Two new emerald geometrid species of Telotheta Warren from Ecuador and Bolivia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae, Lophochoristini).
ABSTRACT: Two new species of the lophochoristine genus Telotheta Warren found in Ecuador and Bolivia are described. The paper focuses on the morphological description and illustration of the wing pattern and genitalia structures of the typus generis Telothetamuscipunctata Dognin and the newly identified species Telothetaunoi and Telothetafresei. The distinguishing characters of the genera Telotheta and Paromphacodes are also briefly discussed.
Project description:A new species of the genus Ninodes Warren, N. quadratussp. n., is described from China and compared with related species, based on numerous museum specimens. N. albarius Beljaev & Park, 1998, described from Korea, is newly recorded for China. Illustrations of external features and genitalia for each species of Ninodes are presented.
Project description:All seven members of the genus Orthobrachia Warren, 1895 are recorded, with description of a new species from Sichuan Province, China and N. Thailand, including Orthobrachia latifasciata (Moore, 1888) and Orthobrachia flavidior (Hampson, 1898) from northern India, Nepal and China, Orthobrachia tenebrosa Yazaki, 1992 from Nepal and India, Orthobrachia owadai Yazaki, 1992 from India, Orthobrachia simpliciata Yazaki, 2002 from China, and Orthobrachia maoershanensis Huang, Xin & Wang, 2003 from South China. A key to the Orthobrachia species is provided, along with a distributional map of all nominal species. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in Hunan Agricultural University (China), South China Agricultural University (China) and Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig (Germany).
Project description:So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed.
Project description:Lepidoptera have little fossilization potential due to the presence of delicate structures and hence are exceptional findings, even in ambers that allow their preservation in sufficient detail for interpretation. From Eocene Baltic amber, the volumetrically largest known deposit of amber, there has been no reliable report of any member of the Macrolepidoptera (informal group of higher moths and all butterflies). Any such lepidopteran fossil would provide insight into evolutionary processes during the Eocene, long after flowering plants had completed their initial radiation. Here, we report on a first geometrid caterpillar from Baltic amber which is described as the oldest evidence for the subfamily Ennominae (tribe Boarmiini) and as one of the oldest records of the currently mega-diverse family. The new finding provides an important calibration point for molecular clock analyses within the family Geometridae and predates the basal divergence of Boarmiini from 32-38 to 44 Mya. It also predates the occurrence of this highly specialized form of caterpillar locomotion that allows for rapid movement.
Project description:Our study aims to investigate the relationships of the major lineages within the moth family Geometridae, with a focus on the poorly studied Oenochrominae-Desmobathrinae complex, and to translate some of the results into a coherent subfamilial and tribal level classification for the family. We analyzed a molecular dataset of 1,206 Geometroidea terminal taxa from all biogeographical regions comprising up to 11 molecular markers that includes one mitochondrial (COI) and 10 protein-coding nuclear gene regions (wingless, ArgK, MDH, RpS5, GAPDH, IDH, Ca-ATPase, Nex9, EF-1alpha, CAD). The molecular data set was analyzed using maximum likelihood as implemented in IQ-TREE and RAxML. We found high support for the subfamilies Larentiinae, Geometrinae and Ennominae in their traditional scopes. Sterrhinae becomes monophyletic only if Ergavia Walker, Ametris Hübner and Macrotes Westwood, which are currently placed in Oenochrominae, are formally transferred to Sterrhinae. Desmobathrinae and Oenochrominae are found to be polyphyletic. The concepts of Oenochrominae and Desmobathrinae required major revision and, after appropriate rearrangements, these groups also form monophyletic subfamily-level entities. Oenochrominae s.str. as originally conceived by Guenée is phylogenetically distant from Epidesmia and its close relatives. The latter is hereby described as the subfamily Epidesmiinae Murillo-Ramos, Sihvonen & Brehm, subfam. nov. Epidesmiinae are a lineage of "slender-bodied Oenochrominae" that include the genera Ecphyas Turner, Systatica Turner, Adeixis Warren, Dichromodes Guenée, Phrixocomes Turner, Abraxaphantes Warren, Epidesmia Duncan & Westwood and Phrataria Walker. Archiearinae are monophyletic when Dirce and Acalyphes are formally transferred to Ennominae. We also found that many tribes were para- or polyphyletic and therefore propose tens of taxonomic changes at the tribe and subfamily levels. Archaeobalbini stat. rev. Viidalepp (Geometrinae) is raised from synonymy with Pseudoterpnini Warren to tribal rank. Chlorodontoperini Murillo-Ramos, Sihvonen & Brehm, trib. nov. and Drepanogynini Murillo-Ramos, Sihvonen & Brehm, trib. nov. are described as new tribes in Geometrinae and Ennominae, respectively.
