PTK2 rs7460 and rs7843014 polymorphisms and exceptional longevity: a functional replication study.
ABSTRACT: Focal adhesion is critical for cell survival. The focal adhesion kinase (FAK, or PTK2) is an important component of the human interactome and thus is a potential longevity-related protein. Here we studied the association between two PTK2 gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7843014, rs7460) and exceptional longevity (EL). In addition to gaining insight into their functionality by determining luciferase gene reporter activity, we studied the genotype/allele frequency of these two SNPs among three different cohorts: (1) Spanish centenarians (n=175, 100-111 years, 144 women) and healthy controls (n=355, 20-50 years, 284 women); (2) Italian centenarians (n=79, 100-104 years, 40 women) and controls (n=316, 29-50 years, 156 women); and (3) Japanese centenarians (n=742, 100-116 years, 623 women) and healthy controls (n=499, 23-59 years, 356 women). Both SNPs had functional significance, with the A allele up-regulating luciferase activity compared to the other allele (rs7460 T allele and rs7843014 C allele, respectively). The A allele of both SNPs was negatively associated with EL in the Spanish cohort (rs7460, odds ratio [OR] adjusted by sex=0.40, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.3, 0.6, p<0.001); rs7843014, OR=0.37, 95% CI 0.3, 0.5, p<0.001). The OR of being a centenarian if having the rs7460-TT genotype was 6.68 (95% CI 4.1, 10.8, p<0.001). The rs7843014 CC genotype was also positively associated with EL (OR=7.58, 95% CI 4.6, 12.3, p<0.001]. No association was, however, found for the Italian or Japanese cohorts. Thus, two genotypes of the FAK gene, rs7460 TT and rs7843014 CC, are possibly associated with lower gene expression and might favor the likelihood of reaching EL in the Spanish population. Further research is needed to unveil the mechanisms by which FAK expression could perhaps influence the rate of aging.
Project description:There are several gene variants that are candidates to influence functional capacity in long-lived individuals. As such, their potential association with exceptional longevity (EL, i.e., reaching 100+ years) deserves analysis. Among them are rs7832552 in the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR) gene, rs1800795 in the interleukin-6 (IL6) gene and rs6552828 in the coenzyme A synthetase long-chain 1 (ACSL1) gene. To gain insight into their functionality (which is yet unknown), here we determined for the first time luciferase gene reporter activity at the muscle tissue level in rs7832552 and rs6552828. We then compared allele/genotype frequencies of the 3 abovementioned variants among centenarians [n = 138, age range 100-111 years (114 women)] and healthy controls [n = 334, 20-50 years (141 women)] of the same ethnic and geographic origin (Spain). We also studied healthy centenarians [n = 79, 100-104 years (40 women)] and controls [n = 316, 27-81 years (156 women)] from Italy, and centenarians [n = 742, 100-116 years (623 women)] and healthy controls [n = 499, 23-59 years (356 women)] from Japan. The THRH rs7832552 T-allele and ACSL1 rs6552828 A-allele up-regulated luciferase activity compared to the C and G-allele, respectively (P = 0.001). Yet we found no significant association of EL with rs7832552, rs1800795 or rs6552828 in any of the 3 cohorts. Further research is needed with larger cohorts of centenarians of different origin as well as with younger old people.
Project description:Irisin might play an important role in reducing the risk of obesity, insulin resistance, or several related diseases, and high irisin levels may contribute to successful aging. Thus, the irisin precursor (FNDC5) gene is a candidate to influence exceptional longevity (EL), i.e., being a centenarian. It has been recently shown that two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FNDC5 gene, rs16835198 and rs726344, are associated with in vivo insulin sensitivity in adults. We determined luciferase gene reporter activity in the two above-mentioned SNPs and studied genotype distributions among centenarians (n?=?175, 144 women) and healthy controls (n?=?347, 142 women) from Spain. We also studied an Italian [79 healthy centenarians (40 women) and 316 healthy controls (156 women)] and a Japanese cohort [742 centenarians (623 women) and 499 healthy controls (356 women)]. The rs726344 SNP had functional significance, as shown by differences in luciferase activity between the constructs of this SNP (all P???0.05), with the variant A-allele having higher luciferase activity compared with the G-allele (P?=?0.04). For the rs16835198 SNP, the variant T-allele tended to show higher luciferase activity compared with the G-allele (P?=?0.07). However, we found no differences between genotype/allele frequencies of the two SNPs in centenarians versus controls in any cohort, and no significant association (using logistic regression adjusted by sex) between the two SNPs and EL. Further research is needed with different cohorts as well as with additional variants in the FNDC5 gene or in other genes involved in irisin signaling.
