The role of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and glucose transporter 2 in the absorption of cyanidin-3-o-?-glucoside in Caco-2 cells.
ABSTRACT: Anthocyanins have multiple biological activities of benefit to human health. While a few studies have been conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of anthocyanins, the mechanisms of their absorption mechanism remain ill-defined. In the present study, we investigated the absorption mechanism of cyanidin-3-O-?-glucoside (Cy-3-G) in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. Cy-3-G transport was assessed by measuring the absorptive and efflux direction. Inhibition studies were conducted using the pharmacological agents, phloridzin, an inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), or phloretin, an inhibitor of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). The results showed that phloridzin and phloretin significantly inhibited the absorption of Cy-3-G. In addition, Caco-2 cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for SGLT1 or GLUT2 showed significantly decreased Cy-3-G absorption. These siRNA transfected cells also showed a significantly decreased rate of transport of Cy-3-G compared with the control group. These findings suggest that Cy-3-G absorption is dependent on the activities of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in the small intestine and that SGLT1 and GLUT2 could be a limiting step for the bioavailability of Cy-3-G.
Project description:The mechanisms of cellular absorption and transport underlying the differences between flavonoid aglycones and glycosides and the effect of the structural feature are not well established. In this study, aglycone, mono-, and diglycosides of quercetin and cyanidin were selected to examine the effects of the structural feature on the bioavailability of flavonoids using hexose transporters SGLT1 and GLUT2 in a Caco-2 BBe1 cell model. Cellular uptake and transport of all glycosides were significantly different. The glycosides also significantly inhibited cellular uptake of d-glucose, indicating the involvement of the two hexose transporters SGLT1 and GLUT2 in the absorption, and the potential of the glycosides in lowering the blood glucose level. The in silico prediction model also supported these observations. The absorption of glycosides, especially diglycosides but not the aglycones, was significantly blocked by SGLT1 and GLUT2 inhibitors (phloridzin and phloretin) and further validated in SGLT1 knockdown Caco-2 BBe1 cells.
Project description:AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is a key sensor of energy status within the cell. Activated by an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio, AMPK acts to limit cellular energy depletion by down-regulating selective ATP-dependent processes. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of AMPK in regulating intestinal glucose transport. [3H]3-O-methyl glucose fluxes were measured in murine jejunum in the presence and absence of the AMPK activators AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside) and metformin and the p38 inhibitor, SB203580. To differentiate between a sodium-coupled (SGLT1) and diffusive (GLUT2) route of entry, fluxes were measured in the presence of the SGLT1 and GLUT2 inhibitors phloridzin and phloretin. Glucose transporter mRNA levels were measured by reverse transcriptase-PCR, and localization by Western blotting. Surface-expressed GLUT2 was assessed by luminal biotinylation. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was analysed by Western blotting. We found that treatment of jejunal tissue with AICAR resulted in enhanced net glucose uptake and was associated with phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Inhibition of p38 abrogated the stimulation of AICAR-stimulated glucose uptake. Phloretin abolished the AICAR-mediated increase in glucose flux, whereas phloridzin had no effect, suggesting the involvement of GLUT2. In addition, AICAR decreased total protein levels of SGLT1, concurrently increasing levels of GLUT2 in the brush-border membrane. The anti-diabetic drug metformin, a known activator of AMPK, also induced the localization of GLUT2 to the luminal surface. We conclude that the activation of AMPK results in an up-regulation of non-energy requiring glucose uptake by GLUT2 and a concurrent down-regulation of sodium-dependent glucose transport.
