, Trem4, GL7, and the known co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and CD24. Blockade of specific MedLN DC molecules or the use of sorted DC and T cell co-cultures demonstrated that DC surface phenotype influences the ability to prime T cells that then home to the lung. Thus, the density of dLN Ag+ DCs, and DC surface molecule signatures are factors that can influence the output and differentiation of lung-homing CD4+ T cells.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Various nanocarriers have been used to deliver subunit vaccines specifically to dendritic cells (DCs) for the improvement of immunogenicity. However, due to their insufficient DC priming ability, these vaccines could not elicit effective innate immunity. We have recently developed a DC-targeting bio-nanocapsule (BNC) by displaying anti-CD11c IgGs via protein A-derived IgG Fc-binding Z domain on the hepatitis B virus envelope L protein particles (?-DC-ZZ-BNC).<h4>Results</h4>After the chemical modification with antigens (Ags), the ?-DC-ZZ-BNC-Ag complex could deliver Ags to DCs efficiently, leading to effective DC maturation and efficient endosomal escape of Ags, followed by Ag-specific T cell responses and IgG productions. Moreover, the ?-DC-ZZ-BNC modified with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) envelope-derived D3 Ags could confer protection against 50-fold lethal dose of JEV injection on mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The ?-DC-ZZ-BNC-Ag platform was shown to induce humoral and cellular immunities effectively without any adjuvant.
Project description:Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) is a member of the Rho GTPase family and has pivotal functions in actin organization, cell migration and proliferation. Cdc42 has been shown to regulate antigen (Ag)-uptake in immature dendritic cells (DC) and controls their migration from tissues to lymph nodes. Previous reports demonstrated that Cdc42 is inactivated upon DC-maturation to avoid continued Ag-acquisition. To further study the molecular mechanisms of DC-control by Cdc42, we used bone marrow-derived DCs from Cdc42-deficient mice. We show that Cdc42-deficient DCs are phenotypically mature without additional maturation stimuli, as they upregulate CD86 from intracellular storages to the cell surface. They also accumulate invariant chain (Ii)-MHC class II complexes at the cell surface, which cannot efficiently present peptide Ag for priming of Ag-specific CD4 T cells. Lack of Cdc42 in immature DCs does not allow MHC class II maturation, as lysosomal Cathepsins are lost into the supernatant and Ii-MHC class II complexes cannot mature. Therefore Cdc42-deficient DCs are "pseudomature" and lose most functional hallmarks of antigen-presenting cells. Our results propose that Cdc42 keeps DCs in an immature state, while downregulation of Cdc42-activity during maturation facilitates generation of CD86+MHCII+ mature DCs.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical in initiating immune responses by cross-priming of tumor Ags to T cells. Previous results showed that NK cells inhibited DC-mediated cross-presentation of tumor Ags both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, enhanced Ag presentation was observed in draining lymph nodes in TRAIL(-/-) and DR5(-/-) mice compared with that of wild-type mice. NK cells inhibit DC cross-priming of tumor Ags in vitro, but not direct presentation of endogenous Ags. NK cells lacking TRAIL, but not perforin, were not able to inhibit DC cross-priming of tumor Ags. DCs that lack expression of TRAIL receptor DR5 were less susceptible to NK cell-mediated inhibition of cross-priming, and cross-linking of DR5 receptor led to reduced generation of MHC class I-Ag peptide complexes, followed by attenuated cross-priming of CD8(+) T cells. In addition, key molecules involved in the TRAIL/DR5 pathway during DC/NK cell interactions were determined. In summary, these data indicate a novel alternative pathway for DC/NK cell interactions in antitumor immunity and may reflect homeostasis of both DCs and NK cells for regulation of CD8(+) T cell function in physiological conditions.
Project description:Immune-enhancing adjuvants usually targets antigen (Ag)-presenting cells to tune up cellular and humoral immunity. CD141(+) dendritic cells (DC) represent the professional Ag-presenting cells in humans. In response to microbial pattern molecules, these DCs upgrade the maturation stage sufficient to improve cross-presentation of exogenous Ag, and upregulation of MHC and costimulators, allowing CD4/CD8 T cells to proliferate and liberating cytokines/chemokines that support lymphocyte attraction and survival. These DCs also facilitate natural killer-mediated cell damage. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their signaling pathways in DCs play a pivotal role in DC maturation. Therefore, providing adjuvants in addition to Ag is indispensable for successful vaccine immunotherapy for cancer, which has been approved in comparison with antimicrobial vaccines. Mouse CD8α(+) DCs express TLR7 and TLR9 in addition to the TLR2 family (TLR1, 2, and 6) and TLR3, whereas human CD141(+) DCs exclusively express the TLR2 family and TLR3. Although human and mouse plasmacytoid DCs commonly express TLR7/9 to respond to their agonists, the results on mouse adjuvant studies using TLR7/9 agonists cannot be simply extrapolated to human adjuvant immunotherapy. In contrast, TLR2 and TLR3 are similarly expressed in both human and mouse Ag-presenting DCs. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin peptidoglycan and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid are representative agonists for TLR2 and TLR3, respectively, although they additionally stimulate cytoplasmic sensors: their functional specificities may not be limited to the relevant TLRs. These adjuvants have been posted up to a certain achievement in immunotherapy in some cancers. We herein summarize the history and perspectives of TLR2 and TLR3 agonists in vaccine-adjuvant immunotherapy for cancer.