Project description:The myostatin (MSTN) gene is a candidate to influence extreme longevity owing to its role in modulating muscle mass and sarcopenia and especially in inhibiting the main nutrient-sensing pathway involved in longevity, i.e. mammalian target of rapamycin. We compared allele/genotype distributions of the exonic MSTN variants K153R (rs1805086), E164K (rs35781413), I225T and P198A, in Spanish centenarians (cases, n = 156; 132 women, age range 100-111 years) and younger adults (controls, n = 384; 167 women, age <50 years). No subject of either group carried a mutant allele of the E164K, I225T or P198A variation. The frequency of the variant R allele was significantly higher in centenarians (7.1%) than in controls (2.7%) (P = 0.001). The odds ratio of being a centenarian if the subject had the R allele was 3.48 (95% confidence interval 1.67-7.28, P = 0.001), compared to the control group, after adjusting for sex. The results were replicated in an Italian cohort (centenarians, n = 79 (40 women), age range 100-104 years; younger controls, n = 316 (155 women), age <50 years), where a higher frequency of the R allele in centenarians (7.6%) compared to controls (3.0%) (P = 0.004) was independently confirmed. Although more research is needed, the variant allele of the MSTN K153R polymorphism could be among the genetic contributors associated with exceptional longevity.
Project description:The rs1333049 (G/C) polymorphism located on chromosome 9p21.3 is a candidate to influence extreme longevity owing to its association with age-related diseases, notably coronary artery disease (CAD). We compared allele/genotype distributions of rs1333049 in cases (centenarians) and controls (younger adults, without (healthy) or with CAD) in two independent cohorts: Spanish (centenarians: n?=?152, 128 women, 100-111 years; healthy controls: n?=?343, 212 women, age <50 years; CAD controls: n?=?98, 32 women, age ?65 years) and Japanese (centenarians: n?=?742, 623 women, 100-115 years; healthy controls: n?=?920, 511 women, < 60 years; CAD controls: n?=?395, 45 women, age ?65 years). The frequency of the "risk" C-allele tended to be lower in Spanish centenarians (47.0 %) than in their healthy (52.9 %, P?=?0.088) or CAD controls (55.1 %, P?=?0.078), and significant differences were found in genotype distributions (P?=?0.034 and P?=?0.045), with a higher frequency of the GG genotype in cases than in both healthy and CAD controls as well as a lower proportion of the CG genotype compared with healthy controls. In the Japanese cohort, the main finding was that the frequency of the C-allele did not differ between centenarians (46.4 %) and healthy controls (47.3 %, P?=?0.602), but it was significantly lower in the former than in CAD controls (57.2 %, P?<?0.001). Although more research is needed, the present and recent pioneer findings (Rejuvenation Res 13:23-26, 2010) suggest that the rs1333049 polymorphism could be among the genetic contributors to exceptional longevity in Southern European populations, albeit this association does not exist in the healthy (CAD-free) Japanese population.
