Trunk and lower extremity segment kinematics and their relationship to pain following movement instruction during a single-leg squat in females with dynamic knee valgus and patellofemoral pain.
ABSTRACT: To understand how instructing females with patellofemoral pain to correct dynamic knee valgus affects pelvis, femur, tibia and trunk segment kinematics. To determine if pain reduction in the corrected condition was associated with improved segment kinematics.Cross-sectional.A 3D-motion capture system was used to collect multi-joint kinematics on 20 females with dynamic knee valgus and patellofemoral pain during a single-leg squat in two conditions: usual movement pattern, and corrected dynamic knee valgus. During each condition pain was assessed using a visual analog scale. Pelvis, femur, tibia and trunk kinematics in the frontal and transverse planes were compared between conditions using a paired T-test. Pearson correlation coefficients were generated between visual analog scale score and the kinematic variables in the corrected condition.In the corrected condition subjects had increased lateral flexion of the pelvis toward the weight-bearing limb (p<0.001), decreased femoral adduction (p=0.001) and internal rotation (p=0.01). A trend toward decreased tibial internal rotation (p=0.057) and increased trunk lateral flexion toward the weight-bearing limb (p=0.055) was also found. Lower pain levels were associated with less femoral internal rotation (p=0.04) and greater trunk lateral flexion toward the weight-bearing limb (p=0.055).Decreased hip adduction after instruction was comprised of motion at both the pelvis and femur. Decreased pain levels were associated with lower extremity segment kinematics moving in the direction opposite to dynamic knee valgus. These results increase our understanding of correction strategies used by females with patellofemoral pain and provide insight for rehabilitation.
Project description:The relationship between trunk and lower limb kinematics in healthy females versus males is unclear since trunk kinematics in the frontal and transverse planes have not been systematically examined with lower limb kinematics. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of different multi-joints movement strategies between genders during a single leg squat. We expected that compared to males, females would have greater trunk and pelvis displacement due to less trunk control and display hip and knee movement consistent with medial-collapse (i.e. greater hip adduction, hip medial rotation, knee abduction, and knee lateral rotation) on the weight-bearing limb. Nine females and 10 males participated in the study. Kinematic data were collected using an 8-camera, 3D-motion-capture-system. Trunk relative to pelvis, pelvis relative to the laboratory, hip and knee angles in three planes (sagittal, frontal and transverse) were examined at two time events relevant to knee joint mechanics: 45° of knee flexion and peak knee flexion. Females flexed their trunk less than males and rotated their trunk and pelvis toward the weight-bearing limb more than males. Females also displayed greater hip adduction and knee abduction than males. Taken together these results suggest that females and males used different movement strategies during a single leg squat. Females displayed a trunk and pelvic movement pattern that may put them at risk of knee injury and pain.
Project description:Patellofemoral pain syndrome has a high morbidity, and its pathology is closely associated with patellofemoral joint kinematics. A series of in vivo and in vitro studies have been conducted to explore patellofemoral kinematics, and the findings are relevant to the diagnosis, classification, and management of patellofemoral diseases and even the whole knee joint. However, no definite conclusion on normal patellofemoral kinematics has been established. In this study, the measurement methodologies of patellofemoral kinematics (including data collection methods, loading conditions, and coordinate system) as well as their advantages and limitations were reviewed. Motion characteristics of the patella were analyzed. During knee flexion, the patellar flexion angle lagged by 30-40% compared to the tibiofemoral joint flexion. The patella tilts, rotates, and shifts medially in the initial stage of knee flexion and subsequently tilts, rotates, and shifts laterally. The finite patellar helical axis fluctuates near the femoral transepicondylar axis or posterior condylar axis. Moreover, factors affecting kinematics, such as morphology of the trochlear groove, soft tissue balance, and tibiofemoral motion, were analyzed. At the initial period of flexion, soft tissues play a vital role in adjusting patellar tracking, and during further flexion, the status of the patella is determined by the morphology of the trochlear groove and patellar facet. Our findings could increase our understanding of patellofemoral kinematics and can help to guide the operation plan for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of three types of exercise intervention in patients with patellofemoral pain and to verify the contributions of each intervention to pain control, function, and lower extremity kinematics. METHODS:A randomized controlled, single-blinded trial was conducted. Forty women with patellofemoral pain were randomly allocated into four groups: hip exercises, quadriceps exercises, stretching exercises and a control group (no intervention). Pain (using a visual analog scale), function (using the Anterior Knee Pain Scale), hip and quadriceps strength (using a handheld isometric dynamometer) and measuring lower limb kinematics during step up and down activities were evaluated at baseline and 8 weeks post intervention. RESULTS:All treatment groups showed significant improvements on pain and Anterior Knee Pain Scale after intervention with no statistically significant differences between groups except when compared to the control group. Only hip and quadriceps groups demonstrated improvements in muscle strength and knee valgus angle during the step activities. CONCLUSION:Hip strengthening exercises were not more effective for pain relief and function compared to quadriceps or stretching exercises in females with patellofemoral pain. Only hip and quadriceps groups were able to decrease the incidence of dynamic valgus during step-down activity. This study was approved by Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry registration number: RBR-6tc7mj (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-6tc7mj/).
