GH modulates hepatic epidermal growth factor signaling in the mouse.
ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a key regulator of cell survival and proliferation involved in the pathogenesis and progression of different types of cancer. The EGF receptor (EGFR) is activated by binding of the specific ligand but also by transactivation triggered by different growth factors including GH. Chronically, elevated GH levels have been associated with the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Considering EGF and GH involvement in cell proliferation and their signaling crosstalk, the objective of the present study was to analyze GH modulatory effects on EGF signaling in liver. For this purpose, GH receptor-knockout (GHR-KO) and GH-overexpressing transgenic mice were used. EGFR content was significantly decreased in GHR-KO mice. Consequently, EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT, ERK1/2, STAT3, and STAT5 was significantly decreased in these mice. In contrast, EGFR content as well as its basal tyrosine phosphorylation was increased in transgenic mice overexpressing GH. However, EGF stimulation caused similar levels of EGFR, AKT, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in normal and transgenic mice, while EGF induction of STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation was inhibited in the transgenic mice. Desensitization of the STATs was related to decreased association of these proteins to the EGFR and increased association between STAT5 and the tyrosine phosphatase SH2-containing phosphatase-2. While GHR knockout is associated with diminished expression of the EGFR and a concomitant decrease in EGF signaling, GH overexpression results in EGFR overexpression with different effects depending on the signaling pathway analyzed: AKT and ERK1/2 pathways are induced by EGF, while STAT3 and STAT5 activation is heterologously desensitized.
Project description:GH is generally believed to signal exclusively through Janus tyrosine kinases (JAK), particularly JAK2, leading to activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT), ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways, resulting in transcriptional regulation of target genes. Here we report the creation of targeted knock-in mice wherein the Box1 motif required for JAK2 activation by the GH receptor (GHR) has been disabled by four Pro/Ala mutations. These mice are unable to activate hepatic JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, or Akt in response to GH injection but can activate Src and ERK1/2. Their phenotype is identical to that of the GHR(-/-) mouse, emphasizing the key role of JAK2 in postnatal growth and the minimization of obesity in older males. In particular, they show dysregulation of the IGF-I/IGF-binding protein axis at transcript and protein levels and decreased bone length. Because no gross phenotypic differences were evident between GHR(-/-) and Box1 mutants, we undertook transcript profiling in liver from 4-month-old males. We compared their transcript profiles with our 391-GHR truncated mice, which activate JAK2, ERK1/2, and STAT3 in response to GH but not STAT5a/b. This has allowed us for the first time to identify in vivo Src/ERK-regulated transcripts, JAK2-regulated transcripts, and those regulated by the distal part of the GHR, particularly by STAT5.
Project description:Several hypothalamic neuronal populations are directly responsive to growth hormone (GH) and central GH action regulates glucose and energy homeostasis. However, the potential role of GH signaling in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons has not been studied yet. Thus, we investigated whether POMC neurons are responsive to GH and if ablation of GH receptor (GHR) or STAT5 in POMC cells leads to metabolic imbalances. Approximately 60% of POMC neurons of the arcuate nucleus exhibited STAT5 phosphorylation after intracerebroventricular GH injection. Ablation of GHR or STAT5 in POMC cells did not affect energy or glucose homeostasis. However, glucoprivic hyperphagia was blunted in male and female GHR knockout mice, and in male POMC-specific STAT5 knockout mice. Additionally, the absence of GHR in POMC neurons decreased glycemia during prolonged food restriction in male mice. Thus, GH action in POMC neurons regulates glucoprivic hyperphagia as well as blood glucose levels during prolonged food restriction.
Project description:The binding of STAT3 and STAT5 to growth factor and cytokine receptors such as EGFR and IL-6 receptor gp130 is critical to their activation and ability to contribute to malignant transformation. Therefore, interfering with these biochemical processes could lead to the discovery of novel anticancer agents.Co-immunoprecipitation, western blotting, microscopy, DNA binding, invasion, and soft agar assays as well as a mouse model were used to investigate the mechanism by which the natural product Withacnistin (Wit) inhibits STAT 3/5 tyrosine phosphoryaltion and activation.Wit blocks EGF- and IL-6-stimulated binding of STAT3 and STAT5 to EGFR and gp130. Wit inhibits EGF-, PDGF-, IL-6-, IFN?-, and GM-CSF-stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5 but not of EGFR or PDGFR. The inhibition of P-STAT3 and P-STAT5 occurred rapidly, within minutes of Wit treatment and growth factor stimulation. Wit also inhibits STAT3 nuclear translocation, DNA binding, promoter transcriptional activation, and it suppresses the expression levels of STAT3 target genes such as Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Finally, Wit induces apoptosis, inhibits anchorage-dependent and -independent growth and invasion, and causes breast tumour regression in an ErbB2-driven transgenic mouse model.These data warrant further development of Wit as a novel anticancer drug for targeting tumours that harbour hyperactivated STAT3 and STAT5.
