Formation of epichlorohydrin, a known rodent carcinogen, following oral administration of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol in rats.
ABSTRACT: The observed toxicity and carcinogenicity of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (DCP) in rodents is thought to be due to the formation of reactive metabolites, epichlorohydrin (ECH) and dichloroacetone (DCA). However, there is no direct evidence for the formation of these metabolites from exposure to DCP in rodents due to the challenges of measuring these reactive intermediates directly in vivo. The objective of this work was to investigate the metabolism of DCP to ECH and DCA in vivo by first developing a sensitive analytical method in a suitable biological matrix and analyzing samples from rats administered DCP. DCA reacted rapidly in vitro in rat blood, plasma, and liver homogenate, precluding its detection. Because ECH rapidly disappeared in liver homogenate, but was relatively long-lived in plasma and blood in vitro, blood was selected for analysis of this metabolite. Following a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg DCP in male or female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats, ECH was detected in blood with a maximum concentration reached at ≤13.7 min. ECH was cleared rapidly with a half-life of ca. 33 and 48 min in males and females, respectively. Following a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg ECH in male and female rats, the elimination half-life of ECH was ca. 34 and 20 min, respectively; the oral bioavailability of ECH was low (males, 5.2%; females, 2.1%), suggesting extensive first pass metabolism of ECH following oral administration. The area under the concentration vs time curve for ECH following oral administration of DCP and intravenous administration of ECH was used to estimate the percent of the DCP dose converted to ECH in rats. On the basis of this analysis, we concluded that in male and female rats following oral administration of 50 mg/kg DCP, ≥1.26% or ≥1.78% of the administered dose was metabolized to ECH, respectively.
Project description:Biotransformation of dichloroacetate (DCA) to glyoxylate by hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1) is considered the principal determinant of the rate of plasma clearance of the drug. However, several other organismal and subcellular factors are also known to influence DCA metabolism. We utilized a female rat model to study these poorly understood processes. Rats aged 4?weeks (young) and 42-52?weeks (adult) were used to model children and adults, respectively. Hepatic chloride concentrations, which influence the rate of GSTZ1 inactivation by DCA, were lower in rat than in human tissues and rats did not show the age dependence previously seen in humans. We found GSTZ1 expression and activity in rat brain, heart, and kidney cell-free homogenates that were age-dependent. GSTZ1 expression in brain was higher in young rats than adult rats, whereas cardiac and renal GSTZ1 expression levels were higher in adult than young rats. GSTZ1 activity with DCA could not be measured accurately in kidney cell-free homogenates due to rapid depletion of glutathione by ?-glutamyl transpeptidase. Following oral administration of DCA, 100?mg/kg, to rats, GSTZ1 expression and activity were reduced in all rat tissues, but chloride concentrations were not affected. Together, these data extend our understanding of factors that determine the in vivo kinetics of DCA.
Project description:Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) is a mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to display vasoprotective effects in chronic ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of DCA on vascular dementia (VD) and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-mediated angiogenesis. After cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats, DCA was administered continuously for 21 days; following which, histological analysis, and cognitive functional tests were conducted. Rat bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated, their function and quantity were measured, and the effects of long-term administration of DCA on EPCs in a rat model of VD was studied. We found that long-term DCA administration improved cognitive function in VD rats, reduced brain infarct size and brain atrophy, increased VEGF and bFGF levels in vivo, promoted angiogenesis in damaged areas, and significantly improved EPC function in VD rats. Compared with the VD group, AKT, Nrf2, eNOS expression, and intracellular NO levels were elevated in EPCs of DCA-treated VD rats. In addition, GSK3? and intracellular ROS levels were decreased. Simultaneously, it was found that DCA directly acted on EPCs, and improved EPC functional behavior. Taken together, these findings suggested that long-term DCA administration improved cognitive function in a rat model of VD, and did so in part, by improving EPC function. Observations suggest that prolonged DCA administration might be beneficial in treating VD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and dichloroacetate (DCA) are inhibitors of cancer-cell specific aerobic glycolysis. Their application in glioma is limited by 3-BrPA's inability to cross the blood-brain-barrier and DCA's dose-limiting toxicity. The safety and efficacy of intracranial delivery of these compounds were assessed.<h4>Methods</h4>Cytotoxicity of 3-BrPA and DCA were analyzed in U87, 9L, and F98 glioma cell lines. 3-BrPA and DCA were incorporated into biodegradable pCPP:SA wafers, and the maximally tolerated dose was determined in F344 rats. Efficacies of the intracranial 3-BrPA wafer and DCA wafer were assessed in a rodent allograft model of high-grade glioma, both as a monotherapy and in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (XRT).<h4>Results</h4>3-BrPA and DCA were found to have similar IC50 values across the 3 glioma cell lines. 5% 3-BrPA wafer-treated animals had significantly increased survival compared with controls (P = .0027). The median survival of rats with the 50% DCA wafer increased significantly compared with both the oral DCA group (P = .050) and the controls (P = .02). Rats implanted on day 0 with a 5% 3-BrPA wafer in combination with TMZ had significantly increased survival over either therapy alone. No statistical difference in survival was noted when the wafers were added to the combination therapy of TMZ and XRT, but the 5% 3-BrPA wafer given on day 0 in combination with TMZ and XRT resulted in long-term survivorship of 30%.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Intracranial delivery of 3-BrPA and DCA polymer was safe and significantly increased survival in an animal model of glioma, a potential novel therapeutic approach. The combination of intracranial 3-BrPA and TMZ provided a synergistic effect.
