Metabolic effect of TAp63?: enhanced glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway, resulting in increased antioxidant defense.
ABSTRACT: TAp63? is a member of the p53 family, which plays a central role in epithelial cancers. Recently, a role has emerged for p53 family members in cancer metabolic modulation. In order to assess whether TAp63? plays a role in cancer metabolism, we exploited p53-null osteosarcoma Tet-On Saos-2 cells, in which the expression of TAp63? was dependent on doxycycline supplementation to the medium. Metabolomics labeling experiments were performed by incubating the cells in 13C-glucose or 13C15N-glutamine-labeled culture media, as to monitor metabolic fluxes upon induced expression of TAp63?. Induced expression of TAp63? resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. From a metabolic standpoint, expression of Tap63? promoted glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, which was uncoupled from nucleotide biosynthesis, albeit prevented oxidative stress in the form of oxidized glutathione. Double 13C-glucose and 13C15N-glutamine metabolic labeling confirmed that induced expression of TAp63? corresponded to a decreased flux of pyruvate to the Krebs cycle and decreased utilization of glutamine for catabolic purposes in the TCA cycle. Results were not conclusive in relation to anabolic utilization of labeled glutamine, since it is unclear to what extent the observed minor TAp63?-dependent increases of glutamine-derived labeling in palmitate could be tied to increased rates of reductive carboxylation and de novo synthesis of fatty acids. Finally, bioinformatics elaborations highlighted a link between patient survival rates and the co-expression of p63 and rate limiting enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway, G6PD and PGD.
Project description:Altered metabolism in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and endothelial cells (PAECs) contributes to the pathology of pulmonary hypertension (PH), but changes in substrate uptake and how substrates are utilized have not been fully characterized. We hypothesized stable isotope metabolomics would identify increased glucose, glutamine and fatty acid uptake and utilization in human PASMCs and PAECs from PH versus control specimens, and that TGF-? treatment would phenocopy these metabolic changes. We used 13C-labeled glucose, glutamine or a long-chain fatty acid mixture added to cell culture media, and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to detect and quantify 13C-labeled metabolites. We found PH PASMCs had increased glucose uptake and utilization by glycolysis and the pentose shunt, but no changes in glutamine or fatty acid uptake or utilization. Diseased PAECs had increased proximate glycolysis pathway intermediates, less pentose shunt flux, increased anaplerosis from glutamine, and decreased fatty acid ?-oxidation. TGF-? treatment increased glycolysis in PASMCs, but did not recapitulate the PAEC disease phenotype. In TGF-?-treated PASMCs, glucose, glutamine and fatty acids all contributed carbons to the TCA cycle. In conclusion, PASMCs and PAECs collected from PH subjects have significant changes in metabolite uptake and utilization, partially recapitulated by TGF-? treatment.
Project description:A general method for isotopic labeling of the purine base moiety of nucleotides and RNA has been developed through biochemical pathway engineering in vitro. A synthetic scheme was designed and implemented utilizing recombinant enzymes from the pentose phosphate and de novo purine synthesis pathways, with regeneration of folate, aspartate, glutamine, ATP, and NADPH cofactors, in a single-pot reaction. Syntheses proceeded quickly and efficiently in comparison to chemical methods with isolated yields up to 66% for 13C-, 15N-enriched ATP and GTP. The scheme is robust and flexible, requiring only serine, NH4+, glucose, and CO2 as stoichiometric precursors in labeled form. Using this approach, U-13C- GTP, U-13C, 15N- GTP, 13C 2,8- ATP, and U-15N- GTP were synthesized on a millimole scale, and the utility of the isotope labeling is illustrated in NMR spectra of HIV-2 transactivation region RNA containing 13C 2,8-adenosine and 15N 1,3,7,9,2-guanosine. Pathway engineering in vitro permits complex synthetic cascades to be effected, expanding the applicability of enzymatic synthesis.
Project description:13C metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) is a widely used tool for quantitative analysis of microbial and mammalian metabolism. Until now, 13C-MFA was based mainly on measurements of isotopic labeling of amino acids derived from hydrolyzed biomass proteins and isotopic labeling of extracted intracellular metabolites. Here, we demonstrate that isotopic labeling of glycogen and RNA, measured with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), provides valuable additional information for 13C-MFA. Specifically, we demonstrate that isotopic labeling of glucose moiety of glycogen and ribose moiety of RNA greatly enhances resolution of metabolic fluxes in the upper part of metabolism; importantly, these measurements allow precise quantification of net and exchange fluxes in the pentose phosphate pathway. To demonstrate the practical importance of these measurements for 13C-MFA, we have used Escherichia coli as a model microbial system and CHO cells as a model mammalian system. Additionally, we have applied this approach to determine metabolic fluxes of glucose and xylose co-utilization in the E. coli ?ptsG mutant. The convenience of measuring glycogen and RNA, which are stable and abundant in microbial and mammalian cells, offers the following key advantages: reduced sample size, no quenching required, no extractions required, and GC-MS can be used instead of more costly LC-MS/MS techniques. Overall, the presented approach for 13C-MFA will have widespread applicability in metabolic engineering and biomedical research.