Project description:Recent reports have confirmed highest levels of growth hormone (GH) receptor (GHR) transcripts in melanoma, one of the most aggressive forms of human cancer. Yet the mechanism of GH action in melanoma remains mostly unknown. Here, using human malignant melanoma cells, we examined the effects of GH excess or siRNA mediated GHR knock-down (GHRKD) on tumor proliferation, migration and invasion. GH promoted melanoma progression while GHRKD attenuated the same. Western blot analysis revealed drastic modulation of multiple oncogenic signaling pathways (JAK2, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, AKT, mTOR, SRC and ERK1/2) following addition of GH or GHRKD. Further, we show that GH excess upregulates expression of markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition in human melanoma, while the effects were reversed by GHRKD. Interestingly, we observed consistent expression of GH transcript in the melanoma cells as well as marked modulation of the IGF receptors and binding proteins (IGF1R, IGF2R, IR, IGFBP2, IGFBP3) and the oncogenic HGF-MET mRNA, in response to excess GH or GHRKD. Our study thus identifies the mechanistic model of GH-GHR action in human melanoma and validates it as an important pharmacological target of intervention.
Project description:The epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt cascade among other signaling pathways. This route is involved in cell proliferation and survival, therefore, its dysregulation can promote cancer. Considering the relevance of the PI3K-Akt signaling in cell survival and in the pathogenesis of cancer, and that GH was reported to modulate EGFR expression and signaling, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of increased GH levels on EGF-induced PI3K-Akt signaling. EGF-induced signaling was evaluated in the liver of GH-overexpressing transgenic mice and in their normal siblings. While Akt expression was increased in GH-overexpressing mice, EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt, relative to its protein content, was diminished at Ser473 and inhibited at Thr308; consequently, mTOR, which is a substrate of Akt, was not activated by EGF. However, the activation of PDK1, a kinase involved in Akt phosphorylation at Thr308, was not reduced in transgenic mice. Kinetics studies of EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation showed that it is rapidly and transiently induced in GH-overexpressing mice compared with normal siblings. Thus, the expression and activity of phosphatases involved in the termination of the PI3K-Akt signaling were studied. In transgenic mice, neither PTEN nor PP2A were hyperactivated; however, EGF induced the rapid and transient association of SHP-2 to Gab1, which mediates association to EGFR and activation of PI3K. Rapid recruitment of SHP2, which would accelerate the termination of the proliferative signal induced, could be therefore contributing to the diminished EGF-induced activity of Akt in GH-overexpressing mice.
Project description:GH/STAT5 signaling is desensitized in the liver in adult transgenic mice overexpressing GH; however, these animals present greater body size. To assess whether the STAT5 pathway is active during the growth period in the liver in these animals, and how signaling modulators participate in this process, growing transgenic mice and normal siblings were evaluated. STAT5 does not respond to an acute GH-stimulus, but displays higher basal phosphorylation in the livers of growing GH-overexpressing mice. GH receptor and the positive modulators glucocorticoid receptor and HNF1 display greater abundance in transgenic animals, supporting the activity of STAT5. The negative modulators cytokine-induced suppressor and PTP1B are increased in GH-overexpressing mice. The suppressors SOCS2 and SOCS3 exhibit higher mRNA levels in transgenic mice but lower protein content, indicating that they are being actively degraded. Therefore, STAT5 signaling is increased in the liver in GH-transgenic mice during the growth period, with a balance between positive and negative effectors resulting in accelerated but controlled growth.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In a previous study, we observed cell proliferation 3 days after spinal cord injury, and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) had significantly increased in the region of the injury. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of the new study described here was to evaluate the roles of IL-6 and EGF after traumatic damage to the spinal cord having isolated neural progenitor cells (NPC) from adult mice. METHODS AND RESULTS:Evidence provided by the trypan blue dye exclusion assay, 5-bromodeoxyuridine immunoreactivity and Western blot analysis indicated that IL-6 and EGF induced proliferation of these spinal cord-derived NPCs via phosphorylation of Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), respectively. Combined treatment with IL-6 and EGF accelerated proliferation of cells synergistically and phosphorylation of STAT3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2). Furthermore, AG490 and AG1478, JAK2 inhibitor and EGFR inhibitor, respectively, prevented the IL-6- and EGF-induced proliferation of the cells. Interestingly, IL-6-activated MAPKs but EGF did not influence JAK2/STAT3 activation; AG490 specifically inhibited IL-6-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation without affecting IL-6-induced phosphorylation of Raf and MEK1/2. These results indicate that IL-6 is directly involved in Erk1/2 activation via JAK2 and that Erk1/2 provides a signal bridge between the IL-6-induced JAK2/STAT3 pathway and EGF-induced MAPK pathway. CONCLUSIONS:Our study is the first demonstration of IL-6- and EGF-stimulated proliferation of spinal cord progenitor cells via JAK2/STAT3 and MAPK signalling pathways. These pathways play key roles in repopulation and regeneration of spinal cord tissue after injury. It may represent novel therapeutic targets for pharmacological intervention in central nervous system disease, including spinal cord injury.
