IgG2 antibodies against a clinical grade Plasmodium falciparum CSP vaccine antigen associate with protection against transgenic sporozoite challenge in mice.
ABSTRACT: The availability of a highly purified and well characterized circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is essential to improve upon the partial success of recombinant CSP-based malaria vaccine candidates. Soluble, near full-length, Plasmodium falciparum CSP vaccine antigen (CS/D) was produced in E. coli under bio-production conditions that comply with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). A mouse immunogenicity study was conducted using a stable oil-in-water emulsion (SE) of CS/D in combination with the Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA/SE), or one of two TLR7/8 agonists: R848 (un-conjugated) or 3M-051 (covalently conjugated). Compared to Alum and SE, GLA/SE induced higher CS/D specific antibody response in Balb/c mice. Subclass analysis showed higher IgG2:IgG1 ratio of GLA/SE induced antibodies as compared to Alum and SE. TLR synergy was not observed when soluble R848 was mixed with GLA/SE. Antibody response of 3M051 formulations in Balb/c was similar to GLA/SE, except for the higher IgG2:IgG1 ratio and a trend towards higher T cell responses in 3M051 containing groups. However, no synergistic enhancement of antibody and T cell response was evident when 3M051 conjugate was mixed with GLA/SE. In C57Bl/6 mice, CS/D adjuvanted with 3M051/SE or GLA/SE induced higher CSP repeat specific titers compared to SE. While, 3M051 induced antibodies had high IgG2c:IgG1 ratio, GLA/SE promoted high levels of both IgG1 and IgG2c. GLA/SE also induced more potent T-cell responses compared to SE in two independent C57/BL6 vaccination studies, suggesting a balanced and productive T(H1)/T(H2) response. GLA and 3M-051 similarly enhanced the protective efficacy of CS/D against challenge with a transgenic P. berghei parasite and most importantly, high levels of cytophilic IgG2 antibodies were associated with protection in this model. Our data indicated that the cGMP-grade, soluble CS/D antigen combined with the TLR4-containing adjuvant GLA/SE warrants further evaluation for protective responses in humans.
Project description:In this study we have investigated the potential of mycobacterial proteins as candidate subunit vaccines for bovine tuberculosis. In addition, we have explored the use of TLR-ligands as potential adjuvants in cattle. In vitro screening assays with whole blood from Mycobacterium bovis-infected and BCG-vaccinated cattle demonstrated that fusion protein constructs were most commonly recognised, and the ID83 fusion protein was selected for further immunisation studies. Furthermore, glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) and resiquimod (R848), agonists for TLR4 and TLR7/8 respectively, stimulated cytokine production (IL-12, TNF-?, MIP-1? and IL-10) in bovine dendritic cell cultures, and these were formulated as novel oil-in-water emulsions (GLA-SE and R848-SE) for immunisation studies. Immunisation with ID83 in a water-in-oil emulsion adjuvant (ISA70) induced both cell mediated and humoral immune responses, as characterised by antigen-specific IFN-? production, cell proliferation, IgG1 and IgG2 antibody production. In comparison, ID83 immunisation with the novel adjuvants induced weaker (ID83/R848-SE) or no (ID83/GLA-SE) antigen-specific IFN-? production and cell proliferation. However, both did induce ID83-specific antibody production, which was restricted to IgG1 antibody isotype. Overall, these results provide encouraging preliminary data for the further development of ID83 in vaccine strategies for bovine TB.
