Platelet mechanosensing of substrate stiffness during clot formation mediates adhesion, spreading, and activation.
ABSTRACT: As platelets aggregate and activate at the site of vascular injury to stem bleeding, they are subjected to a myriad of biochemical and biophysical signals and cues. As clot formation ensues, platelets interact with polymerizing fibrin scaffolds, exposing platelets to a large range of mechanical microenvironments. Here, we show for the first time (to our knowledge) that platelets, which are anucleate cellular fragments, sense microenvironmental mechanical properties, such as substrate stiffness, and transduce those cues into differential biological signals. Specifically, as platelets mechanosense the stiffness of the underlying fibrin/fibrinogen substrate, increasing substrate stiffness leads to increased platelet adhesion and spreading. Importantly, adhesion on stiffer substrates also leads to higher levels of platelet activation, as measured by integrin ?IIb?3 activation, ?-granule secretion, and procoagulant activity. Mechanistically, we determined that Rac1 and actomyosin activity mediate substrate stiffness-dependent platelet adhesion, spreading, and activation to different degrees. This capability of platelets to mechanosense microenvironmental cues in a growing thrombus or hemostatic plug and then mechanotransduce those cues into differential levels of platelet adhesion, spreading, and activation provides biophysical insight into the underlying mechanisms of platelet aggregation and platelet activation heterogeneity during thrombus formation.
Project description:To activate clot formation and maintain hemostasis, platelets adhere and spread onto sites of vascular injury. Although this process is well-characterized biochemically, how the physical and spatial cues in the microenvironment affect platelet adhesion and spreading remain unclear. In this study, we applied deep UV photolithography and protein micro/nanostamping to quantitatively investigate and characterize the spatial guidance of platelet spreading at the single cell level and with nanoscale resolution. Platelets adhered to and spread only onto micropatterned collagen or fibrinogen surfaces and followed the microenvironmental geometry with high fidelity and with single micron precision. Using micropatterned lines of different widths, we determined that platelets are able to conform to micropatterned stripes as thin as 0.6 µm and adopt a maximum aspect ratio of 19 on those protein patterns. Interestingly, platelets were also able to span and spread over non-patterned regions of up to 5 µm, a length consistent with that of maximally extended filopodia. This process appears to be mediated by platelet filopodia that are sensitive to spatial cues. Finally, we observed that microenvironmental geometry directly affects platelet biology, such as the spatial organization and distribution of the platelet actin cytoskeleton. Our data demonstrate that platelet spreading is a finely-tuned and spatially-guided process in which spatial cues directly influence the biological aspects of how clot formation is regulated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Collagen-induced platelet activation is a key step in the development of arterial thrombosis via its interaction with the receptors glycoprotein (GP)VI and integrin ?(2) ?(1) . Adhesion and degranulation-promoting adapter protein (ADAP) regulates ?(IIb) ?(3) in platelets and ?(L) ?(2) in T cells, and is phosphorylated in GPVI-deficient platelets activated by collagen. OBJECTIVES:To determine whether ADAP plays a role in collagen-induced platelet activation and in the regulation and function of ?(2) ?(1). METHODS:Using ADAP(-/-) mice and synthetic collagen peptides, we investigated the role of ADAP in platelet aggregation, adhesion, spreading, thromboxane synthesis, and tyrosine phosphorylation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:Platelet aggregation and phosphorylation of phospholipase C?2 induced by collagen were attenuated in ADAP(-/-) platelets. However, aggregation and signaling induced by collagen-related peptide (CRP), a GPVI-selective agonist, were largely unaffected. Platelet adhesion to CRP was also unaffected by ADAP deficiency. Adhesion to the ?(2) ?(1) -selective ligand GFOGER and to a peptide (III-04), which supports adhesion that is dependent on both GPVI and ?(2) ?(1), was reduced in ADAP(-/-) platelets. An impedance-based label-free detection technique, which measures adhesion and spreading of platelets, indicated that, in the absence of ADAP, spreading on GFOGER was also reduced. This was confirmed with non-fluorescent differential-interference contrast microscopy, which revealed reduced filpodia formation in ADAP(-/-) platelets adherent to GFOGER. This indicates that ADAP plays a role in mediating platelet activation via the collagen-binding integrin ?(2) ?(1). In addition, we found that ADAP(-/-) mice, which are mildly thrombocytopenic, have enlarged spleens as compared with wild-type animals. This may reflect increased removal of platelets from the circulation.
