The novel Aryl hydrocarbon receptor inhibitor biseugenol inhibits gastric tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination.
ABSTRACT: Biseugenol (Eug) is known to antiproliferative of cancer cells; however, to date, the antiperitoneal dissemination effects have not been studied in any mouse cancer model. In this study, Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression was associated with lymph node and distant metastasis in patients with gastric cancer and was correlated with clinicolpathological pattern. We evaluated the antiperitoneal dissemination potential of knockdown AhR and Biseugenol in cancer mouse model and assessed mesenchymal characteristics. Our results demonstrate that tumor growth, peritoneal dissemination and peritoneum or organ metastasis implanted MKN45 cells were significantly decreased in shAhR and Biseugenol-treated mice and that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was caused. Biseugenol-exposure tumors showed acquired epithelial features such as phosphorylation of E-cadherin, cytokeratin-18 and loss mesenchymal signature Snail, but not vimentin regulation. Snail expression, through AhR activation, is an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) determinant. Moreover, Biseugenol enhanced Calpain-10 (Calp-10) and AhR interaction results in Snail downregulation. The effect of shCalpain-10 in cancer cells was associated with inactivation of AhR/Snail promoter binding activity. Inhibition of Calpain-10 in gastric cancer cells by short hairpin RNA or pharmacological inhibitor was found to effectively reduced growth ability and vessel density in vivo. Importantly, knockdown of AhR completed abrogated peritoneal dissemination. Herein, Biseugenol targeting ER stress provokes Calpain-10 activity, sequentially induces reversal of EMT and apoptosis via AhR may involve the paralleling processes. Taken together, these data suggest that Calpain-10 activation and AhR inhibition by Biseugenol impedes both gastric tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination by inducing ER stress and inhibiting EMT.
Project description:Peritoneal dissemination is a major clinical obstacle in gastrointestinal cancer therapy, and it accounts for the majority of cancer-related mortality. Calreticulin (CRT) is over-expressed in gastric tumors and has been linked to poor prognosis. In this study, immunohistochemistry studies revealed that the up-regulation of CRT was associated with lymph node and distant metastasis in patients with gastric cancer specimens. CRT was significantly down-regulated in highly metastatic gastric cancer cell lines and metastatic animal by Honokiol-treated. Small RNA interference blocking CRT by siRNA-CRT was translocated to the cells in the early immunogenic response to Honokiol. Honokiol activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and down-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) activity resulting in PPAR? and CRT degradation through calpain-II activity, which could be reversed by siRNA-calpain-II. The Calpain-II/PPAR?/CRT axis and interaction evoked by Honokiol could be blocked by gene silencing or pharmacological agents. Both transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced cell migration, invasion and reciprocal down-regulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin, which could be abrogated by siRNA-CRT. Moreover, Honokiol significantly suppressed MNNG-induced gastrointestinal tumor growth and over-expression of CRT in mice. Knockdown CRT in gastric cancer cells was found to effectively reduce growth ability and metastasis in vivo. The present study provides insight into the specific biological behavior of CRT in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. Taken together, our results suggest that the therapeutic inhibition of CRT by Honokiol suppresses both gastric tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination by dictating early translocation of CRT in immunogenic cell death, activating ER stress, and blocking EMT.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Celastrus orbiculatus has been used as a folk medicine in China for the treatment of many diseases. In the laboratory, the ethyl acetate extract of Celastrus orbiculatus (COE) displays a wide range of anticancer functions. However, the inhibition of the metastasis mechanism of COE in gastric cancer cells has not been investigated so far.<h4>Methods</h4>The present study was undertaken to determine if the anti-metastasis effect of COE was involved in inhibiting of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells. In vitro, a well-established experimental EMT model involving transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) was applied. Viability, invasion and migration, protein and mRNA expression of tumor cells were analyzed by MTT assay, transwell assay, western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. The molecular targets of COE in SGC-7901 cells were investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometer. Overexpression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) was performed by transfected with the recombinant retroviral expression plasmid. In vivo, the anti-metastasis mechanisms of COE in the peritoneal gastric cancer xenograft model was explored and the effect was tested.