Project description:Myostatin (MSTN) and α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) genes are potentially associated with preservation of muscle mass and oxidative capacity, respectively. To explore the possible role of these genes in exceptional longevity (EL), the allele/genotype frequency distribution of two polymorphisms in MSTN (rs1805086, K153R) and ACTN3 (rs1815739, R577X) was studied in Japanese centenarians of both sexes (n = 742) and healthy controls (n = 814). The rs1805086 R-allele (theoretically associated with muscle mass preservation at the expense of oxidative capacity) was virtually absent in the two groups, where genotype distributions were virtually identical. Likewise, no differences in allele (p = 0.838 (women); p = 0.193 (men); p = 0.587 (both sexes)) or genotype distribution were found between groups for ACTN3 rs1815739 (p = 0.975 (women), p = 0.136 (men), p = 0.752 (both sexes)). Of note, however, the frequency of the rs1805086 R-allele observed here is the lowest been reported to date whereas that of the 'highly oxidative/efficient' rs1815739 XX genotype in Japanese male centenarians (33.3%) or supercentenarians of both sexes (≥110 years) are the highest (32.6%), for a non-American population. No definite conclusions can be inferred in relation to EL owing to its lack of association with both rs1815739 and rs1805086. However, it cannot be excluded that these gene variants could eventually be related to a "healthy" metabolic phenotype in the Japanese population. Further research might determine if such metabolic profile is among the factors that can potentially predispose these individuals to live longer than Caucasians and what genetic variants might be actually involved.
Project description:Our study purpose was to compare a disease-related polygenic profile that combined a total of 62 genetic variants among (i) people reaching exceptional longevity, i.e., centenarians (n = 54, 100-108 years, 48 women) and (ii) ethnically matched healthy controls (n = 87, 19-43 years, 47 women). We computed a 'global' genotype score (GS) for 62 genetic variants (mutations/polymorphisms) related to cardiometabolic diseases, cancer or exceptional longevity, and also specific GS for main disease categories (cardiometabolic risk and cancer risk, including 36 and 24 genetic variations, respectively) and for exceptional longevity (7 genetic variants). The 'global' GS was similar among groups (centenarians: 31.0 ± 0.6; controls 32.0 ± 0.5, P = 0.263). We observed that the GS for hypertension, cancer (global risk), and other types of cancer was lower in the centenarians group compared with the control group (all P < 0.05), yet the difference became non significant after adjusting for sex. We observed significant between-group differences in the frequency of GSTT1 and GSTM1 (presence/absence) genotypes after adjusting for multiple comparisons. The likelihood of having the GSTT1 low-risk (functional) allele was higher in centenarians (odds ratio [OR] 5.005; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.810-13.839), whereas the likelihood of having the GSTMI low-risk (functional) allele was similar in both groups (OR 1.295; 95% CI, 0.868 -1.931). In conclusion, we found preliminary evidence that Spanish centenarians have a lower genetic predisposition for cancer risk. The wild-type (i.e., functional) genotype of GSTT1, which is associated with lower cancer risk, might be associated with exceptional longevity, yet further studies with larger sample sizes must confirm these findings.
Project description:Exercise phenotypes have played a key role for ensuring survival over human evolution. We speculated that some genetic variants that influence exercise phenotypes could be associated with exceptional survival (i.e. reaching ≥100 years of age). Owing to its effects on muscle structure/function, a potential candidate is the Arg(R)577Ter(X) polymorphism (rs1815739) in ACTN3, the structural gene encoding the skeletal muscle protein α-actinin-3. We compared the ACTN3 R577X genotype/allele frequencies between the following groups of ethnically-matched (Spanish) individuals: centenarians (cases, n = 64; 57 female; age range: 100-108 years), young healthy controls (n = 283, 67 females, 216 males; 21±2 years), and humans who are at the two end-points of exercise capacity phenotypes, i.e. muscle endurance (50 male professional road cyclists) and muscle power (63 male jumpers/sprinters). Although there were no differences in genotype/allele frequencies between centenarians (RR:28.8%; RX:47.5%; XX:23.7%), and controls (RR:31.8%; RX:49.8%; XX:18.4%) or endurance athletes (RR:28.0%; RX:46%; XX:26.0%), we observed a significantly higher frequency of the X allele (P = 0.019) and XX genotype (P = 0.011) in centenarians compared with power athletes (RR:47.6%; RX:36.5%;XX:15.9%). Notably, the frequency of the null XX (α-actinin-3 deficient) genotype in centenarians was the highest ever reported in non-athletic Caucasian populations. In conclusion, despite there were no significant differences with the younger, control population, overall the ACTN3 genotype of centenarians resembles that of world-class elite endurance athletes and differs from that of elite power athletes. Our preliminary data would suggest a certain 'survival' advantage brought about by α-actinin-3 deficiency and the 'endurance'/oxidative muscle phenotype that is commonly associated with this condition.