Project description:We have investigated the mechanism responsible for the diffusive component of intestinal glucose absorption, the major route by which glucose is absorbed. In perfused rat jejunum in vivo, absorption was strongly inhibited by phloretin, an inhibitor of GLUT2. The GLUT2 level at the brush-border membrane increased some 2-fold when the luminal glucose concentration was changed from 0 to 100 mM. The phloretin-sensitive or diffusive component of absorption appeared superficially linear and consistent with simple diffusion, but was in fact carrier-mediated and co-operative (n=1.6, [G(1/2)]=56 mM; where [G(1/2)] is the glucose concentration at half V(max)) because of the glucose-induced activation and recruitment of GLUT2 to the brush-border membrane. Diffusive transport by paracellular flow was negligible. The phloretin-insensitive, SGLT1-mediated, component of glucose absorption showed simple saturation kinetics with [G(1/2)]=27 mM: the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) betaII, the isoenzyme of PKC that most probably controls GLUT2 trafficking [Helliwell, Richardson, Affleck and Kellett (2000) Biochem. J. 350, 149-154], also showed simple saturation kinetics, with [G(1/2)]=21 mM. We conclude that the principal route for glucose absorption is by GLUT2-mediated facilitated diffusion across the brush-border membrane, which is up to 3-fold greater than that by SGLT1; the magnitude of the diffusive component at any given glucose concentration correlates with the SGLT1-dependent activation of PKC betaII. The implications of these findings for the assimilation of sugars immediately after a meal are discussed.
Project description:The goal was to determine the importance of the sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 and the glucose uniporter GLUT2 in intestinal glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in mice. Glucose absorption was determined in mice using positron emission tomography and three non-metabolizable glucose probes: one specific for SGLTs, one specific for GLUTs, and one a substrate for both SGLTs and GLUTs. Absorption was determined in wild-type, Sglt1-/- and Glut2-/- mice. Gastric emptying was a rate-limiting step in absorption. SGLT1, but not GLUT2, was important in fast glucose absorption. In the absence of SGLT1 or GLUT2, the oral glucose load delivered to the small intestine was slowly absorbed. Oral phlorizin only inhibited the fast component of glucose absorption, but it contributed to decreasing blood glucose levels by inhibiting renal reabsorption.The current model of intestinal absorption is that SGLT1 is responsible for transport of glucose from the lumen into enterocytes across the brush border membrane, and GLUT2 for the downhill transport from the epithelium into blood across the basolateral membrane. Nevertheless, questions remain about the importance of these transporters in vivo. To address these questions, we have developed a non-invasive imaging method, positron emission tomography (PET), to monitor intestinal absorption of three non-metabolized glucose tracers during standard oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in mice. One tracer is specific for SGLTs (?-methyl-4-[18 F]fluoro-4-deoxy-d-glucopyranoside; Me-4FDG), one is specific for GLUTs (2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-d-glucose; 2-FDG), and one is a substrate for both SGLTs and GLUTs (4-deoxy-4-[18 F]fluoro-d-glucose; 4-FDG). OGTTs were conducted on adult wild-type, Sglt1-/- and Glut2-/- mice. In conscious mice, OGTTs resulted in the predictable increase in blood glucose that was blocked by phlorizin in both wild-type and Glut2-/- animals. The blood activity of both Me-4FDG and 4-FDG, but not 2-FDG, accompanied the changes in glucose concentration. PET imaging during OGTTs further shows that: (i) intestinal absorption of the glucose load depends on gastric emptying; (ii) SGLT1 is important for the fast absorption; (iii) GLUT2 is not important in absorption; and (iv) oral phlorizin reduces absorption by SGLT1, but is absorbed and blocks glucose reabsorption in the kidney. We conclude that in standard OGTTs in mice, SGLT1 is essential in fast absorption, GLUT2 does not play a significant role, and in the absence of SGLT1 the total load of glucose is slowly absorbed.