<h4>Results</h4>The non-cytostatic concentrations of COE effectively inhibited TGF-?1 induced EMT process in SGC-7901 cells, which is characterized by prevented morphological changes, increased E-cadherin expression and decreased Vimentin, N-cadherin expression. Moreover, COE inhibited invasion and migration induced by TGF-?1. Using a comparative proteomics approach, four proteins were identified as differently expressed, with HSP27 protein being one of the most significantly down-regulated proteins induced by COE. Moreover, the activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B)/Snail signaling pathway induced by tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was also attenuated under the pretreatment of COE. Interestingly, overexpression of HSP27 significantly decreases the inhibitory effect of COE on EMT and the NF-?B/Snail pathway. Furthermore, COE significantly reduced the number of peritoneal metastatic nodules in the peritoneal gastric cancer xenograft model.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Taken together, these results suggest that COE inhibits the EMT by suppressing the expression of HSP27, correlating with inhibition of NF-?B/Snail signal pathways in SGC-7901 cells. Based on these results, COE may be considered a novel anti-cancer agent for the treatment of metastasis in gastric cancer.
Project description:The epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) is an important step in the invasion and metastasis of cancer. A critical molecular feature of this process is the downregulation of the E-cadherin expression, which is primarily controlled by Snail-related zinc-finger transcription factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of the expression of EMT-related proteins (E-cadherin and Snail) in patients with ovarian cancer.An immunohistochemical analysis was conducted using tissue microarray samples of 174 primary tumors and 34 metastases of ovarian carcinoma, and the relationships between the protein expression, clinicopathological features and outcomes were investigated.A reduced E-cadherin expression was observed in 36.8% of the primary tumors and 30.4%, 35.7%, 37.7% and 52.7% of the stage I, II, III and IV tumors, respectively. The nuclear expression of Snail was positive in 33.9% of the primary tumors. The rate of an EMT-positive status, as represented by both a reduced E-cadherin expression and a nuclear expression of Snail, was significantly higher in the patients with peritoneal dissemination than in those without (p?<?0.05). The EMT status was significantly associated with both the progression-free survival and overall survival (p <0.01). A multivariate analysis showed an EMT-positive status to be a significant predictor of both the progression-free survival (p?<?0.05) and overall survival (P?<?0.01).These data indicate that the EMT status is significantly associated with peritoneal metastasis and both the progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, clarifying and controlling EMT signaling is a promising approach to molecular targeted therapy for ovarian cancer.
Project description:Peritoneal dissemination is the most frequent metastasis in gastric cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. The lack of particular target antigens in gastric cancer other than HER2 has hampered the development of treatments for peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. We hypothesized that HER2-extracellular domain (HER2-ECD) gene transduction combined with trastuzumab-based photoimmunotherapy (PIT) might provide excellent and selective antitumor effects for peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. In vitro, adenovirus/HER2-ECD (Ad/HER2-ECD) efficiently transduced HER2-ECD into HER2-negative gastric cancer cells. Trastuzumab-IR700 (Tra-IR700)-mediated PIT induced selective cell death of HER2-ECD-transduced tumor cells. Ad/HER2-ECD also induced homogenous expression of HER2 in heterogeneous gastric cancer cells, resulting in uniform sensitivity of the cells to Tra-IR700-mediated PIT. Anti-HER2 PIT integrated with adenoviral HER2-ECD gene transfer was applied in mice bearing peritoneal dissemination of HER2-negative gastric cancer. Intraperitoneal administration of Ad/HER2-ECD and Tra-IR700 with PIT inhibited peritoneal metastasis and prolonged the survival of mice bearing MKN45. Furthermore, minimal side effects allowed the integrated therapy to be used repeatedly, providing better control of peritoneal dissemination. In conclusion, the novel therapy of molecular-targeted PIT integrated with gene transfer technology is a promising approach for the treatment of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer.