Project description:The Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) protein (CSP) is a major vaccine target for preventing malaria infection. Thus, developing strong and durable antibody and T cell responses against CSP with novel immunogens and potent adjuvants may improve upon the success of current approaches. Here, we compare four distinct full-length P. falciparum CS proteins expressed in Escherichia coli or Pichia pastoris for their ability to induce immunity and protection in mice when administered with long-chain poly(I · C) [poly(I · C)LC] as an adjuvant. CS proteins expressed in E. coli induced high-titer antibody responses against the NANP repeat region and potent CSP-specific CD4(+) T cell responses. Moreover, E. coli-derived CS proteins in combination with poly(I · C)LC induced potent multifunctional (interleukin 2-positive [IL-2(+)], tumor necrosis factor alpha-positive [TNF-?(+)], gamma interferon-positive [IFN-?(+)]) CD4(+) effector T cell responses in blood, in spleen, and particularly in liver. Using transgenic Plasmodium berghei expressing the repeat region of P. falciparum CSP [Pb-CS(Pf)], we showed that there was a 1- to 4-log decrease in malaria rRNA in the liver following a high-dose challenge and ~50% sterilizing protection with a low-dose challenge compared to control levels. Protection was directly correlated with high-level antibody titers but not CD4(+) T cell responses. Finally, protective immunity was also induced using the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-stable emulsion (GLA-SE) as the adjuvant, which also correlated with high antibody titers yet CD4(+) T cell immunity that was significantly less potent than that with poly(I · C)LC. Overall, these data suggest that full-length CS proteins and poly(I · C)LC or GLA-SE offer a simple vaccine formulation to be used alone or in combination with other vaccines for preventing malaria infection.
Project description:Elderly people are at high risk for influenza-related morbidity and mortality due to progressive immunosenescence. While toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist containing adjuvants, and other adjuvants, have been shown to enhance influenza vaccine-induced protective responses, the mechanisms underlying how these adjuvanted vaccines could benefit the elderly remain elusive. Here, we show that a split H1N1 influenza vaccine (sH1N1) combined with a TLR4 agonist, glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant formulated in a stable oil-in-water emulsion (GLA-SE), boosts IgG2c:IgG1 ratios, enhances hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers, and increases protection in aged mice. We find that all adjuvanted sH1N1 vaccines tested were able to protect both young and aged mice from lethal A/H1N1/California/4/2009 virus challenge after two immunizations compared to vaccine alone. We show that GLA-SE combined with sH1N1, however, also provides enhanced protection from morbidity in aged mice given one immunization (based on change in weight percentage). While the GLA-SE-adjuvanted sH1N1 vaccine promotes the generation of cytokine-producing T helper 1 cells, germinal center B cells, and long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in young mice, these responses were muted in aged mice. Differential in vitro responses, dependent on age, were also observed from mouse-derived bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and lung homogenates following stimulation with adjuvants, including GLA-SE. Besides enhanced HAI titers, additional protective factors elicited with sH1N1?+?GLA-SE in young mice were observed, including (a) rapid reduction of viral titers in the lung, (b) prevention of excessive lung inflammation, and (c) homeostatic maintenance of alveolar macrophages (AMs) following H1N1 infection. Collectively, our results provide insight into mechanisms of adjuvant-mediated immune protection in the young and elderly.
Project description:Preclinical studies suggested that IgG2c isotype may specifically impair skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in mice. In this study we investigated the association between serum levels of the four IgG subclasses and insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic individuals. Total IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels were measured in 262 subjects. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. IgG2 levels were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, 2-h post-load glucose levels and complement C3. Serum IgG2, but not IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 levels were negatively correlated with whole-body insulin sensitivity (r?=?-0.17; P?=?0.003) and muscle insulin sensitivity index (r?=?-0.16; P?=?0.03) after adjustment for age and gender. No significant correlation was found between IgG2 levels and hepatic insulin resistance assessed by HOMA-IR and liver IR index. In a multivariable regression analysis including variables known to affect insulin sensitivity such as age, gender, BMI, smoking, lipids, inflammatory markers, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose levels, IgG2 levels were independently associated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (??=?-0.115, 95% CI: -0.541 to -0.024; P?