Project description:The 13C-MFA experiments require an optimal design since the precision or confidence intervals of the estimated flux levels depends on factors such as the composition of 13C-labeled carbon sources, as well as the metabolic flux distribution of interest. In this study, useful compositions of 13C-labeled glucose for 13C-metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) of Escherichia coli are investigated using a computer simulation of the stable isotope labeling experiment. Following the generation of artificial mass spectra datasets of amino acid fragments using five literature-reported flux distributions of E. coli, the best fitted flux distribution and the 95% confidence interval were estimated by the 13C-MFA procedure. A comparison of the precision scores showed that [1, 2-13C]glucose and a mixture of [1-13C] and [U-13C]glucose at 8:2 are one of the best carbon sources for a precise estimation of flux levels of the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis and the TCA cycle. Although the precision scores of the anaplerotic and glyoxylate pathway reactions were affected by both the carbon source and flux distribution, it was also shown that the mixture of non-labeled, [1-13C], and [U-13C]glucose at 4:1:5 was specifically effective for the flux estimation of the glyoxylate pathway reaction. These findings were confirmed by wet 13C-MFA experiments.
Project description:p53, with its family members p63 and p73, have been shown to promote myoblast differentiation by regulation of the function of the retinoblastoma protein and by direct activation of p21Cip/Waf1 and p57Kip2, promoting cell cycle exit. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that the TAp63? isoform is the only member of the p53 family that accumulates during in vitro myoblasts differentiation, and that its silencing led to delay in myotube fusion. To better dissect the role of TAp63? in myoblast physiology, we have generated both sh-p63 and Tet-On inducible TAp63? clones. Gene array analysis of sh-p63 C2C7 clones showed a significant modulation of genes involved in proliferation and cellular metabolism. Indeed, we found that sh-p63 C2C7 myoblasts present a higher proliferation rate and that, conversely, TAp63? ectopic expression decreases myoblasts proliferation, indicating that TAp63? specifically contributes to myoblasts proliferation, independently of p53 and p73. In addition, sh-p63 cells have a defect in mitochondria respiration highlighted by a reduction in spare respiratory capacity and a decrease in complex I, IV protein levels. These results demonstrated that, beside contributing to cell cycle exit, TAp63? participates to myoblasts metabolism control.
Project description:In cancers, tumor cells are exposed to fluctuating nutrient microenvironments with limiting supplies of glucose and glutamine. While the metabolic program has been related to the expression of oncogenes, only fractional information is available on how variable precarious nutrient concentrations modulate the cellular levels of metabolites and their metabolic pathways. We thus sought to obtain an overview of the metabolic routes taken by 13C-glucose-derived metabolites in breast cancer MCF-7 cells growing in combinations of limiting glucose and glutamine concentrations. Isotopologue profiles of key metabolites were obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They revealed that in limiting and standard saturating medium conditions, the same metabolic routes were engaged, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, as well as the TCA cycle with glutamine and pyruvate anaplerosis. However, the cellular levels of 13C-metabolites, for example, serine, alanine, glutamate, malate, and aspartate, were highly sensitive to the available concentrations and the ratios of glucose and glutamine. Notably, intracellular lactate concentrations did not reflect the Warburg effect. Also, isotopologue profiles of 13C-serine as well as 13C-alanine show that the same glucose-derived metabolites are involved in gluconeogenesis and pyruvate replenishment. Thus, anaplerosis and the bidirectional flow of central metabolic pathways ensure metabolic plasticity for adjusting to precarious nutrient conditions.
Project description:Cancer cells often respond to chemotherapeutic inhibitors by redirecting carbon flow in the central metabolism. To understand the metabolic redirections of inhibitor treatment on cancer cells, this study established a 13C-metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA)-based method to evaluate metabolic redirection in MCF-7 breast cancer cells using mass spectrometry. A metabolic stationary state necessary for accurate 13C-MFA was confirmed during an 8-24?h window using low-dose treatments of various metabolic inhibitors. Further 13C-labeling experiments using [1-13C]glucose and [U-13C]glutamine, combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of mass isotopomer distributions (MIDs), confirmed that an isotopic stationary state of intracellular metabolites was reached 24?h after treatment with paclitaxel (Taxol), an inhibitor of mitosis used for cancer treatment. Based on these metabolic and isotopic stationary states, metabolic flux distribution in the central metabolism of paclitaxel-treated MCF-7 cells was determined by 13C-MFA. Finally, estimations of the 95% confidence intervals showed that tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolic flux increased after paclitaxel treatment. Conversely, anaerobic glycolysis metabolic flux decreased, revealing metabolic redirections by paclitaxel inhibition. The gap between total regeneration and consumption of ATP in paclitaxel-treated cells was also found to be 1.2 times greater than controls, suggesting ATP demand was increased by paclitaxel treatment, likely due to increased microtubule polymerization. These data confirm that 13C-MFA can be used to investigate inhibitor-induced metabolic redirection in cancer cells. This will contribute to future pharmaceutical developments and understanding variable patient response to treatment.