Project description:Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) expression correlates with tumor growth, metastasis, and chemoresistance in gastric cancer. Here, we show that RhoGDI2 functions in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is responsible for invasiveness during tumor progression. This tumorigenic activity is associated with repression of E-cadherin by RhoGDI2 via upregulation of Snail. Overexpression of RhoGDI2 induced phenotypic changes consistent with EMT in gastric cancer cells, including abnormal epithelial cell morphology, fibroblast-like properties, and reduced intercellular adhesion. RhoGDI2 overexpression also resulted in decreased expression of the epithelial markers E-cadherin and ?-catenin and increased expression of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and fibronectin. Importantly, RhoGDI2 overexpression also stimulated the expression of Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin and inducer of EMT, but not other family members such as Slug or Twist. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Snail expression suppressed RhoGDI2-induced EMT and invasion, confirming that the effect was Snail-specific. These results indicate that RhoGDI2 plays a critical role in tumor progression in gastric cancer through induction of EMT. Targeting RhoGDI2 may thus be a useful strategy to inhibit gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) involving down-regulation of E-cadherin is thought to play a fundamental role during early steps of invasion and metastasis of carcinoma cells. The aim of our study was to elucidate the role of EMT regulators Snail, SIP1 (both are direct repressors of E-cadherin), and Twist (an activator of N-cadherin during Drosophila embryogenesis), in primary human gastric cancers. Expression of Snail, SIP1, and Twist was analyzed in 48 gastric carcinomas by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in paraffin-embedded and formalin-fixed tissues. The changes of expression levels of these genes in malignant tissues compared to matched non-tumorous tissues were correlated with the expression of E- and N-cadherin. From 28 diffuse-type gastric carcinomas analyzed reduced E-cadherin expression was detected in 11 (39%) cases compared to non-tumorous tissues. Up-regulated Snail could be found in 6 cases with reduced or negative E-cadherin expression. However, there was no correlation to increased SIP1 expression. Interestingly, we could detect abnormal expression of N-cadherin mRNA in 6 cases, which was correlated with Twist overexpression in 4 cases. From 20 intestinal-type gastric cancer samples reduced E-cadherin expression was found in 12 (60%) cases, which was correlated to up-regulation of SIP1, since 10 of these 12 cases showed elevated mRNA levels, whereas Snail, Twist, and N-cadherin were not up-regulated. We present the first study investigating the role of EMT regulators in human gastric cancer and provide evidence that an increase in Snail mRNA expression is associated with down-regulation of E-cadherin in diffuse-type gastric cancer. We detected abnormally positive or increased N-cadherin mRNA levels in the same tumors, probably due to overexpression of Twist. SIP1 overexpression could not be linked to down-regulated E-cadherin in diffuse-type tumors, but was found to be involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal-type gastric carcinoma. We conclude that EMT regulators play different roles in gastric carcinogenesis depending on the histological subtype.
Project description:Substantial evidence suggests that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype is associated with the invasive characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs),which possess an EMT phenotype that may predominate in tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanisms for the generation and regulation of these CSCs have not been clearly defined. As hypoxia and EMT-related factors may have important functions in EMT-like CSCs, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxia on these cells. CSCs were established from the gastric cancer cell lines MGC-803 and SGC7901, and the relationship between hypoxia and EMT-like CSCs was investigated in gastric cancer. After hypoxia treatment, some gastric CSCs exhibited a marked increase in hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?)expression and increased migration and invasion capabilities compared with the normoxic control. These CSCs were defined by activation of the mesenchymal cell marker Vimentin and by inhibition of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin. Our analyses also show that HIF-1? was responsible for activating EMT via increased expression of the transcription factor Snail in gastric CSCs. Moreover, inhibition of Snail by shRNA reduced HIF-1?-induced EMT in gastric CSCs. The results demonstrated that hypoxia-induced EMT-like CSCs rely on HIF-1?to activate Snail, which may result in recurrence and metastasis of gastric cancer.
