MicroRNA-145 targets MUC13 and suppresses growth and invasion of pancreatic cancer.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis and ineffective therapeutic multimodality. MUC13, a transmembrane mucin is highly involved in pancreatic cancer progression. Thus, understanding its regulatory molecular mechanisms may offer new avenue of therapy for prevention/treatment of pancreatic cancer. Herein, we report a novel microRNA (miR-145)-mediated mechanism regulating aberrant MUC13 expression in pancreatic cancer. We report that miR-145 expression inversely correlates with MUC13 expression in pancreatic cancer cells and human tumor tissues. miR-145 is predominantly present in normal pancreatic tissues and early Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) precursor lesions (PanIN I) and is progressively suppressed over the course of development from PanIN II/III to late stage poorly differentiated PDAC. We demonstrate that miR-145 targets 3' untranslated region of MUC13 and thus downregulates MUC13 protein expression in cells. Interestingly, transfection of miR-145 inhibits cell proliferation, invasion and enhances gemcitabine sensitivity. It causes reduction of HER2, P-AKT, PAK1 and an increase in p53. Similar results were found when MUC13 was specifically inhibited by shRNA directed at MUC13. Additionally, intratumoral injections of miR-145 in xenograft mice inhibited tumor growth via suppression of MUC13 and its downstream target, HER2. These results suggest miR-145 as a novel regulator of MUC13 in pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Although MUC13, a transmembrane mucin, is aberrantly expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and generally correlates with increased expression of HER2, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Herein, we found that MUC13 co-localizes and interacts with HER2 in PDAC cells (reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, proximity ligation, co-capping assays) and tissues (immunohistofluorescence). The results from this study demonstrate that MUC13 functionally interacts and activates HER2 at p1248 in PDAC cells, leading to stimulation of HER2 signaling cascade, including ERK1/2, FAK, AKT and PAK1 as well as regulation of the growth, cytoskeleton remodeling and motility, invasion of PDAC cells-all collectively contributing to PDAC progression. Interestingly, all of these phenotypic effects of MUC13-HER2 co-localization could be effectively compromised by depleting MUC13 and mediated by the first and second EGF-like domains of MUC13. Further, MUC13-HER2 co-localization also holds true in PDAC tissues with a strong functional correlation with events contributing to increased degree of disorder and cancer aggressiveness. In brief, findings presented here provide compelling evidence of a functional ramification of MUC13-HER2: this interaction could be potentially exploited for targeted therapeutics in a subset of patients harboring an aggressive form of PDAC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PanCa) is associated with lack of an effective early diagnostic biomarker. This study elucidates significance of MUC13, as a diagnostic/prognostic marker of PanCa. METHODS:MUC13 was assessed in tissues using our in-house generated anti-MUC13 mouse monoclonal antibody and analyzed for clinical correlation by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, RT-PCR, computational and submicron scale mass-density fluctuation analyses, ROC and Kaplan Meir curve analyses. RESULTS:MUC13 expression was detected in 100% pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions (Mean composite score: MCS = 5.8; AUC >0.8, P < 0.0001), 94.6% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) samples (MCS = 9.7, P < 0.0001) as compared to low expression in tumor adjacent tissues (MCS = 4, P < 0.001) along with faint or no expression in normal pancreatic tissues (MCS = 0.8; AUC >0.8; P < 0.0001). Nuclear MUC13 expression positively correlated with nodal metastasis (P < 0.05), invasion of cancer to peripheral tissues (P < 0.5) and poor patient survival (P < 0.05; prognostic AUC = 0.9). Submicron scale mass density and artificial intelligence based algorithm analyses also elucidated association of MUC13 with greater morphological disorder (P < 0.001) and nuclear MUC13 as strong predictor for cancer aggressiveness and poor patient survival. CONCLUSION:This study provides significant information regarding MUC13 expression/subcellular localization in PanCa samples and supporting the use anti-MUC13 MAb for the development of PanCa diagnostic/prognostic test.
Project description:Pancreatic tumors are rewired for high-glucose metabolism and typically present with exceptionally poor prognosis. Recently, we have shown that MUC13, which is highly expressed in pancreatic tumors, promotes tumor progression via modulation of HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase activity. Herein, we investigate a novel, MUC13-mediated molecular mechanism responsible for higher glucose metabolism in pancreatic tumors. Our results demonstrate that MUC13 expression leads to the activation/nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65 and phosphorylation of I?B, which in turn upregulates the expression of important proteins (Glut-1, c-Myc, and Bcl-2) that are involved in glucose metabolism. MUC13 functionally interacts and stabilizes Glut-1 to instigate downstream events responsible for higher glucose uptake in pancreatic cancer cells. Altered MUC13 expression by overexpression and knockdown techniques effectively modulated glucose uptake, lactate secretion, and metastatic phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. NF-?B inhibitor, Sulfasalazine, abrogates the MUC13 and Glut-1 interaction, and attenuates events associated with MUC13-induced glucose metabolism. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient tissue samples also show a positive correlation between the expression of these two proteins. These results delineate how MUC13 rewire aberrant glucose metabolism to enhance aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer and revealed a novel mechanism to develop newer therapeutic strategies for this exceptionally difficult cancer.