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Genetic factors contribute to the variation of human life span which is believed to be more profound after 85 years of age. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of 5 gene polymorphisms between nonagenarians, centenarians and average individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT; rs2736098), insulin-like growth factor-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP3; A-202C, rs2857744), fork-head box O3A (FOXO3A; rs13217795 and rs2764264) factor and adiponectin (ADIPOQ; rs2241766) were evaluated in 405 individuals: n = 256 nonagenarians and centenarians (study group) and n = 149 average lifespan individuals (control group aged 18 - < 80 years). RESULTS:The frequency of women was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (64.5 vs. 49.7%, p = 0.004). Genotypic and allele frequencies did not differ between groups according to gender. However, in men, the frequency of TT genotype of FOXO3A; rs2764264 was higher in the study group than the control group (45.6 vs. 28.0%, p = 0.05). Overall, the frequency of the C allele of FOXO3A; rs2764264 was significantly lower in the study group than the control group (3.9 vs. 9.5%, respectively, p = 0.023). Furthermore, in the study group, the T allele was significantly more frequent in the nonagenarians (n = 239) than the centenarians (n = 17) in both FOXO3A; rs13217795 and rs2764264 (64.4 vs. 44.1%, p = 0.018 and 69.7 vs. 50.0%, p = 0.017, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:According to survival status, there is differentiation in the prevalence of both studied FOXO3A gene polymorphisms. The study group had half of the C alleles compared with the control group and centenarians less frequently had the T allele of both FOXO3A gene polymorphisms compared with nonagenarians. No difference was found between groups according to TERT, IGFBP3 and ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms. It seems that some polymorphisms may be significant in prolonging our lifespan. Nevertheless, confirmation in additional study populations is needed.
Project description:Exceptional longevity is associated with raised serum TSH.The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring of people with exceptional longevity have elevated serum TSH and whether specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TSH-B gene and TSH receptor (TSHR) gene are associated with this phenotype.We measured serum TSH and free T(4) in Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians (n = 232; median age, 97 yr), their offspring (n = 366; median age, 69 yr), and age-matched controls without familial longevity (n = 163; median age, 70 yr). We determined TSH heritability, its distribution, and association with SNPs in the TSH-B and TSHR genes.Offspring had higher median serum TSH [1.68 mIU/liter (97.5% confidence interval, 0.65 to 4.79 mIU/liter)], compared to controls [1.50 mIU/liter (97.5% confidence interval, 0.63 to 3.93 mIU/liter); P = 0.02], with estimated heritability of 0.33 (P = 0.004). Allele frequency of two SNPs in the promoter/enhancer region of TSHR gene, associated with increased serum TSH, was higher in centenarians and their offspring compared to controls (rs10149689 G allele frequency, 0.57 and 0.53 vs. 0.48; P = 0.001 and P = 0.08; odds ratio, 1.56 and 1.22, respectively; and rs12050077 A allele frequency, 0.57 and 0.53 vs. 0.46; P = 0.0001 and P = 0.01; odds ratio, 1.68 and 1.32, respectively). Linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs was high (r(2) = 0.95), suggesting interaction between them. Furthermore, GA haplotype frequency was significantly higher among centenarians and offspring compared to controls (0.57 and 0.53 vs. 0.46; P = 0.0001 and P = 0.01, respectively).A heritable phenotype characterized by raised serum TSH is associated with human longevity. Carriers of rs12050077 and rs10149689 SNPs in the TSHR have higher serum TSH, possibly contributing to decreased thyroid function and longevity.