Project description:Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a frequent finding in patients with primary gastric cancer, and it is associated with a poor prognosis. A major mechanism in peritoneal carcinomatosis is the dissemination of cancer cells into the abdominal cavity, mainly in diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma. The features that enable diffuse primary gastric tumours to develop peritoneal dissemination have been little investigated and are only incompletely understood. We therefore compared the gene expression profile in patients with diffuse primary gastric cancer with and without peritoneal carcinomatosis. Specimens from consecutive gastric cancer patients with and without peritoneal carcinomatosis were investigated using oligonucleotide microarrays. Keywords: Disease state analysis Overall design: Double loop design with dye swap
Project description:Cisplatin remains to be primary chemotherapeutic drug for gastric cancer patients, especially for advanced stage ones. However, primary or acquired resistance often occurs with the mechanisms being not well understood, which results in relapse of the cancer and poor survival. Herein, we found that HER2 upregulation was associated with cisplatin resistance. We observed that cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cells underwent a morphological change similar to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is mediated by HER2 overexpression. When specific monoclonal antibody Herceptin, small molecular targeted drug CP724714, or small interfering RNA against HER2 was applied, the EMT-like phenotypic change was dramatically reversed. More importantly, the IC50 and Resistance Index of resistant gastric cancer cells to cisplatin were also decreased by any of these treatments.We demonstrated that expression and amplification of HER2 positively correlated with expression of EMT-related transcription factor Snail in gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, for the first time, we found that HER2/Snail double positive gastric cancer patients had poorer survival than single positive or double negative counterparts, which provided experimental evidence for the necessity of HER2/Snail double testing in gastric cancer. In conclusion, this study provides some clues of the association of cisplatin resistance with HER2 upregulation-induced EMT in gastric cancer cells.
Project description:We previously performed a global analysis of the gene expression of gastric cancer cell lines established from metastases to the peritoneal cavity with the cDNA microarray method, which made it possible to analyse the expression of approximately 21168 genes for the identification of novel markers for the detection of micrometastases in the peritoneal cavity. One of the upregulated genes is dopa decarboxylase (DDC), which is responsible for the synthesis of the key neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonine. We have examined its potential as a novel marker for the detection of peritoneal micrometastases of gastric cancer.DDC mRNA in the peritoneal wash from 112 gastric cancer patients was quantified for comparison of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mRNA by means of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with a fluorescently labelled probe to predict peritoneal recurrence. The quantity of DDC and CEA correlated with wall penetration. Real-time RT-PCR could quantitate 10-10(6) DDC-expressing gastric cancer cells per 10(7) mesothelial cells. The cutoff value was set at the upper limit of the quantitative value for noncancer patients, and those above this cutoff value constituted the micrometastasis (MM+) group. Of 15 cases with peritoneal dissemination, 13 were MM+DDC (87% sensitivity), and one of 48 t1 cases was MM+ (98% specificity). DDC levels in peritoneal washes from patients with synchronous peritoneal metastases were more than 50 times higher than in those from patients without metastasis (P<0.01). For 15 cases of peritoneal dissemination (seven cases were cytologically positive), DDC was positive in 13 cases (87% sensitivity), but CEA failed to detect micrometastases in four cases (73% sensitivity), indicating that DDC is in some cases superior to CEA for the detection of peritoneal micrometastases of gastric cancer in terms of sensitivity as well as specificity, especially for poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. A combination of CEA and DDC improved the accuracy of diagnosis up to 94%. These results suggest that DDC is potentially a novel marker for peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer and that quantitative RT-PCR of DDC is reliable and efficient for the selection of patients for adjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy to prevent peritoneal recurrence.