Project description:The genus Biston Leach, 1815 is reviewed for China. Seventeen species are recognized, of which Biston mediolatasp. n. is described. Biston pustulata (Warren, 1896) and Biston panterinariaexanthemata (Moore, 1888) are newly recorded for China. The following new synonyms are established: Biston suppressaria suppressaria (Guenée, 1858) (= Biston suppressaria benescripta (Prout, 1915), syn. n. = Biston luculentus Inoue, 1992 syn. n.); Biston falcata (Warren, 1893) (= Amphidasiserilda Oberthür, 1910, syn. n. = Amphidasis clorinda Oberthür, 1910, syn. n. = Biston emarginaria Leech, 1897, syn. n.); Biston panterinaria panterinaria (Bremer & Grey, 1853) (= Biston panterinaria abraxata (Leech, 1889), syn. n. = Biston panterinaria lienpingensis (Wehrli, 1939), syn. n. = B. panterinaria szechuanensis (Wehrli, 1939), syn. n.). Biston falcata satura (Wehrli,1941), comb. n. is proposed. A key to Chinese Biston and diagnoses for Chinese species are provided. Illustrations of external features and genitalia are presented.
Project description:Four new species belonging to the genera Hoplosauris Butler, Butleriana Parra, Warrenaria Parra, and Fueguina Parra from south-central Chile are described. The species are H.morenoi Ramos-González & Parra, sp. n., B.phoenix Ramos-González & Parra, sp. n., W.onca Ramos-González & Parra, sp. n., and F.araucana Ramos-González & Parra, sp. n. The genus Aloba Warren is reassigned to tribe Trichopterygini and A.carolinae Ramos-González & Parra, sp. n. is described. Comparative diagnosis for all new species are provided, and illustrations of genitalia and the wing venation of the males for all new described species are given.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The moth family Geometridae (inchworms or loopers), with approximately 23,000 described species, is the second most diverse family of the Lepidoptera. Apart from a few recent attempts based on morphology and molecular studies, the phylogeny of these moths has remained largely uninvestigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a rigorous and extensive molecular analysis of eight genes to examine the geometrid affinities in a global context, including a search for its potential sister-taxa. Our maximum likelihood analyses included 164 taxa distributed worldwide, of which 150 belong to the Geometridae. The selected taxa represent all previously recognized subfamilies and nearly 90% of recognized tribes, and originate from all over world. We found the Geometridae to be monophyletic with the Sematuridae+Epicopeiidae clade potentially being its sister-taxon. We found all previously recognized subfamilies to be monophyletic, with a few taxa misplaced, except the Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae complex that is a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa and the Orthostixinae, which was positioned within the Ennominae. The Sterrhinae and Larentiinae were found to be sister to the remaining taxa, followed by Archiearinae, the polyphyletic assemblage of Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae moths, Geometrinae and Ennominae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Geometridae in a global context. Our results generally agree with the other, more restricted studies, suggesting that the general phylogenetic patterns of the Geometridae are now well-established. Generally the subfamilies, many tribes, and assemblages of tribes were well supported but their interrelationships were often weakly supported by our data. The Eumeleini were particularly difficult to place in the current system, and several tribes were found to be para- or polyphyletic.
Project description:Background:The subfamily Geometrinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), commonly known as emerald moths, is an ecologically diverse group of moths with over 2,500 described species. Many taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Geometrinae have been undertaken in the past decade, resulting in hundreds of new taxonomic changes since online publication of the most recent checklist in December 2007. New information:This review synthesises the last 12 years of alpha-taxonomic research in Geometrinae. A comprehensive list of Geometrinae genus- and species-group descriptions, synonymies, combinations and other taxonomic changes, made since 2007, is provided. Since 2007, the known species richness of Geometrinae has increased from 2,529 to 2,642 species; an updated list of all these species is presented in a supplementary spreadsheet.
Project description:The genus Orbamia Herbulot, 1966 is revised. Two new genera are described: Rabomia Hausmann & Tujuba, gen. nov. (type species: Ectropis ? subaurata Warren, 1899), and Morabia Hausmann & Tujuba, gen. nov. (type species: Morabia politzari Hausmann & Tujuba, sp. nov.). Ten new species and two new subspecies are described: Rabomia obscurior Hausmann & Tujuba, sp. nov., from western Africa, Morabia politzari Hausmann & Tujuba, sp. nov., from Kenya, Morabia brunnea Hausmann & Tujuba, sp. nov., from Zambia, Orbamia marginata Hausmann & Tujuba, sp. nov., from Tanzania, Orbamia clarissima Hausmann & Tujuba, sp. nov., from Kenya, Orbamia clarior Hausmann & Tujuba, sp. nov., from Kenya, Orbamia obliqua Hausmann & Tujuba, sp. nov., from Zambia, Orbamia obliqua parva Hausmann & Tujuba, subsp. nov., from South Africa, Orbamia abiyi Hausmann & Tujuba, sp. nov., from Zambia, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Orbamia emanai Hausmann & Tujuba, sp. nov., from Ethiopia, Orbamia emanai lenzi Hausmann & Tujuba, subsp. nov., from Zambia and Malawi, and Orbamia balensis Hausmann & Tujuba, sp. nov. from Ethiopia. The taxon Lepiodes ocellata Warren, 1897 is raised from synonymy of O. octomaculata (Wallengren, 1872) to species rank (Zambia, Tanzania, Rwanda). The taxonomical analysis is based on both morphological and genetic cytochrome oxidase I (COI) data. Adults and male and female genitalia of all species are illustrated.