Project description:N-Butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBS) is a widely used plasticizer and hence there is potential for human exposure via oral routes. This work investigates the toxicokinetic behavior of NBBS in rodents following a single gavage (20, 60, and 200 mg/kg body weight) or multi-day feed administration (500, 1000, and 2000 ppm). In male and female rats following gavage administration, maximum plasma NBBS concentration, C<sub>max</sub>, was reached at ?0.539 h. C<sub>max</sub> increased proportionally to the dose. Area under the curve (AUC) increased more than proportionally to the dose and was 4- to 5-fold higher in females than in males. In mice, plasma C<sub>max</sub> was reached at ?0.136 h and increased proportionally to the dose in female mice and more than proportionally to the dose in males. AUC increased more than proportionally to the dose with no apparent sex difference. Elimination of NBBS in plasma was faster in mice (half-life (h); mice ?0.432, rat ?3.55). Oral bioavailability was higher in female rats (?60%) than males (23-52%) with apparent saturation of clearance at ?200 mg/kg body weight in females. In mice, bioavailability (5-14%) was lower with no apparent sex difference. NBBS was detected in brains of rats and mice but with low brain:plasma ratios (rats, ?5; mice, ?1) suggesting low potential to cross the blood brain barrier. Systemic exposure in male rats and mice following a single gavage administration was ?48-fold higher than multi-day feed exposure. These data demonstrate potential species, sex, dose- and route-related difference in toxicokinetics of NBBS in rodents.
Project description:Sulfolane is a ground water contaminant near refinery sites. The objective of this work was to investigate the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of sulfolane in male and female Harlan Hsd:Sprague Dawley® SD® rats and B6C3F1/N mice following a single oral administration of 10, 30, or 100?mg/kg. Sulfolane was rapidly absorbed in rats with the maximum plasma concentration, Cmax, reached at ?1.47?h. Although Cmax increased proportionally to the dose, the half-life of elimination increased with the dose and the area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) increased more than proportionally to the dose. In male and female rats, plasma elimination half-life increased with the dose from 1.97 to 6.33?h. Absorption of sulfolane in mice following oral administration was more rapid than in rats with Cmax reached at ?0.55?h. In addition, mice had a shorter half-life (? 1.25?h) and a lower AUC than rats. In male and female mice, both Cmax and AUC increased more than proportionally to the dose. Bioavailability of sulfolane was higher in rats (81-83%) than mice (59-63%) at 10?mg/kg; at 30 and 100?mg/kg, bioavailability >100% in both species and sexes suggesting that the saturation of metabolism and clearance processes of sulfolane may begin at a single oral dose of ~30?mg/kg. There was no apparent sex difference in toxicokinetic parameters of sulfolane in rats and mice. These data demonstrate that sulfolane was well-absorbed following oral administration with high bioavailability in rats and mice with some species differences, but no sex difference.
Project description:Hemorrhagic shock is a leading cause of death in people under the age of 45 and accounts for almost half of trauma-related deaths. In order to develop a treatment strategy based on potentiating mitochondrial function, we investigated the effect of the orphan drug dichloroacetate (DCA) on survival in an animal model of hemorrhagic shock in the absence of fluid resuscitation. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in rats by withdrawing 60% of the blood volume and maintaining a hypotensive state. The studies demonstrated prolonged survival of rats subjected to hemorrhagic injury (HI) when treated with DCA. In separate experiments, using a fluid resuscitation model we studied mitochondrial functional alterations and changes in metabolic networks connected to mitochondria following HI and treatment with DCA. DCA treatment restored cardiac mitochondrial membrane potential and tissue ATP in the rats following HI. Treatment with DCA resulted in normalization of several metabolic and molecular parameters including plasma lactate and p-AMPK/AMPK, as well as Ach-mediated vascular relaxation. In conclusion we demonstrate that DCA can be successfully used in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock in the absence of fluid resuscitation; therefore DCA may be a good candidate in prolonged field care following severe blood loss.