Project description:GLUT2 is a facilitative glucose transporter, expressed in polarized epithelial cells of the liver, intestine, kidney and pancreas, where it plays a critical role in glucose homeostasis. Together with SGLT1/2, it mediates glucose absorption in metabolic epithelial tissues, where it can be translocated apically upon high glucose exposure. To track the subcellular localization and dynamics of GLUT2, we created an mCherry-hGLUT2 fusion protein and expressed it in multicellular kidney cysts, a major site of glucose reabsorption. Live imaging of GLUT2 enabled us to avoid the artefactual localization of GLUT2 in fixed cells and to confirm the apical GLUT2 model. Live cell imaging showed a rapid 15 ± 3 min PKC-dependent basal-to-apical translocation of GLUT2 in response to glucose stimulation and a fourfold slower basolateral translocation under starvation. These results mark the physiological importance of responding quickly to rising glucose levels. Importantly, we show that phloretin, an apple polyphenol, inhibits GLUT2 translocation in both directions, suggesting that it exerts its effect by PKC inhibition. Subcellular localization studies demonstrated that GLUT2 is endocytosed through a caveolae-dependent mechanism, and that it is at least partly recovered in Rab11A-positive recycling endosome. Our work illuminates GLUT2 dynamics, providing a platform for drug development for diabetes and hyperglycaemia.
Project description:The objective was to evaluate the effect of black bean protein fraction (PFRA), and its derived peptides on glucose uptake, SGLT1 and GLUT2 expression and translocation on Caco-2 cells. The effect of treatments was evaluated on glucose uptake, protein expression and localization and gene expression on Caco-2 cells. PFRA (10?mg/mL) lowered glucose uptake from 27.4% after 30?min to 33.9% after 180?min of treatment compared to untreated control (p?<?0.05). All treatments lowered GLUT2 expression after 30?min of treatment compared to untreated control (31.4 to 48.6%, p?<?0.05). Similarly, after 24?h of treatment, GLUT2 was decreased in all treatments (23.5% to 48.9%) (p?<?0.05). SGLT1 protein expression decreased 18.3% for LSVSVL (100??M) to 45.1% for PFRA (10?mg/mL) after 24?h. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a decrease in expression and membrane translocation of GLUT2 and SGLT1 for all treatments compared to untreated control (p?<?0.05). Relative gene expression of SLC2A2 (GLUT2) and SLC5A1 (SGLT1) was downregulated significantly up to two-fold change compared to the untreated control after 24?h treatment. Black bean protein fractions are an inexpensive, functional ingredient with significant biological potential to reduce glucose uptake and could be used as an adjuvant in the treatment of colorectal cancer.
Project description:Several glucose-sensing pathways have been implicated in glucose-triggered secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from intestinal L cells. One involves glucose metabolism and closure of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, and another exploits the electrogenic nature of Na(+)-coupled glucose transporters (SGLTs). This study aimed to elucidate the role of these distinct mechanisms in glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion.Glucose uptake into L cells (either GLUTag cells or cells in primary cultures, using a new transgenic mouse model combining proglucagon promoter-driven Cre recombinase with a ROSA26tdRFP reporter) was monitored with the FLII(12)Pglu-700 ??6 glucose sensor. Effects of pharmacological and genetic interference with SGLT1 or facilitative glucose transport (GLUT) on intracellular glucose accumulation and metabolism (measured by NAD(P)H autofluorescence), cytosolic Ca(2+) (monitored with Fura2) and GLP-1 secretion (assayed by ELISA) were assessed.L cell glucose uptake was dominated by GLUT-mediated transport, being abolished by phloretin but not phloridzin. NAD(P)H autofluorescence was glucose dependent and enhanced by a glucokinase activator. In GLUTag cells, but not primary L cells, phloretin partially impaired glucose-dependent secretion, and suppressed an amplifying effect of glucose under depolarising high K(+) conditions. The key importance of SGLT1 in GLUTag and primary cells was evident from the impairment of secretion by phloridzin or Sglt1 knockdown and failure of glucose to trigger cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation in primary L cells from Sglt1 knockout mice.SGLT1 acts as the luminal glucose sensor in L cells, but intracellular glucose concentrations are largely determined by GLUT activity. Although L cell glucose metabolism depends partially on glucokinase activity, this plays only a minor role in glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion.