Project description:The actual in vivo tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-reconstructed knee joint are unknown.Current single-bundle PCL reconstruction is unable to correct the abnormal tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics caused by rupture of the ligament.Controlled laboratory study/case series; Level of evidence, 4.Seven patients with an isolated PCL injury in 1 knee and the contralateral side intact were included in the study. Magnetic resonance and dual fluoroscopic imaging techniques were used to compare the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics between the intact contralateral (control group), PCL-deficient, and PCL-reconstructed knee during physiologic loading with a single-legged lunge. Data were collected preoperatively and 2 years after single-bundle reconstruction.The PCL reconstruction reduced the abnormal posterior tibial translation in PCL-deficient knees to levels not significantly different from those of the intact knee. Posterior cruciate ligament deficiency resulted in an increased lateral tibial translation between 75 degrees and 120 degrees of flexion, and reconstruction was unable to restore these values to normal. No differences were detected among the groups in varus-valgus and internal-external rotation. The PCL reconstruction reduced the increased patellar flexion of PCL-deficient knees between 90 degrees and 120 degrees of knee flexion and the lateral shift at 120 degrees . The abnormal patellar rotation and tilt seen in PCL deficiency at flexion angles of 75 degrees and greater persisted after reconstruction.Single-bundle PCL reconstruction was successful in restoring normal anteroposterior translation of the tibia, as well as the patellar flexion and shift. However, single-bundle PCL reconstruction was unable to achieve the same success in mediolateral translation of the tibia or in the patellar rotation and tilt.The persistent abnormal mediolateral translation of the tibia, as well as decreased patellar rotation and tilt, provide a possible explanation for the development of cartilage degeneration after reconstruction of an isolated PCL injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patellofemoral pain (PFP) often affects young women, and the etiology is multifactorial and poorly understood. Conservative intervention has been focused on risk factors or aggravating factors and is composed of hip- and knee-strengthening exercises, as this population often has muscle weakness and poor motor control during daily and sports activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the additional effects of neuromuscular training in a conservative treatment of trunk-, hip-, and knee-muscle strengthening on pain, function, and kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, and lower limb in women with PFP. METHODS:This is a randomised clinical trial, controlled, blinded. Ninety women who are active and engage in physical activity up to twice a week will be recruited. All participants will undergo an individual physiotherapy assessment and then will be allocated randomly into two groups. Thereafter, both groups will undergo a 12-week intervention protocol: group 1 will perform strengthening exercises for the trunk, hip, and knee muscles, while group 2 will receive the same treatment, with the inclusion of neuromuscular training exercises on the fourth week. At the end of the intervention, the volunteers will be evaluated. The primary outcomes will be pain intensity (using a Visual Analog Scale: over the last month, squat 90°, and step of 26 cm during 1 min), functional capacity (Anterior Knee Pain Scale and Activities of Daily Living Scale), and 2D kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, and lower limb during the single-leg squat. The secondary outcomes correspond to the isometric muscular strength of the lower limb and the level of satisfaction from the intervention. DISCUSSION:The present study was initiated on 28 January 2018 and is currently in progress, scheduled for completion in July 2019. The results of this study should contribute to the physiotherapeutic treatment of women with PFP by aggregating information on the benefits of adding neuromuscular training to strengthening of the trunk and lower-limb muscles. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos, ID: RBR-8c7267 . Registered on 2 August 2017.