Project description:Epithelial cancers can be initiated by activating mutations in components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway such as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF), v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Human intestinal serrated polyps are a heterogeneous group of benign lesions, but some progress to colorectal cancer. Tumors that arise from these polyps frequently contain activating mutations in BRAF or KRAS, but little is known about the role of EGFR activation in their development.Polyp samples were obtained from adults during screening colonoscopies at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. We measured levels of EGFR protein and phosphorylation in human serrated polyps by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. We generated transgenic mice that express the ligand for EGFR, Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), in the intestine.EGFR and the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 were phosphorylated in serrated areas of human hyperplastic polyps (HPPs), sessile serrated adenomas, and traditional serrated adenomas. EGFR and ERK1/2 were phosphorylated in the absence of KRAS or BRAF activating mutations in a subset of HPP. Transgenic expression of the EGFR ligand HB-EGF in the intestines of mice promoted development of small cecal serrated polyps. Mice that expressed a combination of HB-EGF and US28 (a constitutively active, G-protein-coupled receptor that increases processing of HB-EGF from the membrane) rapidly developed large cecal serrated polyps. These polyps were similar to HPPs and had increased phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK1/2 within the serrated epithelium. Administration of pharmacologic inhibitors of EGFR or MAPK to these transgenic mice significantly reduced polyp development.Activation of EGFR signaling in the intestine of mice promotes development of serrated polyps. EGFR signaling also is activated in human HPPs, sessile serrated adenomas, and traditional serrated adenomas.
Project description:Growth failure remains a common complication of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) and has been associated with small bowel involvement and need for surgery. We have reported that patients with elevated (? 1.6 ?g/mL) granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor autoantibodies (GM-CSF Ab) are more likely to experience complicated ileal disease requiring surgery. We hypothesized that concurrent GM-CSF Ab and CARD15 risk allele carriage (C15(+) GMAb(+) ) would be associated with growth failure in CD and growth hormone (GH) resistance in murine ileitis.We enrolled 229 pediatric CD patients at two sites and determined CARD15 genotype, serum GM-CSF Ab, and GH binding protein (GHBP), and height (HTz) and weight (WTz) z-scores at diagnosis. Ileitis was induced in card15-deficient mice by GM-CSF neutralization and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure. Hepatic GH receptor (GHR) abundance and GH-dependent Stat5 activation were determined by western blot and Igf-I mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) HTz at diagnosis was reduced to -0.48 (-4.2, 2.3) in C15(+) GMAb(+) patients, compared to -0.07 (-4.9, 3.4) in disease controls (P ? 0.05). Circulating GHBP, as a marker for tissue GHR abundance, was reduced in C15(+) GMAb(+) patients. Hepatic GHR abundance, GH induction of Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation, and Igf-I mRNA expression were reduced in male card15-deficient mice with ileitis due to GM-CSF neutralization and NSAID exposure.Innate dysfunction due to concurrent genetic variation in CARD15 and neutralizing GM-CSF Ab is associated with linear growth failure in pediatric CD, and hepatic GH resistance in murine ileitis.
Project description:Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been demonstrated to be nuclear localized both in vivo and in vitro, but the significance of this observation has remained elusive. Here we show that nuclear GHR is strongly correlated with proliferative status in vivo by using a liver regeneration model. In vitro, nuclear translocation of the GH receptor is GH-dependent and appears to be mediated by the Importin system. Constitutive nuclear targeting of GHR in murine pro-B cells is associated with constitutive activation of STAT5, a transforming agent in lymphoma and other cell types. This activation is abrogated by inhibition of JAK2 and appears to be driven by autocrine murine GH action coupled with enhanced nuclear uptake of phospho-STAT5. Nuclear targeting induces dysregulated cell cycle progression in the pro-B cell line, associated with constitutive up-regulation of the proliferation inducers Survivin and Mybbp, the metastasis related Dysadherin, and other tumor markers. GHR nuclear-targeted cells generate aggressive metastatic tumors when injected into nude mice, which display nuclear localized GHR strikingly similar to that seen in human lymphomas. We conclude that aberrant nuclear localization of GHR is a marker of high proliferative status and is sufficient to induce tumorigenesis and tumor progression.