Novel binding motif and new flexibility revealed by structural analyses of a pyruvate dehydrogenase-dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase subcomplex from the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex.
ABSTRACT: The Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components, E1p, E2p, and E3, that sequentially carry out distinct steps in the overall reaction converting pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Efficient functioning requires the enzymatic components to assemble into a large complex, the integrity of which is maintained by tethering of the displaced, peripheral E1p and E3 components to the E2p core through non-covalent binding. We here report the crystal structure of a subcomplex between E1p and an E2p didomain containing a hybrid lipoyl domain along with the peripheral subunit-binding domain responsible for tethering to the core. In the structure, a region at the N terminus of each subunit in the E1p homodimer previously unseen due to crystallographic disorder was observed, revealing a new folding motif involved in E1p-E2p didomain interactions, and an additional, unexpected, flexibility was discovered in the E1p-E2p didomain subcomplex, both of which probably have consequences in the overall multienzyme complex assembly. This represents the first structure of an E1p-E2p didomain subcomplex involving a homodimeric E1p, and the results may be applicable to a large range of complexes with homodimeric E1 components. Results of HD exchange mass spectrometric experiments using the intact, wild type 3-lipoyl E2p and E1p are consistent with the crystallographic data obtained from the E1p-E2p didomain subcomplex as well as with other biochemical and NMR data reported from our groups, confirming that our findings are applicable to the entire E1p-E2p assembly.
Project description:The aceEF-lpd operon of Escherichia coli encodes the pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1p), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2p) and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDH complex). A thermoinducible expression system was developed to amplify a variety of genetically restructured PDH complexes, including those containing three, two, one and no lipoyl domains per E2p chain. Although large quantities of the corresponding complexes were produced, they had only 20-50% of the predicted specific activities. The activities of the E1p components were diminished to the same extent, and this could account for the shortfall in overall complex activity. Thermoinduction was used to express a mutant PDH complex in which the putative active-site histidine residue of the E2p component (His-602) was replaced by cysteine in the H602C E2p component. This substitution abolished dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase activity of the complex without affecting other E2p functions. The results support the view that His-602 is an active-site residue. The inactivation could mean that the histidine residue performs an essential role in the acetyltransferase reaction mechanism, or that the reaction is blocked by an irreversible modification of the cysteine substituent. Complementation was observed between the H602C PDH complex and a complex that is totally deficient in lipoyl domains, both in vitro, by the restoration of overall complex activity in mixed extracts, and in vivo, from the nutritional independence of strains that co-express the two complexes from different plasmids.
Project description:The pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex from Bacillus stearothermophilus comprises a structural core, composed of 60 dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2p) subunits, which binds multiple copies of pyruvate decarboxylase (E1p) and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) subunits. After limited proteolysis with chymotrypsin, the N-terminal lipoyl domain of E2p was excised, purified and sequenced. The residual complex, which remained assembled, was then digested with trypsin under mild conditions. This treatment promoted complete disassembly of the complex and the various components were separated by gel filtration and h.p.l.c. A folded fragment of E2p containing about 50 amino acid residues was identified as being responsible for binding the E3 subunits, although, unlike the corresponding region of the E2p or E2o chains of the pyruvate dehydrogenase or 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes from Escherichia coli, the fragment also bound E1p molecules. Further peptide purification and sequence analysis allowed the determination of the first 211 amino acid residues of the B. stearothermophilus E2p chain, thus providing the complete primary structure of the lipoyl domain, the E1p/E3-binding domain and the regions of polypeptide chain, probably highly flexible in nature, that link the domains to each other and to the inner-core (E2p-binding) domain. Several of the proteolytically sensitive sites were also identified. The sequence of the B. stearothermophilus E2p chain shows close homology with the sequences of the E2p and E2o chains from E. coli, although significant differences in structure are apparent. Detailed evidence for the sequence of the peptides obtained by limited proteolysis and further chemical and enzymic cleavages have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50142 (11 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 6BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained as indicated in Biochem. J. (1988) 249, 5.
Project description:The Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) catalyzing conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA comprises three components: E1p, E2p, and E3. The E2p is the five-domain core component, consisting of three tandem lipoyl domains (LDs), a peripheral subunit binding domain (PSBD), and a catalytic domain (E2pCD). Herein are reported the following. 1) The x-ray structure of E2pCD revealed both intra- and intertrimer interactions, similar to those reported for other E2pCDs. 2) Reconstitution of recombinant LD and E2pCD with E1p and E3p into PDHc could maintain at least 6.4% activity (NADH production), confirming the functional competence of the E2pCD and active center coupling among E1p, LD, E2pCD, and E3 even in the absence of PSBD and of a covalent link between domains within E2p. 3) Direct acetyl transfer between LD and coenzyme A catalyzed by E2pCD was observed with a rate constant of 199 s(-1), comparable with the rate of NADH production in the PDHc reaction. Hence, neither reductive acetylation of E2p nor acetyl transfer within E2p is rate-limiting. 4) An unprecedented finding is that although no interaction could be detected between E1p and E2pCD by itself, a domain-induced interaction was identified on E1p active centers upon assembly with E2p and C-terminally truncated E2p proteins by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The inclusion of each additional domain of E2p strengthened the interaction with E1p, and the interaction was strongest with intact E2p. E2p domain-induced changes at the E1p active site were also manifested by the appearance of a circular dichroism band characteristic of the canonical 4'-aminopyrimidine tautomer of bound thiamin diphosphate (AP).