Project description:Background:Dynamic knee valgus (DKV) is an abnormal movement pattern visually characterized by excessive medial movement of the lower extremity during weight bearing. Differences in hip and knee kinematic components of DKV may explain the emergence of different pain problems in people who exhibit the same observed movement impairment. Using a secondary analysis of exiting data sets, we sought to determine whether hip and knee frontal and transverse plane angles during a functional task differed between women with patellofemoral pain and women with chronic hip joint pain, and the relationship between joint-specific kinematics and pain in these 2 pain populations. Methods:In the original studies, 3-dimensional hip and knee kinematics during a single leg squat were obtained in 20 women with patellofemoral pain and 14 women with chronic hip joint pain who demonstrated visually classified DKV. Pain intensity during the squat was assessed in both groups. For the secondary analysis, kinematic data were compared between pain groups using their respective control groups as a reference. Within each pain group, correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between kinematics and pain during the squat. Results:Hip adduction and contralateral pelvic drop were greater in those with chronic hip joint pain compared to those with patellofemoral pain (effect sizes ? 0.40). Greater knee external rotation (r=0.47, p=0.04) was correlated with greater knee pain in those with patellofemoral pain, while greater hip adduction (r =0.53, p =0.05) and greater hip internal rotation (r =0.55, p =0.04) were correlated with greater hip pain in those with chronic hip joint pain. Conclusion:Hip frontal plane motion was greater in those with chronic hip joint pain compared to those with patellofemoral pain. In both groups, greater abnormal movement at the respective joint (e.g. knee external rotation in the patellofemoral pain group and hip adduction and internal rotation in the chronic hip joint pain group) was associated with greater pain at that joint during a single leg squat.
Project description:Pain secondary to instability in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been shown to be major cause of early failure. In this study, we focused on the effect of instability in TKA on the proximal tibio-fibular joint (PTFJ). We used a robotics model to compare the biomechanics of the PTFJ in the native knee, an appropriately balanced TKA, and an unbalanced TKA. The tibia (n = 5) was mounted to a six-degree-of-freedom force/torque sensor and the femur was moved by a robotic manipulator. Motion at the PTFJ was recorded with a high-resolution digital camera system. After establishing a neutral position, loading conditions were applied at varying flexion angles (0°, 30°, and 60°). These included: internal/external rotation (0?Nm, ±5 Nm), varus/valgus (0 Nm, ±10 Nm), compression (100 N, 700 N), and posterior drawer (0 N, 100 N). With respect to anterior displacement, external rotation had the largest effect (coefficient = 0.650; p < 0.0001). Polyethylene size as well as the interaction between polyethylene size and flexion consistently showed substantial anterior motion. Flexion and mid-flexion instability in TKA have been difficult to quantify. While tibio-femoral kinematics is the main aspect of TKA performance, the effects on adjacent tissues should not be overlooked. Our data show that PTFJ kinematics are affected by the balancing of the TKA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aberrant frontal-plane hip and pelvis kinematics have been frequently observed in runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Gait retaining interventions have been shown to improve running kinematics and may therefore be beneficial in runners with PFP. PURPOSE:To investigate whether a 10% increase in the running step rate influences frontal-plane kinematics of the hip and pelvis as well as clinical outcomes in runners with PFP. STUDY DESIGN:Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS:Runners with PFP underwent a 3-dimensional gait analysis to confirm the presence of aberrant frontal-plane hip and/or pelvis kinematics at baseline. A total of 12 participants with frontal-plane hip and/or pelvis kinematics 1 standard deviation above a reference database were invited to undergo the gait retraining intervention. Running kinematics along with clinical outcomes of pain and functional outcomes were recorded at baseline, 4 weeks after retraining, and 3 months. Gait retraining consisted of a single session where step rate was increased by 10% using an audible metronome. Participants were asked to continue their normal running while self-monitoring their step rate using a global positioning system smartwatch and audible metronome. RESULTS:After gait retraining, significant improvements in running kinematics and clinical outcomes were observed at 4-week and 3-month follow-up. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni correction (P < .016) showed significant reductions in peak contralateral pelvic drop (mean difference [MD], 3.12° [95% CI, 1.88°-4.37°]), hip adduction (MD, 3.99° [95% CI, 2.01°-5.96°]), and knee flexion (MD, 4.09° [95% CI, 0.04°-8.15°]) as well as significant increases in self-reported weekly running volume (MD, 13.78 km [95% CI, 4.62-22.93 km]) and longest run pain-free (MD, 6.84 km [95% CI, 3.05-10.62 km]). Friedman test with a post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed significant improvements on a numerical rating scale for worst pain in the past week and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale. CONCLUSION:A single session of gait retraining using a 10% increase in step rate resulted in significant improvements in running kinematics, pain, and function in runners with PFP. These improvements were maintained at 3-month follow-up. It is important to assess for aberrant running kinematics at baseline to ensure that gait interventions are targeted appropriately. REGISTRATION:NCT03067545 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).
Project description:PURPOSE:When downsizing the femoral component to prevent mediolateral overhang, notching of the anterior femoral cortex may occur, which could be solved by flexing the femoral component. In this study, we investigated the effect of flexion of the femoral component on patellar tendon moment arm, patellofemoral forces and kinematics in posterior-referencing CR-TKA. Our hypothesis was that flexion of the femoral component increases the patellar tendon moment arm, reduces the patellofemoral forces and provides stable kinematics. METHODS:A validated musculoskeletal model of CR-TKA was used. The flexion of the femoral component was increased in four steps (0°, 3°, 6°, 9°) using posterior referencing, and different alignments were analysed in combination with three implant sizes (3, 4, 5). A chair-rising trial was analysed using the model, while simultaneously estimating quadriceps muscle force, patellofemoral contact force, tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics. RESULTS:Compared to the reference case (size 4 and 0° flexion), for every 3° of increase in flexion of the femoral component the patellar tendon moment arm increased by 1% at knee extension. The peak quadriceps muscle force and patellofemoral contact force decreased by 2%, the patella shifted 0.8 mm more anteriorly and the remaining kinematics remained stable, with knee flexion. With the smaller size, the patellar tendon moment arm decreased by 6%, the quadriceps muscle force and patellofemoral contact force increased by 8 and 12%, and the patellar shifted 5 mm more posteriorly. Opposite trends were found with the bigger size. CONCLUSION:Flexing the femoral component with posterior referencing reduced the patellofemoral contact forces during a simulated chair-rising trial with a patient-specific musculoskeletal model of CR-TKA. There seems to be little risk when flexing and downsizing the femoral component, compared to when using a bigger size and neutral alignment. These findings provide relevant information to surgeons who wish to prevent anterior notching when downsizing the femoral component.
Project description:Patellofemoral pain is widely accepted as one of the most common pathologies involving the knee, yet the etiology of this pain is still an open debate. Generalized joint laxity has been associated with patellofemoral pain, but is not often discussed as a potential source of patellar maltracking. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the complete 6 degree of freedom patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics from a group of patients diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome and maltracking to those from an asymptomatic population. The following null hypotheses were tested: kinematic alterations in patellofemoral maltracking are limited to the axial plane; knee joint kinematics are the same in maltrackers with and without generalized joint laxity (defined by a clinical diagnosis of Ehlers Danlos Syndrome); and no correlations exist between tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics or within patellofemoral kinematics. This study demonstrated that alterations in patellofemoral kinematics, associated with patellofemoral pain, are not limited to the axial plane, minimal correlations exist between patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics, and distinct subgroups likely exist within the general population of maltrackers. Being able to identify subgroups correctly within the omnibus diagnosis of patellar maltracking is a crucial step in correctly defining the pathophysiology and the eventual treatment of these patients.