Project description:The carbon metabolism of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) EGD and the two isogenic mutant strains LmDeltaprfA and LmDeltaprfApPRFA* (showing no or enhanced expression, respectively, of the virulence factor PrfA) was determined by 13C isotopologue perturbation. After growth of the bacteria in a defined medium containing a mixture of [U-13C6]glucose and glucose with natural 13C abundance (1:25, wt/wt), 14 amino acids were isolated and analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. Multiply 13C-labeled isotopologues were determined quantitatively by signal deconvolution. The 13C enrichments and isotopologue patterns allowed the reconstruction of most amino acid biosynthesis pathways and illustrated that overproduced PrfA may strongly influence the synthesis of some amino acids, notably that of the branched amino acids (Val, Ile, and Leu). Retrobiosynthetic analysis of the isotopologue compositions showed that degradation of glucose occurs to a large extent via the pentose phosphate pathway and that the citrate cycle is incomplete because of the absence of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity. The reconstructed labeling pattern of oxaloacetate indicated its formation by carboxylation of pyruvate. This metabolic reaction seems to have a strong impact on the growth requirement in defined minimal medium. Bioinformatical steady-state network analyses and flux distribution predictions confirmed the experimental data and predicted metabolite fluxes through the enzymes of the pathways under study.
Project description:Administration of sodium pyruvate (SP; 9.08 ?mol/kg, i.p.), ethyl pyruvate (EP; 0.34 ?mol/kg, i.p.) or glucose (GLC; 11.1 ?mol/kg, i.p.) to rats after unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury has been reported to reduce neuronal loss and improve cerebral metabolism. In the present study these doses of each fuel or 8% saline (SAL; 5.47 nmoles/kg) were administered immediately and at 1, 3, 6 and 23 h post-CCI. At 24 h all CCI groups and non-treated Sham injury controls were infused with [1,2 13C] glucose for 68 min 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained from cortex + hippocampus tissues from left (injured) and right (contralateral) hemispheres. All three fuels increased lactate labeling to a similar degree in the injured hemisphere. The amount of lactate labeled via the pentose phosphate and pyruvate recycling (PPP + PR) pathway increased in CCI-SAL and was not improved by SP, EP, and GLC treatments. Oxidative metabolism, as assessed by glutamate labeling, was reduced in CCI-SAL animals. The greatest improvement in oxidative metabolism was observed in animals treated with SP and fewer improvements after EP or GLC treatments. Compared to SAL, all three fuels restored glutamate and glutamine labeling via pyruvate carboxylase (PC), suggesting improved astrocyte metabolism following fuel treatment. Only SP treatments restored the amount of [4 13C] glutamate labeled by the PPP + PR pathway to sham levels. Milder injury effects in the contralateral hemisphere appear normalized by either SP or EP treatments, as increases in the total pool of 13C lactate and labeling of lactate in glycolysis, or decreases in the ratio of PC/PDH labeling of glutamine, were found only for CCI-SAL and CCI-GLC groups compared to Sham. The doses of SP, EP and GLC examined in this study all enhanced lactate labeling and restored astrocyte-specific PC activity but differentially affected neuronal metabolism after CCI injury. The restoration of astrocyte metabolism by all three fuel treatments may partially underlie their abilities to improve cerebral glucose utilization and to reduce neuronal loss following CCI injury.
Project description:Quantification of cellular deoxyribonucleoside mono- (dNMP), di- (dNDP), triphosphates (dNTPs) and related nucleoside metabolites are difficult due to their physiochemical properties and widely varying abundance. Involvement of dNTP metabolism in cellular processes including senescence and pathophysiological processes including cancer and viral infection make dNTP metabolism an important bioanalytical target. We modified a previously developed ion pairing reversed phase chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification and 13C isotope tracing of dNTP metabolites. dNMPs, dNDPs, and dNTPs were chromatographically resolved to avoid mis-annotation of in-source fragmentation. We used commercially available 13C15N-stable isotope labeled analogs as internal standards and show that this isotope dilution approach improves analytical figures of merit. At sufficiently high mass resolution achievable on an Orbitrap mass analyzer, stable isotope resolved metabolomics allows simultaneous isotope dilution quantification and 13C isotope tracing from major substrates including 13C-glucose. As a proof of principle, we quantified dNMP, dNDP and dNTP pools from multiple cell lines. We also identified isotopologue enrichment from glucose corresponding to ribose from the pentose-phosphate pathway in dNTP metabolites.