SV40 T antigen interacts with Nbs1 to disrupt DNA replication control.
ABSTRACT: Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is characterized by radiation hypersensitivity, chromosomal instability, and predisposition to cancer. Nbs1, the NBS protein, forms a tight complex with Mre11 and Rad50, and these interactions contribute to proper double-strand break repair. The simian virus 40 (SV40) oncoprotein, large T antigen (T), also interacts with Nbs1, and T-containing cells experience chromosomal hyperreplication in a manner dependent on T/Nbs1 complex formation. A substantial fraction of NBS-deficient fibroblasts reinitiate DNA replication in discrete regions, and wild-type Nbs1 corrects this defect. Similarly, synthesis of an N-terminal Nbs1 fragment induced DNA rereplication and tetraploidy, in NBS-deficient but not NBS-proficient cells. Moreover, SV40 origin-containing DNA hyperreplicated in T-containing NBS-deficient cells by comparison with T-containing, Nbs1-reconstituted derivatives. Thus, Nbs1 suppresses rereplication of cellular DNA and SV40 origin-containing replicons, and T targets Nbs1, thereby enhancing the yield of new SV40 genomes during viral DNA replication.
Project description:Microcephaly is a clinical characteristic for human nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS, mutated in NBS1 gene), a chromosomal instability syndrome. However, the underlying molecular pathogenesis remains elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate that neuronal disruption of NBS (Nbn in mice) causes microcephaly characterized by the reduction of cerebral cortex and corpus callosum, recapitulating neuronal anomalies in human NBS. Nbs1-deficient neocortex shows accumulative endogenous DNA damage and defective activation of Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)-Chk1 pathway upon DNA damage. Notably, in contrast to massive apoptotic cell death in Nbs1-deficient cerebella, activation of p53 leads to a defective neuroprogenitor proliferation in neocortex, likely via specific persistent induction of hematopoietic zinc finger (Hzf) that preferentially promotes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest whilst inhibiting apoptosis. Moreover, Trp53 mutations substantially rescue the microcephaly in Nbs1-deficient mice. Thus, the present results reveal the first clue that developing neurons at different regions of brain selectively respond to endogenous DNA damage, and underscore an important role for Nbs1 in neurogenesis.
Project description:Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1 form an evolutionarily conserved protein complex (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1, MRN) that has been proposed to function as a DNA damage sensor. Hypomorphic mutations in Mre11 and Nbs1 result in the human ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), respectively. In contrast, complete inactivation of Mre11, Rad50, or Nbs1 leads to early embryonic lethality, suggesting that the hypomorphic mutations may fail to reveal some of the essential functions of MRN. Here, we use Cre-loxP-mediated recombination to restrict Nbs1 deletion to B lymphocytes. We find that disruption of Nbs1 results in the accumulation of high levels of spontaneous DNA damage, impaired proliferation, and chromosomal endoreduplication. Moreover, we show that Ig class-switch recombination (CSR) is diminished in Nbs1-deficient B cells. The CSR defect is B cell-intrinsic, independent of switch-region transcription, and a consequence of inefficient recombination at the DNA level. Our findings reveal that Nbs1 is critical for efficient Ig CSR and maintenance of the integrity of chromosomal structure and number.
Project description:Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by predisposition to hematopoietic malignancy, cell-cycle checkpoint defects, and ionizing radiation sensitivity. NBS is caused by a hypomorphic mutation of the NBS1 gene, encoding nibrin, which forms a protein complex with Mre11 and Rad50, both involved in DNA repair. Nibrin localizes to chromosomal sites of class switching, and B cells from NBS patients show an enhanced presence of microhomologies at the sites of switch recombination. Because nibrin is crucial for embryonic survival, direct demonstration by targeted deletion that nibrin functions in class switch recombination has been lacking. Here, we show by cell-type-specific conditional inactivation of Nbn, the murine homologue of NBS1, that nibrin plays a role in the repair of gamma-irradiation damage, maintenance of chromosomal stability, and the recombination of Ig constant region genes in B lymphocytes.