Project description:The high death rate of pancreatic cancer is attributed to the lack of reliable methods for early detection and underlying molecular mechanisms of its aggressive pathogenesis. Although MUC13, a newly identified transmembrane mucin, is known to be aberrantly expressed in ovarian and gastro-intestinal cancers, its role in pancreatic cancer is unknown. Herein, we investigated the expression profile and functions of MUC13 in pancreatic cancer progression. The expression profile of MUC13 in pancreatic cancer was investigated using a recently generated monoclonal antibody (clone PPZ0020) and pancreatic tissue microarrays. The expression of MUC13 was significantly (P < 0.005) higher in cancer samples compared with normal/nonneoplastic pancreatic tissues. For functional analyses, full-length MUC13 was expressed in MUC13 null pancreatic cancer cell lines, MiaPaca and Panc1. MUC13 overexpression caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in cell motility, invasion, proliferation, and anchorage-dependent or -independent clonogenicity while decreasing cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion. Exogenous MUC13 expression significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced pancreatic tumor growth and reduced animal survival in a xenograft mouse model. These tumorigenic characteristics correlated with the upregulation/phosphorylation of HER2, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt, and metastasin (S100A4), and the suppression of p53. Conversely, suppression of MUC13 in HPAFII pancreatic cancer cells by short hairpin RNA resulted in suppression of tumorigenic characteristics, repression of HER2, PAK1, ERK, and S100A4, and upregulation of p53. MUC13 suppression also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced tumor growth and increased animal survival. These results imply a role of MUC13 in pancreatic cancer and suggest its potential use as a diagnostic and therapeutic target.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA) alterations are likely to contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer and may serve as markers for the early detection of pancreatic neoplasia.To identify the miRNA alterations that arise during the development of pancreatic cancer, we determined the levels of 735 miRNAs in 34 pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanIN) and 15 normal pancreatic duct samples isolated by laser capture microdissection using TaqMan miRNA microarrays. Differential expression of selected miRNAs was confirmed by FISH analysis and by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of selected candidate miRNAs in an independent set of PanIN and normal duct samples.We identified 107 aberrantly expressed miRNAs in different PanIN grades compared with normal pancreatic duct samples and 35 aberrantly expressed miRNAs in PanIN-3 lesions compared with normal pancreatic duct samples. These differentially expressed miRNAs included those that have been previously identified as differentially expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC; including miR-21, miR-200a/b/c, miR-216a/b, miR-217, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-182, miR-196b, miR-203, miR-222, miR-338-3p, miR-486-3p, etc.) as well as miRNAs not previously described as differentially expressed in these lesions (miR-125b, miR-296-5p, miR-183*, miR-603, miR-625/*, miR-708, etc.). miR-196b was the most selectively differentially expressed miRNA in PanIN-3 lesions.Many miRNAs undergo aberrant expression in PanIN lesions and are likely to be important in the development of PDAC. The miRNAs, such as miR-196b, whose expression is limited to PanIN-3 lesions or pancreatic cancers could be useful as diagnostic markers.
Project description:MUC13 is overexpressed and aberrantly localized in colon cancer tissue; however, the specific functions and regulation of MUC13 expression are unknown.Stable cell lines with either overexpressed or suppressed MUC13 levels were analyzed to determine cell growth, colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The molecular mechanisms involved in MUC13 regulation were elucidated via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and analysis of interleukin 6 (IL6) treatments. Colon cancer tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the protein levels of MUC13 and P-STAT5 in colon cancer cells.Overexpression of MUC13 increased cell growth, colony formation, cell migration, and invasion. In concordance, MUC13 silencing decreased these tumorigenic features. Overexpression of MUC13 also modulated various cancer-associated proteins, including telomerase reverse transcriptase, sonic hedgehog, B cell lymphoma murine like site 1, and GATA like transcription factor 1. Additionally, MUC13-overexpressing cells showed increased HER2 and P-ERK expression. ChIP analysis revealed binding of STAT5 to the predicted MUC13 promoter. IL6 treatment of colon cancer cells increased the expression of MUC13 via activation of the JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway. Suppression of JAK2 and STAT5 signaling by chemical inhibitors abolished IL6-induced MUC13 expression. IHC analysis showed increased expression of both P-STAT5 and MUC13 in colon cancer as compared to adjacent normal tissue.The results of this study, for the first time, suggest functional roles of MUC13 in colon cancer progression and provide information regarding the regulation of MUC13 expression via JAK2/STAT5 which may reveal promising therapeutic approaches for colon cancer treatment.