Project description:The dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase subunit (E2p) of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex has two highly conserved lipoyl domains each modified with a lipoyl cofactor bound in amide linkage to a specific lysine residue. A sub-gene encoding the inner lipoyl domain of human E2p has been over-expressed in Escherichia coli. Two forms of the domain have been purified, corresponding to lipoylated and non-lipoylated species. The apo-domain can be lipoylated in vitro with partially purified E. coli lipoate protein ligase, and the lipoylated domain can be reductively acetylated by human E1p (pyruvate dehydrogenase). Availability of the two forms will now allow detailed biochemical and structural studies of the human lipoyl domains.
Project description:The dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase subunit (E2p) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli has three highly conserved and tandemly repeated lipoyl domains, each containing approx. 80 amino acid residues. These domains are covalently modified with lipoyl groups bound in amide linkage to the N6-amino groups of specific lysine residues, and the cofactors perform essential roles in the formation and transfer of acetyl groups by the dehydrogenase (E1p) and acetyltransferase (E2p) subunits. A subgene encoding a hybrid lipoyl domain was previously shown to generate two products when overexpressed, whereas a mutant subgene, in which the lipoyl-lysine codon is replaced by a glutamine codon, expresses only one product. A method has been devised for purifying the three types of independently folded domain from crude extracts of E. coli, based on their pH-(and heat-)stabilities. The domains were characterized by: amino acid and N-terminal sequence analysis, lipoic acid content, acetylation by E1p, tryptic peptide analysis and immunochemical activity. This has shown that the two forms of domain expressed from the parental subgene are lipoylated (L203) and unlipoylated (U203) derivatives of the hybrid lipoyl domain, whereas the mutant subgene produces a single unlipoylatable domain (204) containing the Lys-244----Gln substitution.
Project description:The aceEF-lpd operon of Escherichia coli encodes the pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1p), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2p) and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDH complex). An isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible expression system was developed for amplifying fully lipoylated wild-type and mutant PDH complexes to over 30% of soluble protein. The extent of lipoylation was related to the degree of aeration during amplification. The specific activities of the isolated PDH complexes and the E1p component were 50-75% of the values normally observed for the unamplified complex. This could be due to altered stoichiometries of the overproduced complexes (higher E3 and lower E1p contents) or inactivation of E1p. The chaperonin, GroEL, was identified as a contaminant which copurifies with the complex. Site-directed substitutions of an invariant glycine residue (G231A, G231S and G231M) in the putative thiamine pyrophosphate-binding fold of the E1p component had no effect on the production of high-molecular-mass PDH complexes but their E1p and PDH complex activities were very low or undetectable, indicating that G231 is essential for the structural or catalytic integrity of E1p. A minor correction to the nucleotide sequence, which leads to the insertion of an isoleucine residue immediately after residue 273, was made. Substitution of the conserved histidine and arginine residues (H602 and R603) in the putative active-site motif of the E2p subunit confirmed that H602 of the E. coli E2p is essential, whereas R603 could be replaced without inactivating E2p. Deletions affecting putative secondary structural elements at the boundary of the E2p catalytic domain inhibited catalytic activity without affecting the assembly of the E2p core or its ability to bind E1p, indicating that the latter functions are determined elsewhere in the domain. The results further consolidate the view that chloramphenicol acetyltransferase serves as a useful structural and functional model for the catalytic domain of the lipoate acyltransferases.
Project description:The human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is regulated by reversible phosphorylation by four isoforms of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). PDKs phosphorylate serine residues in the dehydrogenase (E1p) component of PDC, but their amino-acid sequences are unrelated to eukaryotic Ser/Thr/Tyr protein kinases. PDK3 binds to the inner lipoyl domains (L2) from the 60-meric transacetylase (E2p) core of PDC, with concomitant stimulated kinase activity. Here, we present crystal structures of the PDK3-L2 complex with and without bound ADP or ATP. These structures disclose that the C-terminal tail from one subunit of PDK3 dimer constitutes an integral part of the lipoyl-binding pocket in the N-terminal domain of the opposing subunit. The two swapped C-terminal tails promote conformational changes in active-site clefts of both PDK3 subunits, resulting in largely disordered ATP lids in the ADP-bound form. Our structural and biochemical data suggest that L2 binding stimulates PDK3 activity by disrupting the ATP lid, which otherwise traps ADP, to remove product inhibition exerted by this nucleotide. We hypothesize that this allosteric mechanism accounts, in part, for E2p-augmented PDK3 activity.