Project description:The chromosomal instability syndromes Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) share many overlapping phenotypes, including cancer predisposition, radiation sensitivity, cell-cycle checkpoint defects, immunodeficiency, and gonadal dysfunction. The NBS protein Nbs1 is not only a downstream target of AT mutated (ATM) kinase but also acts upstream, promoting optimal ATM activation, ATM recruitment to breaks, and ATM accessibility to substrates. By reconstituting Nbs1 knockout mice with bacterial artificial chromosomes, we have assessed the contribution of distinct regions of Nbs1 to the ATM-dependent DNA damage response. We find that T cell and oocyte development, as well as DNA damage-induced G2/M and S phase checkpoint arrest and radiation survival are dependent on the N-terminal forkhead-associated domain, but not on the principal residues phosphorylated by ATM (S278 and S343) or on the evolutionarily conserved C-terminal region of Nbs1. However, the C-terminal region regulates irradiation-induced apoptosis. These studies provide insight into the complex interplay between Nbs1 and ATM in the DNA damage response.
Project description:Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins (SMC1, SMC3) are evolutionarily conserved chromosomal proteins that are components of the cohesin complex, necessary for sister chromatid cohesion. These proteins may also function in DNA repair. Here we report that SMC1 is a component of the DNA damage response network that functions as an effector in the ATM/NBS1-dependent S-phase checkpoint pathway. SMC1 associates with BRCA1 and is phosphorylated in response to IR in an ATM- and NBS1-dependent manner. Using mass spectrometry, we established that ATM phosphorylates S957 and S966 of SMC1 in vivo. Phosphorylation of S957 and/or S966 of SMC1 is required for activation of the S-phase checkpoint in response to IR. We also discovered that the phosphorylation of NBS1 by ATM is required for the phosphorylation of SMC1, establishing the role of NBS1 as an adaptor in the ATM/NBS1/SMC1 pathway. The ATM/CHK2/CDC25A pathway is also involved in the S-phase checkpoint activation, but this pathway is intact in NBS cells. Our results indicate that the ATM/NBS1/SMC1 pathway is a separate branch of the S-phase checkpoint pathway, distinct from the ATM/CHK2/CDC25A branch. Therefore, this work establishes the ATM/NBS1/SMC1 branch, and provides a molecular basis for the S-phase checkpoint defect in NBS cells.
Project description:Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) results from the absence of the NBS1 protein, responsible for detection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). NBS is characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and cancer predisposition. Here we show successful reprogramming of NBS fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (NBS-iPSCs). Our data suggest a strong selection for karyotypically normal fibroblasts to go through the reprogramming process. NBS-iPSCs then acquire numerous chromosomal aberrations and show a delayed response to DSB induction. Furthermore, NBS-iPSCs display slower growth, mitotic inhibition, a reduced apoptotic response to stress and abnormal cell cycle-related gene expression. Importantly, NBS neural progenitor cells (NBS-NPCs) show down-regulation of neural developmental genes, which seems to be mediated by P53. Our results demonstrate the importance of NBS1 in early human development, shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this severe syndrome and further expand our knowledge of the genomic stress cells experience during the reprogramming process. Overall design: Gene expression analysis was performed on a total of 6 human cell lines, including WT and NBS Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and NBS-iPSCs
Project description:The MRE11 complex (MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1) and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase function in the same DNA damage response pathway to effect cell cycle checkpoint activation and apoptosis. The functional interaction between the MRE11 complex and ATM has been proposed to require a conserved C-terminal domain of NBS1 for recruitment of ATM to sites of DNA damage. Human Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) cells and those derived from multiple mouse models of NBS express a hypomorphic NBS1 allele that exhibits impaired ATM activity despite having an intact C-terminal domain. This indicates that the NBS1 C terminus is not sufficient for ATM function. We derived Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) mice in which the C-terminal ATM interaction domain is deleted. Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) cells exhibit intra-S-phase checkpoint defects, but are otherwise indistinguishable from wild-type cells with respect to other checkpoint functions, ionizing radiation sensitivity and chromosome stability. However, multiple tissues of Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) mice showed a severe apoptotic defect, comparable to that of ATM- or CHK2-deficient animals. Analysis of p53 transcriptional targets and ATM substrates showed that, in contrast to the phenotype of Chk2(-/-) mice, NBS1(DeltaC) does not impair the induction of proapoptotic genes. Instead, the defects observed in Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) result from impaired phosphorylation of ATM targets including SMC1 and the proapoptotic factor, BID.