Project description:1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) is one of the most abundant manmade chlorinated organic contaminants in the world. Reductive dechlorination of 1,2-DCA by organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) can be impacted by other chlorinated contaminants such as chloroethenes and chloropropanes that can co-exist with 1,2-DCA at contaminated sites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chloroethenes and 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) on 1,2-DCA dechlorination using sediment cultures enriched with 1,2-DCA as the sole chlorinated compound (EA culture) or with 1,2-DCA and tetrachloroethene (PCE) (EB culture), and to model dechlorination kinetics. Both cultures contained Dehalococcoides as most predominated OHRB, and Dehalogenimonas and Geobacter as other known OHRB. In sediment-free enrichments obtained from the EA and EB cultures, dechlorination of 1,2-DCA was inhibited in the presence of the same concentrations of either PCE, vinyl chloride (VC), or 1,2-DCP; however, concurrent dechlorination of dual chlorinated compounds was achieved. In contrast, 1,2-DCA dechlorination completely ceased in the presence of cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) and only occurred after cDCE was fully dechlorinated. In turn, 1,2-DCA did not affect dechlorination of PCE, cDCE, VC, and 1,2-DCP. In sediment-free enrichments obtained from the EA culture, Dehalogenimonas 16S rRNA gene copy numbers decreased 1-3 orders of magnitude likely due to an inhibitory effect of chloroethenes. Dechlorination with and without competitive inhibition fit Michaelis-Menten kinetics and confirmed the inhibitory effect of chloroethenes and 1,2-DCP on 1,2-DCA dechlorination. This study reinforces that the type of chlorinated substrate drives the selection of specific OHRB, and indicates that removal of chloroethenes and in particular cDCE might be necessary before effective removal of 1,2-DCA at sites contaminated with mixed chlorinated solvents.
Project description:Recurrent malignant brain tumors (RMBTs) carry a poor prognosis. Dichloroacetate (DCA) activates mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and has shown activity against several human cancers.We conducted an open-label study of oral DCA in 15 adults with recurrent WHO grade III - IV gliomas or metastases from a primary cancer outside the central nervous system. The primary objective was detection of a dose limiting toxicity for RMBTs at 4 weeks of treatment, defined as any grade 4 or 5 toxicity, or grade 3 toxicity directly attributable to DCA, based on the National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Secondary objectives involved safety, tolerability and hypothesis-generating data on disease status. Dosing was based on haplotype variation in glutathione transferase zeta 1/maleylacetoacetate isomerase (GSTZ1/MAAI), which participates in DCA and tyrosine catabolism.Eight patients completed at least 1 four week cycle. During this time, no dose-limiting toxicities occurred. No patient withdrew because of lack of tolerance to DCA, although 2 subjects experienced grade 0-1 distal parasthesias that led to elective withdrawal and/or dose-adjustment. All subjects completing at least 1 four week cycle remained clinically stable during this time and remained on DCA for an average of 75.5 days (range 26-312).Chronic, oral DCA is feasible and well-tolerated in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas and other tumors metastatic to the brain using the dose range established for metabolic diseases. The importance of genetic-based dosing is confirmed and should be incorporated into future trials of chronic DCA administration.
Project description:Nonporous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have potential as promising carriers for ophthalmic drugs. However, the in vivo safety of ocular topical SiNPs remains unclear. This study investigated the in vivo safety of oral and ocular topical applications of 100?nm-sized SiNPs in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into the following four groups: low-dose oral administration (total 100?mg/kg of SiNPs mixed with food for one week), high-dose oral administration (total 1000?mg/kg of SiNPs mixed with food for one week), ocular topical administration (10?mg/ml concentration, one drop, applied to the right eyes four times a day for one month), or a negative control (no SiNP treatment). The rats were observed for 12 weeks to investigate any signs of general or ocular toxicity. During the observation period, no differences were observed in the body weights, food and water intakes, behaviors and abnormal symptoms of the four groups. No animal deaths occurred. After 12 weeks, hematologic, blood biochemical parameters and ophthalmic examinations revealed no abnormal findings in any of the animals. The lack of toxicity of the SiNPs was further verified in autopsy findings of brain, liver, lung, spleen, heart, kidneys, intestine, eyeballs, and ovaries or testes.
Project description:2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP, CAS No. 118-79-6) is widely used as a brominated flame retardant and wood antifungal agent. TBP is frequently detected in environmental matrices, biota, and humans. In female SD rats, systemically available TBP (10?µmol/kg, IV) was rapidly excreted primarily via urine, with approximately 61% of the dose recovered after 4?h, and 89%-94% in 24 h; 5% was recovered in feces; and 1%-2% in blood/tissues. TBP administered to female SD rats (0.1-1000?µmol/kg) by gavage was well absorbed, with approximately 25% eliminated via urine after 4?h and approximately 88% after 24?h. Approximately 11% of a single oral dose was recovered in bile. Male SD rats and B6C3F1/J mice of both sexes had similar disposition profiles when administered a single oral dose of TBP (10?µmol/kg). Following administration, fecal recoveries varied only slightly by dose, sex, or species. TBP readily passed unchanged through both human (ex vivo only) and rat skin with between 55% and 85% of a 100?nmol/cm2 passing into or through skin. Concentrations of TBP in blood fit a two-compartment model after IV-dosing and a one-compartment model after oral dosing. Urine contained a mixture of TBP, TBP-glucuronide, and TBP-sulfate. Fecal extracts contained only parent TBP whereas bile contained only TBP-glucuronide. TBP did not appear to bioaccumulate or alter its own metabolism after repeated administration. TBP was readily absorbed at all doses and routes tested with an oral bioavailability of 23%-27%; 49% of TBP is expected to be dermally bioavailable in humans. From these data, we conclude that humans are likely to have significant systemic exposure when TBP is ingested or dermal exposure occurs.