Project description:To clarify the physiological role of Na(+)-D-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in small intestine and kidney, Sglt1(-/-) mice were generated and characterized phenotypically. After gavage of d-glucose, small intestinal glucose absorption across the brush-border membrane (BBM) via SGLT1 and GLUT2 were analyzed. Glucose-induced secretion of insulinotropic hormone (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in wild-type and Sglt1(-/-) mice were compared. The impact of SGLT1 on renal glucose handling was investigated by micropuncture studies. It was observed that Sglt1(-/-) mice developed a glucose-galactose malabsorption syndrome but thrive normally when fed a glucose-galactose-free diet. In wild-type mice, passage of D-glucose across the intestinal BBM was predominantly mediated by SGLT1, independent the glucose load. High glucose concentrations increased the amounts of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in the BBM, and SGLT1 was required for upregulation of GLUT2. SGLT1 was located in luminal membranes of cells immunopositive for GIP and GLP-1, and Sglt1(-/-) mice exhibited reduced glucose-triggered GIP and GLP-1 levels. In the kidney, SGLT1 reabsorbed ?3% of the filtered glucose under normoglycemic conditions. The data indicate that SGLT1 is 1) pivotal for intestinal mass absorption of d-glucose, 2) triggers the glucose-induced secretion of GIP and GLP-1, and 3) triggers the upregulation of GLUT2.
Project description:Polyphenols contained within plant tissues are consumed in significant amounts in the human diet and are known to influence a number of biological processes. This study investigated the effects of an anthocyanin-rich berry-extract on glucose uptake by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Acute exposure (15 min) to berry extract (0.125%, w/v) significantly decreased both sodium-dependent (Total uptake) and sodium-independent (facilitated uptake) ³H-D-glucose uptake. In longer-term studies, SGLT1 mRNA and GLUT2 mRNA expression were reduced significantly. Polyphenols are known to interact directly with glucose transporters to regulate the rate of glucose absorption. Our in vitro data support this mechanism and also suggest that berry flavonoids may modulate post-prandial glycaemia by decreasing glucose transporter expression. Further studies are warranted to investigate the longer term effects of berry flavonoids on the management of glycaemia in human volunteers.
Project description:Intestinal glucose absorption is mediated by SGLT1 whereas GLUT2 is considered to provide basolateral exit. Recently, it was proposed that GLUT2 can be recruited into the apical membrane after a high luminal glucose bolus allowing bulk absorption of glucose by facilitated diffusion. Moreover, SGLT1 and GLUT2 are suggested to play an important role in intestinal glucose sensing and incretin secretion. In mice that lack either SGLT1 or GLUT2 we re-assessed the role of these transporters in intestinal glucose uptake after radiotracer glucose gavage and performed Western blot analysis for transporter abundance in apical membrane fractions in a comparative approach. Moreover, we examined the contribution of these transporters to glucose-induced changes in plasma GIP, GLP-1 and insulin levels. In mice lacking SGLT1, tissue retention of tracer glucose was drastically reduced throughout the entire small intestine whereas GLUT2-deficient animals exhibited higher tracer contents in tissue samples than wild type animals. Deletion of SGLT1 resulted also in reduced blood glucose elevations and abolished GIP and GLP-1 secretion in response to glucose. In mice lacking GLUT2, glucose-induced insulin but not incretin secretion was impaired. Western blot analysis revealed unchanged protein levels of SGLT1 after glucose gavage. GLUT2 detected in apical membrane fractions mainly resulted from contamination with basolateral membranes but did not change in density after glucose administration. SGLT1 is unequivocally the prime intestinal glucose transporter even at high luminal glucose concentrations. Moreover, SGLT1 mediates glucose-induced incretin secretion. Our studies do not provide evidence for GLUT2 playing any role in either apical glucose influx or incretin secretion.