=?0.03). These data demonstrate the independent association between higher levels of IgG2 and decreased whole-body insulin sensitivity, thus confirming in humans the animal-based evidence indicating the pathogenic role of IgG2 in insulin resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The RTS,S/AS01E vaccine provides partial protection against malaria in African children, but immune responses have only been partially characterized and do not reliably predict protective efficacy. We aimed to evaluate comprehensively the immunogenicity of the vaccine at peak response, the factors affecting it, and the antibodies associated with protection against clinical malaria in young African children participating in the multicenter phase 3 trial for licensure. METHODS:We measured total IgM, IgG, and IgG1-4 subclass antibodies to three constructs of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) that are part of the RTS,S vaccine, by quantitative suspension array technology. Plasma and serum samples were analyzed in 195 infants and children from two sites in Ghana (Kintampo) and Mozambique (Manhiça) with different transmission intensities using a case-control study design. We applied regression models and machine learning techniques to analyze immunogenicity, correlates of protection, and factors affecting them. RESULTS:RTS,S/AS01E induced IgM and IgG, predominantly IgG1 and IgG3, but also IgG2 and IgG4, subclass responses. Age, site, previous malaria episodes, and baseline characteristics including antibodies to CSP and other antigens reflecting malaria exposure and maternal IgGs, nutritional status, and hemoglobin concentration, significantly affected vaccine immunogenicity. We identified distinct signatures of malaria protection and risk in RTS,S/AS01E but not in comparator vaccinees. IgG2 and IgG4 responses to RTS,S antigens post-vaccination, and anti-CSP and anti-P. falciparum antibody levels pre-vaccination, were associated with malaria risk over 1-year follow-up. In contrast, antibody responses to HBsAg (all isotypes, subclasses, and timepoints) and post-vaccination IgG1 and IgG3 to CSP C-terminus and NANP were associated with protection. Age and site affected the relative contribution of responses in the correlates identified. CONCLUSIONS:Cytophilic IgG responses to the C-terminal and NANP repeat regions of CSP and anti-HBsAg antibodies induced by RTS,S/AS01E vaccination were associated with malaria protection. In contrast, higher malaria exposure at baseline and non-cytophilic IgG responses to CSP were associated with disease risk. Data provide new correlates of vaccine success and failure in African children and reveal key insights into the mode of action that can guide development of more efficacious next-generation vaccines.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious death worldwide. Development of improved TB vaccines that boost or replace BCG is a major global health goal. ID93?+?GLA-SE is a fusion protein TB vaccine candidate combined with the Toll-like Receptor 4 agonist adjuvant, GLA-SE. We conducted a phase 1, randomized, double-blind, dose-escalation clinical trial to evaluate two dose levels of the ID93 antigen, administered intramuscularly alone or in combination with two dose levels of the GLA-SE adjuvant, in 60 BCG-naive, QuantiFERON-negative, healthy adults in the US (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01599897). When administered as 3 injections, 28 days apart, all dose levels of ID93 alone and ID93?+?GLA-SE demonstrated an acceptable safety profile. All regimens elicited vaccine-specific humoral and cellular responses. Compared with ID93 alone, vaccination with ID93?+?GLA-SE elicited higher titers of ID93-specific antibodies, a preferential increase in IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses, and a multifaceted Fc-mediated effector function response. The addition of GLA-SE also enhanced the magnitude and polyfunctional cytokine profile of CD4+ T cells. The data demonstrate an acceptable safety profile and indicate that the GLA-SE adjuvant drives a functional humoral and T-helper 1 type cellular response.
Project description:Neonatal Fc-receptor (FcRn), the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like Fc-receptor, transports immunoglobuline G (IgG) across cell layers, extending IgG half-life in circulation and providing newborns with humoral immunity. IgG1 and IgG2 have similar half-lives, yet IgG2 displays lower foetal than maternal concentration at term, despite all known FcRn binding residues being preserved between IgG1 and IgG2. We investigated FcRn mediated transcytosis of VH-matched IgG1 and IgG2 and mutated variants thereof lacking Fc-gamma receptor (Fc?R) binding in human cells expressing FcRn. We observed that Fc?R binding was not required for transport and that FcRn transported less IgG2 than IgG1. Transport of IgG1 with a shortened lower hinge (?Gly236, absent in germline IgG2), was reduced to levels equivalent to IgG2. Conversely, transport of IgG2?+?Gly236 was increased to IgG1 levels. Gly236 is not a contact residue between IgG and FcRn, suggesting that its absence leads to an altered conformation of IgG, possibly due to a less flexible Fab, positioned closer to the Fc portion. This may sterically hinder FcRn binding and transport. We conclude that the lack of Gly236 is sufficient to explain the reduced FcRn-mediated IgG2 transcytosis and accounts for the low maternal/fetal IgG2 ratio at term.
