Regioselective chemoenzymatic synthesis of ganglioside disialyl tetrasaccharide epitopes.
ABSTRACT: A novel chemoenzymatic approach for the synthesis of disialyl tetrasaccharide epitopes found as the terminal oligosaccharides of GD1?, GT1a?, and GQ1b? is described. It relies on chemical manipulation of enzymatically generated trisaccharides as conformationally constrained acceptors for regioselective enzymatic ?2-6-sialylation. This strategy provides a new route for easy access to disialyl tetrasaccharide epitopes and their derivatives.
Project description:Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common and devastating intestinal disorders in preterm infants. Therapies to meet the clinical needs for this special and highly vulnerable population are extremely limited. A specific human milk oligosaccharide (HMO), disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT), was shown to contribute to the beneficial effects of breastfeeding as it prevented NEC in a neonatal rat model and was associated with lower NEC risk in a human clinical cohort study. Herein, gram-scale synthesis of two DSLNT analogs previously shown to have NEC preventing effect is described. In addition, four novel disialyl glycans have been designed and synthesized by enzymatic or chemoenzymatic methods. Noticeably, two disialyl tetraoses have been produced by enzymatic sialylation of chemically synthesized thioethyl ?-disaccharides followed by removal of the thioethyl aglycon. Dose-dependent and single-dose comparison studies showed varying NEC-preventing effects of the disialyl glycans in neonatal rats. This study helps to refine the structure requirement of the NEC-preventing effect of disialyl glycans and provides important dose-dependent information for using DSLNT analogs as potential therapeutics for NEC prevention in preterm infants.
Project description:In order to understand the biological importance of naturally occurring sialic acid variations on disialyl structures in nature, we developed an efficient two-step multienzyme approach for the synthesis of a series of GD3 ganglioside oligosaccharides and other disialyl glycans containing a terminal Siaalpha2-8Sia component with different natural and non-natural sialic acids. In the first step, alpha2-3- or alpha2-6-linked monosialylated oligosaccharides were obtained using a one-pot three-enzyme approach. These compounds were then used as acceptors for the alpha2-8-sialyltransferase activity of a recombinant truncated multifunctional Campylobacter jejuni sialyltransferase CstII mutant, CstIIDelta32(I53S), to produce disialyl oligosaccharides. The alpha2-8-sialyltransferase activity of CstIIDelta32(I53S) has promiscuous donor substrate specificity and can tolerate various substitutions at C-5 or C-9 of the sialic acid in CMP-sialic acid, while its acceptor substrate specificity is relatively restricted. The terminal sialic acid residues in the acceptable monosialylated oligosaccharide acceptors are restricted to Neu5Ac, Neu5Gc, KDN, and some of their C-9-modified forms but not their C-5 derivatives. The disialyl oligosaccharides obtained are valuable probes for their biological studies.
Project description:The neuromuscular junction is a tripartite synapse composed of the presynaptic nerve terminal, the muscle and perisynaptic Schwann cells. Its functionality is essential for the execution of body movements and is compromised in a number of disorders, including Miller Fisher syndrome, a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome: this autoimmune peripheral neuropathy is triggered by autoantibodies specific for the polysialogangliosides GQ1b and GT1a present in motor axon terminals, including those innervating ocular muscles, and in sensory neurons. Their binding to the presynaptic membrane activates the complement cascade, leading to a nerve degeneration that resembles that caused by some animal presynaptic neurotoxins. Here we have studied the intra- and inter-cellular signaling triggered by the binding and complement activation of a mouse monoclonal anti-GQ1b/GT1a antibody to primary cultures of spinal cord motor neurons and cerebellar granular neurons. We found that a membrane attack complex is rapidly assembled following antibody binding, leading to calcium accumulation, which affects mitochondrial functionality. Consequently, using fluorescent probes specific for mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide, we found that this reactive oxygen species is rapidly produced by mitochondria of damaged neurons, and that it triggers the activation of the MAP kinase pathway in Schwann cells. These results throw light on the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of Miller Fisher syndrome, and may well be relevant to other pathologies of the motor axon terminals, including some subtypes of the Guillain Barré syndrome.
Project description:Two novel synthetic ?2-6-linked disialyl hexasaccharides, disialyllacto-N-neotetraose (DSLNnT) and ?2-6-linked disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DS'LNT), were readily obtained by highly efficient one-pot multienzyme (OPME) reactions. The sequential OPME systems described herein allowed the use of an inexpensive disaccharide and simple monosaccharides to synthesize the desired complex oligosaccharides with high efficiency and selectivity. DSLNnT and DS'LNT were shown to protect neonatal rats from necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and are good therapeutic candidates for preclinical experiments and clinical application in treating NEC in preterm infants.