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the USA. Surgical resection is the only effective treatment; however, only 20% of patients are candidates for surgery. The ability to detect early PDAC would increase the availability of surgery and improve patient survival. This study assessed the feasibility of using the enzymatic activity of cathepsin E (Cath E), a protease highly and specifically expressed in PDAC, as a novel biomarker for the detection of pancreas-bearing pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions and PDAC.Pancreas from normal, chronic pancreatitis and PDAC patients was assessed for Cath E expression by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Human PDAC xenografts and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) of PDAC were injected with a Cath E activity selective fluorescent probe and imaged using an optical imaging system.The specificity of Cath E expression in PDAC patients and GEMM of pancreatic cancer was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The novel probe for Cath E activity specifically detected PDAC in both human xenografts and GEMM in vivo. The Cath E sensitive probe was also able to detect pancreas with PanIN lesions in GEMM before tumour formation.The elevated Cath E expression in PanIN and pancreatic tumours allowed in-vivo detection of human PDAC xenografts and imaging of pancreas with PanIN and PDAC tumours in GEMM. Our results support the usefulness of Cath E activity as a potential molecular target for PDAC and early detection imaging.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States with a majority of these patients dying from aggressively invasive and metastatic disease. There is growing evidence that suggests an important role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathobiology of aggressive PDAC. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-145 was significantly lower in PDAC cells when compared to normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells. Here we show that inhibition of the nuclear exporter protein exportin 1 (XPO1; also known as chromosome maintenance region 1 [CRM1]) by siRNA knockdown or by the Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound (KPT-330; selinexor) increases miR-145 expression in PDAC cells resulting in the decreased cell proliferation and migration capacities. A similar result was obtained with forced expression of miR-145 in PDAC cells. To this end, SINE compound treatment mediated the down-regulation of known miR-145 targets genes including EGFR, MMP1, MT-MMP, c-Myc, Pak4 and Sox-2. In addition, selinexor induced the expression of two important tumor suppressive miRNAs miR-34c and let-7d leading to the up-regulation of p21WAF1. These results are the first to report that targeted inhibition of the nuclear export machinery could restore tumor suppressive miRNAs in PDAC that warrants further clinical investigations.
Project description:Activating mutations in the KRAS oncogene are prevalent in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We previously demonstrated that pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) formation, which precedes malignant transformation, associates with the expression of immediate early response 3 (Ier3) as part of a prooncogenic transcriptional pathway. Here, we evaluated the role of IER3 in PanIN formation and PDAC development. In human pancreatic cancer cells, IER3 expression efficiently sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation by inhibiting phosphatase PP2A activity. Moreover, IER3 enhanced KrasG12D-dependent oncogenesis in the pancreas, as both PanIN and PDAC development were delayed in IER3-deficient KrasG12D mice. IER3 expression was discrete in healthy acinar cells, becoming highly prominent in peritumoral acini, and particularly high in acinar ductal metaplasia (ADM) and PanIN lesions, where IER3 colocalized with phosphorylated ERK1/2. However, IER3 was absent in undifferentiated PDAC, which suggests that the IER3-dependent pathway is an early event in pancreatic tumorigenesis. IER3 expression was induced by both mild and severe pancreatitis, which promoted PanIN formation and progression to PDAC in KrasG12D mice. In IER3-deficient mice, pancreatitis abolished KrasG12D-induced proliferation, which suggests that pancreatitis enhances the oncogenic effect of KRAS through induction of IER3 expression. Together, our data indicate that IER3 supports KRASG12D-associated oncogenesis in the pancreas by sustaining ERK1/2 phosphorylation via phosphatase PP2A inhibition.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most lethal cancer, mainly because of its invasive and metastatic characteristics. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) is one of the major precursor lesions of PDAC. Although epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to play an important role for these malignant behaviors, the association between PanIN and EMT has not been clearly understood. Therefore, we explored possible molecules for regulation of EMT immunohistochemically. Using surgically resected specimens from 71 PDAC patients, expressions of SNAIL, SLUG, TWIST1, and ZEB1 were investigated in high-grade PanIN (HG-PanIN) and PDAC. Results demonstrated that PDAC accompanied by SNAIL-positive HG-PanIN showed a significantly better relapse-free survival (RFS) (median survival time (MST) of 11.3 months vs 4.4 months, P < 0.001) and overall survival overall survival (OS) (MST of 25.2 months vs 13.6 months, P < 0.001). In PDAC accompanied by SLUG-positive HG-PanIN, RFS and OS (P = 0.09 and P = 0.05) tended to have a better prognosis. In contrast, we could not find any significant prognostic benefits in the expression of TWIST1 or ZEB1 in PDAC accompanied by HG-PanIN. Our present results suggest that (1) EMT may play an important role in the development of PDAC from HG-PanIN, and (2) SNAIL may predict a distinct subgroup that shows a better prognosis.