Project description:Hyperthermia is one of the main disturbances of homeostasis occurring during sepsis or hypermetabolic states such as cancer. Platelets are important mediators of the inflammation that accompanies these processes, but very little is known about the changes in platelet function that occur at different temperatures.To explore the effect of higher temperatures on platelet physiology.Platelet responses including adhesion, spreading (fluorescence microscopy), ?(IIb)?(3) activation (flow cytometry), aggregation (turbidimetry), ATP release (luminescence), thromboxane A(2) generation, alpha-granule protein secretion (ELISA) and protein phosphorylation from different signaling pathways (immunoblotting) were studied.Preincubation of platelets at temperatures higher than 37 °C (38.5-42 °C) inhibited thrombin-induced hemostasis, including platelet adhesion, aggregation, ATP release and thromboxane A(2) generation. The expression of P-selectin and CD63, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release, was completely inhibited by hyperthermia, whereas von Willebrand factor (VWF) and endostatin levels remained substantially increased at high temperatures. This suggested that release of proteins from platelet granules is modulated not only by classical platelet agonists but also by microenvironmental factors. The observed gradation of response involved not only antiangiogenesis regulators, but also other cargo proteins. Some signaling pathways were more stable than others. While ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation were resistant to changes in temperature, Src, Syk, p38 phosphorylation and IkappaB degradation were decreased in a temperature-dependent fashion.Higher temperatures, such as those observed with fever or tissue invasion, inhibit the hemostatic functions of platelets and selectively regulate the release of alpha-granule proteins.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The platelet alpha2beta1 integrin functions as both an adhesion and signaling receptor upon exposure to collagen. Recent studies have indicated that alpha2beta1 function can be activated via inside-out signaling, similar to the prototypical platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3. However, signaling molecules that regulate alpha2beta1 activation in platelets are not well defined. A strong candidate molecule is the small GTPase Rap1b, the dominant platelet isoform of Rap1, which regulates alphaIIbbeta3 activation. OBJECTIVES:We hypothesized that Rap1b positively regulates alpha2beta1 during agonist-induced platelet activation. METHODS:To test whether Rap1b activates alpha2beta1 downstream of glycoprotein (GP)VI or other platelet receptors, we stimulated platelets purified from Rap1b-/- or wild-type mice with diverse agonists and measured alpha2beta1 activation using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled monomeric collagen. We also examined the role of Rap1b in outside-in signaling pathways by analyzing adhesion and spreading of Rap1b-/- or wild-type platelets on monomeric, immobilized collagen. Finally, we monitored the activation status of related Rap GTPases to detect changes in signaling pathways potentially associated with Rap1b-mediated events. RESULTS:Rap1b-/- platelets displayed comparable ADP-induced or thrombin-induced alpha2beta1 activation as wild-type platelets, but reduced convulxin-dependent alpha2beta1 activation. Rap1b-/- platelets exhibited increased spreading on immobilized collagen but similar adhesion to immobilized collagen compared to wild-type platelets. Rap1b-/- platelets also showed Rap1a and Rap2 activation upon agonist stimulation, possibly revealing functional compensation among Rap family members. CONCLUSIONS:Rap1b is required for maximal GPVI-induced but not ADP-induced activation of alpha2beta1 in murine platelets.