Project description:The E1p enzyme is an essential part of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate with concomitant acetylation of the E2p enzyme within the complex. We analyzed the Corynebacterium glutamicum aceE gene, encoding the E1p enzyme, and constructed and characterized an E1p-deficient mutant. Sequence analysis of the C. glutamicum aceE gene and adjacent regions revealed that aceE is not flanked by genes encoding other enzymes of the PDHC. Transcriptional analysis revealed that aceE from C. glutamicum is monocistronic and that its transcription is initiated 121 nucleotides upstream of the translational start site. Inactivation of the chromosomal aceE gene led to the inability to grow on glucose and to the absence of PDHC and E1p activities, indicating that only a single E1p enzyme is present in C. glutamicum and that the PDHC is essential for the growth of this organism on carbohydrate substrates. Surprisingly, the E1p enzyme of C. glutamicum showed up to 51% identity to homodimeric E1p proteins from gram-negative bacteria but no similarity to E1 alpha- or beta-subunits of heterotetrameric E1p enzymes which are generally assumed to be typical for gram-positives. To investigate the distribution of E1p enzymes in bacteria, we compiled and analyzed the phylogeny of 46 homodimeric E1p proteins and of 58 alpha-subunits of heterotetrameric E1p proteins deposited in public databases. The results revealed that the distribution of homodimeric and heterotetrameric E1p subunits in bacteria is not in accordance with the rRNA-based phylogeny of bacteria and is more heterogeneous than previously assumed.
Project description:The human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a 9.5-megadalton catalytic machine that employs three catalytic components, i.e. pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1p), dihydrolipoyl transacetylase (E2p), and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), to carry out the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. The human PDC is organized around a 60-meric dodecahedral core comprising the C-terminal domains of E2p and a noncatalytic component, E3-binding protein (E3BP), which specifically tethers E3 dimers to the PDC. A central issue concerning the PDC structure is the subunit stoichiometry of the E2p/E3BP core; recent studies have suggested that the core is composed of 48 copies of E2p and 12 copies of E3BP. Here, using an in vitro reconstituted PDC, we provide densitometry, isothermal titration calorimetry, and analytical ultracentrifugation evidence that there are 40 copies of E2p and 20 copies of E3BP in the E2p/E3BP core. Reconstitution with saturating concentrations of E1p and E3 demonstrated 40 copies of E1p heterotetramers and 20 copies of E3 dimers associated with the E2p/E3BP core. To corroborate the 40/20 model of this core, the stoichiometries of E3 and E1p binding to their respective binding domains were reexamined. In these binding studies, the stoichiometries were found to be 1:1, supporting the 40/20 model of the core. The overall maximal stoichiometry of this in vitro assembled PDC for E2p:E3BP:E1p:E3 is 40:20:40:20. These findings contrast a previous report that implicated that two E3-binding domains of E3BP bind simultaneously to a single E3 dimer (Smolle, M., Prior, A. E., Brown, A. E., Cooper, A., Byron, O., and Lindsay, J. G. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 19772-19780).
Project description:A deletion in vitro can be made in the aceEF-lpd operon encoding the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli, which causes deletion of two of the three homologous lipoyl domains that comprise the N-terminal half of each dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2p) polypeptide chain. An active complex is still formed and 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of this modified complex revealed that many of the unusually sharp resonances previously attributed to conformationally mobile segments in the wild-type E2p polypeptide chains had correspondingly disappeared. A further deletion was engineered in the long (alanine + proline)-rich segment of polypeptide chain that linked the one remaining lipoyl domain to the C-terminal half of the E2p chain. 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of the resulting enzyme complex, which was also active, revealed a further corresponding loss in the unusually sharp resonances observed in the spectrum. These experiments strongly support the view that the sharp resonances derive, principally at least, from the three long (alanine + proline)-rich sequences which separate the three lipoyl domains and link them to the C-terminal half of the E2p chain. Closer examination of the 400 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectra of the wild-type and restructured complexes, and of the products of limited proteolysis, revealed another sharp but smaller resonance. This was tentatively attributed to another, but smaller, (alanine + proline)-rich sequence that separates the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding domain from the inner core domain in the C-terminal half of the E2p chain. If this sequence is also conformationally flexible, it may explain previous fluorescence data which suggest that dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase bound to the enzyme complex is quite mobile. The acetyltransferase active site in the E2p chain was shown to reside in the inner core domain, between residues 370 and 629.