Project description:The tetrasaccharide (2-O-methyl-4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutamido)-4,6-dideoxy-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-l-rhamnopyranose) from the major exosporium protein (BclA) of Bacillus anthracis has been proposed as a target for development of diagnostics and immune therapy or prophylaxis. While the immunodominant character of the anthrose residue has been previously elucidated, the role of the stereochemical configuration of the downstream rhamnose is unknown. Because the linkage of this residue to the GlcNAc bridging the glycan and the protein is lost during isolation of the tetrasaccharide, its ?- and ?-glycoforms have been synthesized. Herein, we prepared neoglycoconjugates from a series of fragments of the tetrasaccharide, including the complete ?- and ?-tetrasaccharide glycoforms, a 2-demethoxylated version of the ?-tetrasaccharide, and the ?- and ?-trirhamnosides and CRM197. By immunization of mice, we showed that the anti ?- and ?-tetrasaccharide serum equally recognized both glycoforms. In contrast the sera produced following immunization with the ?- and ?-trirhamnoside fragments exhibited higher recognition for their own antigens than for their anomeric counterparts. The anti ?- and ?-tetrasaccharide sera recognized Sterne spores in a comparable fashion. ?BclA spores not expressing the major exosporium protein were also recognized by the same sera, while mutants that produced the carbohydrate antigen with deletion of either rhamnose or anthrose were not. The tetrasaccharide could, therefore, be expressed in proteins other than BlcA. This work proves that ?- and ?-tetrasaccharide are equally potent immunogens.
Project description:GalNAc-disialyl Lc4 (GalNAc-DSLc4) was reported as a novel antigen that associated with malignant features of renal cell cancers (RCCs). To clarify roles of GalNAc-DSLc4 in malignant properties of RCCs, we identified B4GalNAc-T2 as a responsible gene for the synthesis of GalNAc-DSLc4, and prepared stable transfectants of GalNAc-T2 cDNA using VMRC-RCW cells, resulting in the establishment of high expressants of GalNAc-DSLc4. They showed increased proliferation and invasion, and specific adhesion to laminin. In the transfectants, PI3K/Akt signals were highly activated by serum stimulation or adhesion to laminin. GalNAc-DSLc4 was co-localized in lipid rafts with integrin ?1 and caveolin-1 in both immunoblotting of fractionated detergent extracts and immunocytostaining, particularly when stimulated with serum. Masking of GalNAc-DSLc4 with antibodies as well as PI3K inhibitor suppressed malignant properties of the transfectants. These results suggested that GalNAc-DSLc4 is involved in malignant properties of RCCs by forming a molecular complex with integrins in lipid rafts.
Project description:A convenient synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of Shigella boydii type 9 has been achieved in excellent yield using a [2 + 2] block glycosylation strategy. TEMPO-mediated selective oxidation of the primary alcohol of the tetrasaccharide derivative 8 to the carboxylic group followed by deprotection of the functional groups furnished target tetrasaccharide 1 as its 4-methoxyphenyl glycoside in high yield.
Project description:The binding profiles of many human noroviruses (huNoVs) for human histo-blood group antigens have been characterized. However, quantitative-binding data for these important virus-host interactions are lacking. Here, we report on the intrinsic (per binding site) affinities of HBGA oligosaccharides for the huNoV VA387 virus-like particles (VLPs) and the associated subviral P particles measured using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The affinities of 13 HBGA oligosaccharides, containing A, B and H epitopes, with variable sizes (disaccharide to tetrasaccharide) and different precursor chain types (types 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6), were measured for the P particle, while the affinities of the A and B trisaccharides and A and B type 6 tetrasaccharides for the VLP were determined. The intrinsic affinities of the HBGA oligosaccharides for the P particle range from 500 to 2300 M(-1), while those of the A and B trisaccharides and the A and B type 6 tetrasaccharides for the VLP range from 1000 to 4000 M(-1). Comparison of these binding data with those measured previously for the corresponding P dimer reveals that the HBGA oligosaccharides tested exhibit similar intrinsic affinities for the P dimer and P particle. The intrinsic affinities for the VLP are consistently higher than those measured for the P particle, but within a factor of three. While the cause of the subtle differences in HBGA oligosaccharide affinities for the P dimer and P particle and those for the VLP remains unknown, the present data support the use of P dimers or P particles as surrogates to the VLP for huNoV-receptor-binding studies.
Project description:The CD44 protein, as a predominant receptor for hyaluronan (HA), is highly expressed on the surface of multiple tumor cells. HA, as a targeting molecule for a CD44-contained delivery system, increases intracellular drug concentration in tumor tissue. However, due to the weak binding ability of hyaluronan oligosaccharide to CD44, targeting for tumor drug delivery has been restricted. In this study, we first use a HA tetrasaccharide cluster as the target ligand to enhance the binding ability to CD44. A polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was modified by a HA tetrasaccharide cluster as a nonviral vector for small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery. The dendrimer/siRNA nanocomplexes increased the cellular uptake capacity of siRNA through the CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway, allowing the siRNA to successfully escape the endosome/lysosome. Compared with the control group, nanocomplexes effectively reduced the expression of GFP protein and mRNA in MDA-MB-231-GFP cells. This delivery system provides a foundation to increase the clinical applications of PAMAM nanomaterials.
Project description:A tetrasaccharide repeating unit corresponding to the cell-wall lipopolysaccharide of E. coli O40 was synthesized by using a convergent block glycosylation strategy. A disaccharide donor was coupled to a disaccharide acceptor by a stereoselective glycosylation. A 2-aminoethyl linker was chosen as the anomeric protecting group at the reducing end of the tetrasaccharide. All glycosylation steps are significantly high yielding and stereoselective.