Project description:Generating adaptive immunity postinfection or immunization requires physical interaction within a lymph node T zone between Ag-bearing dendritic cells (DCs) and rare cognate T cells. Many fundamental questions remain regarding the dynamics of DC-CD4+ T cell interactions leading to priming. For example, it is not known how the production of primed CD4+ T cells relates to the numbers of cognate T cells, Ag-bearing DCs, or peptide-MHCII level on the DC. To address these questions, we developed an agent-based model of a lymph node to examine the relationships among cognate T cell frequency, DC density, parameters characterizing DC-T cell interactions, and the output of primed T cells. We found that the output of primed CD4+ T cells is linearly related to cognate frequency, but nonlinearly related to the number of Ag-bearing DCs present during infection. This addresses the applicability of two photon microscopy studies to understanding actual infection dynamics, because these types of experiments increase the cognate frequency by orders of magnitude compared with physiologic levels. We found a trade-off between the quantity of peptide-major histocompatibility class II on the surface of individual DCs and number of Ag-bearing DCs present in the lymph node in contributing to the production of primed CD4+ T cells. Interestingly, peptide-major histocompatibility class II t(1/2) plays a minor, although still significant, role in determining CD4+ T cell priming, unlike the primary role that has been suggested for CD8+ T cell priming. Finally, we identify several pathogen-targeted mechanisms that, if altered in their efficiency, can significantly effect the generation of primed CD4+ T cells.
Project description:Alum (aluminum hydroxide) is the most widely used adjuvant in human vaccines, but the mechanism of its adjuvanticity remains unknown. In vitro studies showed no stimulatory effects on dendritic cells (DCs). In the absence of adjuvant, Ag was taken up by lymph node (LN)-resident DCs that acquired soluble Ag via afferent lymphatics, whereas after injection of alum, Ag was taken up, processed, and presented by inflammatory monocytes that migrated from the peritoneum, thus becoming inflammatory DCs that induced a persistent Th2 response. The enhancing effects of alum on both cellular and humoral immunity were completely abolished when CD11c(+) monocytes and DCs were conditionally depleted during immunization. Mechanistically, DC-driven responses were abolished in MyD88-deficient mice and after uricase treatment, implying the induction of uric acid. These findings suggest that alum adjuvant is immunogenic by exploiting "nature's adjuvant," the inflammatory DC through induction of the endogenous danger signal uric acid.
Project description:The most effective immunological adjuvants contain microbial products, such as TLR agonists, which bind to conserved pathogen recognition receptors. These activate dendritic cells (DCs) to become highly effective APCs. We assessed whether TLR ligand-treated DCs can enhance the otherwise defective response of aged naive CD4 T cells. In vivo administration of CpG, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, and Pam(3)CSK(4) in combination with Ag resulted in the increased expression of costimulatory molecules and MHC class II by DCs, increased serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and RANTES, and increased cognate CD4 T cell responses in young and aged mice. We show that, in vitro, preactivation of DCs by TLR ligands makes them more efficient APCs for aged naive CD4 T cells. After T-DC interaction, there are enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-6, and greater expansion of the aged T cells, resulting from increased proliferation and greater effector survival with increased levels of Bcl-2. TLR preactivation of both bone marrow-derived and ex vivo DCs improved responses. IL-6 produced by the activated DCs during cognate T cell interaction was necessary for enhanced aged CD4 T cell expansion and survival. These studies suggest that some age-associated immune defects may be overcome by targeted activation of APCs by TLR ligands.
Project description:To function optimally as vaccines, dendritic cells (DCs) must actively migrate to lymphoid organs and maintain a viable, mature state for sufficient time to effectively present their Ag to cognate T cells. Unfortunately, mature DCs rapidly lose viability and function after injection, and only a minority leaves the vaccine site and migrates to lymph nodes. We show that all of these functions can be enhanced in DCs by removal of IL-1R-associated kinase M (IRAK-M). We found that IRAK-M is induced in DCs by TLR ligation and that its absence from these cells leads to increased activation of the p38-MAPK and NF-?B pathways, which, in turn, improves DC migration to lymph nodes, increases their longevity, and augments their secretion of Th1-skewing cytokines and chemokines. These biological effects have immunological consequences. IRAK-M(-/-) DCs increase the proliferation and activation of Ag-specific T cells, and a single vaccination with Ag-pulsed, LPS-matured IRAK-M(-/-) DCs eliminates established tumors and prolongs the survival of EG7 or B16.f10 tumor-bearing mice, without discernible induction of autoimmune disease. Thus, manipulation of IRAK-M levels can increase the potency of DC vaccines by enhancing their Ag-presenting function, migration, and longevity.