Project description:Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) results from the absence of the NBS1 protein, responsible for detection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). NBS is characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and cancer predisposition. Here we show successful reprogramming of NBS fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (NBS-iPSCs). Our data suggest a strong selection for karyotypically normal fibroblasts to go through the reprogramming process. NBS-iPSCs then acquire numerous chromosomal aberrations and show a delayed response to DSB induction. Furthermore, NBS-iPSCs display slower growth, mitotic inhibition, a reduced apoptotic response to stress and abnormal cell cycle-related gene expression. Importantly, NBS neural progenitor cells (NBS-NPCs) show down-regulation of neural developmental genes, which seems to be mediated by P53. Our results demonstrate the importance of NBS1 in early human development, shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this severe syndrome and further expand our knowledge of the genomic stress cells experience during the reprogramming process. Gene expression analysis was performed on a total of 6 human cell lines, including WT and NBS Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and NBS-iPSCs
Project description:Post-translational phosphorylation of proteins provides a mechanism for cells to switch on or off many diverse processes, including responses to replication stress. Replication-stress-induced phosphorylation enables the rapid activation of numerous proteins involved in DNA replication, DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints, including replication protein A (RPA). Here, we report that hydroxyurea (HU)-induced RPA phosphorylation requires both NBS1 (NBN) and NBS1 phosphorylation. Transfection of both phosphospecific and nonphosphospecific anti-NBS1 antibodies blocked hyperphosphorylation of RPA in HeLa cells. Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) cells stably transfected with an empty vector or with S343A-NBS1 or S278A/S343A phospho-mutants were unable to hyperphosphorylate RPA in DNA-damage-associated foci following HU treatment. The stable transfection of fully functional NBS1 in NBS cells restored RPA hyperphosphorylation. Retention of ATR on chromatin in both NBS cells and in NBS cells expressing S278A/S343A NBS1 mutants decreased after DNA damage, suggesting that ATR is the kinase responsible for RPA phosphorylation. The importance of RPA hyperphosphorylation is demonstrated by the ability of cells expressing a phospho-mutant form of RPA32 (RPA2) to suppress and delay HU-induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that RPA hyperphosphorylation requires NBS1 and is important for the cellular response to DNA damage.
Project description:Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex are conserved factors that play crucial role in genome stability and integrity. Despite their involvement in overlapping cellular functions, ranging from chromatin organization, telomere maintenance to DNA replication and repair, a tight functional relationship between HP1 and the MRN complex has never been elucidated. Here we show that the Drosophila HP1a protein binds to the MRN complex through its chromoshadow domain (CSD). In addition, loss of any of the MRN members reduces HP1a levels indicating that the MRN complex acts as regulator of HP1a stability. Moreover, overexpression of HP1a in nbs (but not in rad50 or mre11) mutant cells drastically reduces DNA damage associated with the loss of Nbs suggesting that HP1a and Nbs work in concert to maintain chromosome integrity in flies. We have also found that human HP1? and NBS1 interact with each other and that, similarly to Drosophila, siRNA-mediated inhibition of NBS1 reduces HP1? levels in human cultured cells. Surprisingly, fibroblasts from Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) patients, carrying the 657del5 hypomorphic mutation in NBS1 and expressing the p26 and p70 NBS1 fragments, accumulate HP1? indicating that, differently from NBS1 knockout cells, the presence of truncated NBS1 extends HP1? turnover and/or promotes its stability. Remarkably, an siRNA-mediated reduction of HP1? in NBS fibroblasts decreases the hypersensitivity to irradiation, a characteristic of the NBS syndrome. Overall, our data provide an unanticipated evidence of a close interaction between HP1 and NBS1 that is essential for genome stability and point up HP1? as a potential target to counteract chromosome instability in NBS patient cells.