Project description:Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum is a promising malaria vaccine target. RTS,S, the most advanced malaria vaccine candidate consists of the central NANP repeat and carboxy-terminal region of CSP displayed on a hepatitis B virus-like particle (VLP). To build upon the success of RTS,S, we produced a near full-length Plasmodium falciparum CSP that also includes the conserved amino-terminal region of CSP. We recently showed that this soluble CSP, combined with a synthetic Toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR4) agonist in stable oil-in-water emulsion (GLA/SE), induces a potent and protective immune response in mice against transgenic parasite challenge. Here we have investigated whether the immunogenicity of soluble CSP could be further augmented by presentation on a VLP. Bacteriophage Q? VLPs can be readily produced in E.coli, they have a diameter of 25 nm and contain packaged E. coli RNA which serves as a built in adjuvant through the activation of TLR7/8. CSP was chemically conjugated to Q? and the CSP-Q? vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy were compared to adjuvanted soluble CSP in the C57Bl/6 mouse model. When formulated with adjuvants lacking a TLR4 agonist (Alum, SE and Montanide) the Q?-CSP induced higher anti-NANP repeat titers, higher levels of cytophilic IgG2b/c antibodies and a trend towards higher protection against transgenic parasite challenge as compared to soluble CSP formulated in the same adjuvant. The VLP and soluble CSP immunogenicity difference was most pronounced at low antigen dose, and within the CSP molecule, the titers against the NANP repeats were preferentially enhanced by Q? presentation. While a TLR4 agonist enhanced the immunogenicity of soluble CSP to levels comparable to the VLP vaccine, the TLR4 agonist did not further improve the immunogenicity of the Q?-CSP vaccine. The data presented here pave the way for further improvement in the Q? conjugation chemistry and evaluation of both the Q?-CSP and soluble CSP vaccines in the non-human primate model.
Project description:The induction of high levels of systemic and mucosal humoral immunity is a key goal for many prophylactic vaccines. However, adjuvant strategies developed in mice have often performed poorly in the clinic. Due to their closer similarity to humans, minipigs may provide a more accurate picture of adjuvant performance. Based on their complementary signalling pathways, we assessed humoral immune responses to model antigens after co-administration with the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulator glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA-AF) or the TLR7/8 agonist resiquimod (R848) (alone and in combination) via the intradermal (ID), intranasal (IN) or combined routes in the Gottingen minipig animal model. Surprisingly, we discovered that while GLA-AF additively enhanced the adjuvant effect of R848 when injected ID, it abrogated the adjuvant activity of R848 after IN inoculation. We then performed a route comparison study using a CN54 gp140 HIV Envelope model antigen adjuvanted with R848 + GLA-AF (ID) or R848 alone (IN). Animals receiving priming inoculations via one route were then boosted by the alternate route. Although differences were observed in the priming phase (IN or ID), responses converged upon boosting by the alternative route with no observable impact resultant from the order of administration (ID/IN vs IN/ID). Specific IgG responses were measured at a distal mucosal site (vaginal), although there was no evidence of mucosal linkage as these closely reflected serum antibody levels. These data indicate that the complex in vivo cross-talk between innate pathways are likely tissue specific and cannot be predicted by simple in vitro models.
Project description:Toll like receptor (TLR) ligands are important adjuvant candidates, causing antigen presenting cells to release inflammatory mediators, leading to the recruitment and activation of other leukocytes. The aim of this study was to define the response of human blood derived dendritic cells and macrophages to three TLR ligands acting singly or in combination, Poly I:C (TLR3), GLA (TLR4) and R848 (TLR7/8). Combinations of TLR agonists have been shown to have a synergistic effect on individual cytokines, here we look at the global inflammatory response measuring both cytokines and chemokines. Using a custom Luminex assay we saw dose responses in several mediators including CCL3 (MIP1?), IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-12, CXCL10 (IP-10) and IL-6, all of which were significantly increased by the combination of R848 and GLA, even when low dose GLA was added. The synergistic effect was inhibited by specific MAP kinase inhibitors blocking the kinases p38 and JNK but not MEK1. Combining TLR adjuvants also had a synergistic effect on cytokine responses in human mucosal tissue explants. From this we conclude that the combination of R848 and GLA potentiates the inflammatory profile of antigen presenting cells. Since the pattern of inflammatory mediators released can alter the quality and quantity of the adaptive immune response to vaccination, this study informs vaccine adjuvant design.