Project description:Glycoprotein VI, a major platelet activation receptor for collagen and fibrin, is considered a particularly promising, safe antithrombotic target. In this study, we show that human glycoprotein VI signals upon platelet adhesion to fibrinogen. Full spreading of human platelets on fibrinogen was abolished in platelets from glycoprotein VI- deficient patients suggesting that fibrinogen activates platelets through glycoprotein VI. While mouse platelets failed to spread on fibrinogen, human-glycoprotein VI-transgenic mouse platelets showed full spreading and increased Ca2+ signaling through the tyrosine kinase Syk. Direct binding of fibrinogen to human glycoprotein VI was shown by surface plasmon resonance and by increased adhesion to fibrinogen of human glycoprotein VI-transfected RBL-2H3 cells relative to mock-transfected cells. Blockade of human glycoprotein VI with the Fab of the monoclonal antibody 9O12 impaired platelet aggregation on preformed platelet aggregates in flowing blood independent of collagen and fibrin exposure. These results demonstrate that human glycoprotein VI binds to immobilized fibrinogen and show that this contributes to platelet spreading and platelet aggregation under flow.
Project description:Blood platelets are instrumental in blood clotting and are thus heavily involved in early wound closure. After adhering to a substrate they spread by forming protrusions like lamellipodia and filopodia. However, the interaction of these protrusions with the physical environment of platelets while spreading is not fully understood. Here we dynamically image platelets during this spreading process and compare their behavior on smooth and on structured substrates. In particular we analyze the temporal evolution of the spread area, the cell morphology and the dynamics of individual filopodia. Interestingly, the topographic cues enable us to distinguish two spreading mechanisms, one that is based on numerous persistent filopodia and one that rather involves lamellipodia. Filopodia-driven spreading coincides with a strong response of platelet morphology to the substrate topography during spreading, whereas lamellipodia-driven spreading does not. Thus, we quantify different degrees of filopodia formation in platelets and the influence of filopodia in spreading on structured substrates.
Project description:Platelets are small anucleate blood cells involved in haemostasis. Platelet activation, caused by agonists such as thrombin or by contact with the extracellular matrix, leads to platelet adhesion, aggregation, and coagulation. Activated platelets undergo shape changes, adhere, and spread at the site of injury to form a blood clot. We investigated the morphology and morphological dynamics of human platelets after complete spreading using fast scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM). In contrast to unstimulated platelets, thrombin-stimulated platelets showed increased morphological activity after spreading and exhibited dynamic morphological changes in the form of wave-like movements of the lamellipodium and dynamic protrusions on the platelet body. The increase in morphological activity was dependent on thrombin concentration. No increase in activity was observed following exposure to other activation agonists or during contact-induced activation. Inhibition of actin polymerization and inhibition of dynein significantly decreased the activity of thrombin-stimulated platelets. Our data suggest that these morphological dynamics after spreading are thrombin-specific and might play a role in coagulation and blood clot formation.
Project description:Platelet spreading is critical for hemostatic plug formation and thrombosis. However, the detailed dynamics of platelet spreading as a function of receptor-ligand adhesive interactions has not been thoroughly investigated. Using reflection interference contrast microscopy, we found that both adhesive interactions and PAR4 activation affect the dynamics of platelet membrane contact formation during spreading. The initial growth of close contact area during spreading was controlled by the combination of different immobilized ligands or PAR4 activation on fibrinogen, whereas the growth of the total area of spreading was independent of adhesion type and PAR4 signaling. We found that filopodia extend to their maximal length and then contract over time; and that filopodial protrusion and expansion were affected by PAR4 signaling. Upon PAR4 activation, the integrin ?(IIb)?(3) mediated close contact to fibrinogen substrata and led to the formation of ringlike patterns in the platelet contact zone. A systematic study of platelet spreading of GPVI-, ?(2)-, or ?(3)-deficient platelets on collagen or fibrinogen suggests the integrin ?(2) is indispensable for spreading on collagen. The platelet collagen receptors GPVI and ?(2) regulate integrin ?(IIb)?(3)-mediated platelet spreading on fibrinogen. This work elucidates quantitatively how receptor-ligand adhesion and biochemical signals synergistically control platelet spreading.
Project description:Integrins mediate platelet adhesion and transmit outside-in signals leading to platelet spreading. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) play a critical role in outside-in signaling and platelet spreading; however, the mechanisms of PI3K activation and function in outside-in signaling are unclear. We sought to determine the role of the Akt family of serine/threonine kinases and activation mechanisms of the PI3K/Akt pathway in outside-in signaling.Akt inhibitors and Akt3 knockout inhibited platelet spreading on fibrinogen, indicating that Akt is important in integrin outside-in signaling. Akt inhibitors and Akt3 knockout also diminished integrin-dependent phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3?. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3? reversed the inhibitory effects of Akt3 knockout and inhibitors of Akt or PI3K on platelet spreading, indicating that glycogen synthase kinase-3? is a downstream target of Akt in outside-in signaling. Integrin-dependent activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway requires Src family kinase. Akt phosphorylation is also significantly inhibited in ADP receptor P2Y12 knockout platelets and further inhibited in P2Y12 knockout platelets treated with a P2Y1 antagonist. Consistently, P2Y12 knockout and P2Y1 inhibition together reduced platelet spreading.These results demonstrate that integrin outside-in signaling and platelet spreading requires Src family kinase-dependent and ADP receptor-amplified activation of the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3? pathway.
Project description:Background:Upon vascular damage, the exposed subendothelial matrix recruits circulating platelets to site of injury while inducing their firm adhesion mainly via GPVI-collagen interaction. GPVI also supports aggregatory and pro-coagulant functions in arterial shear rate even on the matrix other than collagen. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate these stages of thrombosis; however augmented oxidant stress also disturbs platelet functions. Stored-dependent platelet lesion is associated with the increasing levels of ROS. Whether ROS accumulation is also relevant to collagen-dependent platelet dysfunction is the main interest of this study. Methods:Fresh PRP-PCs (platelet concentrates) were either stimulated with potent ROS-inducers PMA and CCCP or stored for 5?days. Intra-platelet superoxide (O2 --) or mitochondrial-ROS and GPVI expression were detected by flowcytometery. GPVI shedding, platelet aggregation and spreading/adhesion to collagen were analyzed by western blot, aggregometry and fluorescence-microscopy, respectively. Results:Mitochondrial-ROS levels in 5?days-stored PCs were comparable to those induced by mitochondrial uncoupler, CCCP while O2 -- generations were higher than those achieved by PMA. Shedding levels in 5?days-stored PCs were higher than those induced by these potent stimuli. GPVI expressions were reduced comparably in CCCP treated and 5?days-stored PCs. Platelet adhesion was also diminished during storage while demonstrating significant reverse correlation with GPVI shedding. However, only firm adhesion (indicated by platelets spreading or adhesion surface area) was relevant to GPVI expression. Platelet adhesion and aggregation also showed reverse correlations with both O2-- and mitochondrial-ROS formations; nonetheless mitochondrial-ROS was only relevant to firm adhesion. Conclusion:As a sensitive indicator of platelet activation, GPVI shedding was correlated with either simple adhesion or spreading to collagen, while GPVI expression was only relevant to platelet spreading. Thereby, if the aim of GPVI evaluation is to examine platelet firm adhesion, expression seems to be a more specific choice. Furthermore, the comparable levels of ROS generation in 5?days-stored PCs and CCCP treated platelets, indicated that these products are significantly affected by oxidative stress. Reverse correlation of accumulating ROS with collagen-dependent platelet dysfunction is also a striking sign of an oxidant-induced lesion that may raise serious question about the post-transfusion quality and competence of longer-stored platelet products.