Electromyographic activity of preterm newborns in the kangaroo position: a cohort study.
ABSTRACT: To compare the electromyographic activity of preterm newborns placed in the kangaroo position with the activity of newborns not placed in this position.A cohort study.A Kangaroo Unit sector and a Nursery sector in a secondary and tertiary care at a mother-child hospital in Recife, Brazil.Preterm infants of gestational age 27-34 weeks (n=38) and term infants (n=39).Surface electromyography was used to investigate muscle activity in the brachial biceps at rest. 3 groups were designed: (1) preterm newborns in the kangaroo position (PT-KAN), where the newborn remains in a vertical position, lying face down, with limbs flexed, dressed in light clothes, maintaining skin-to-skin contact with the adult's thorax. Her electromyographic activity was recorded at 0 h (immediately before starting this position), and then at 48 h after the beginning of the position (but newborns were kept in the kangaroo position for 8-12 h per day) and at term equivalent age (40±1 weeks); (2) preterm newborns not in the kangaroo position (PT-NKAN), in which measurements were made at 0 h and 48 h; and (3) term newborns (T), in which measurements were made at 24 h of chronological age.The Root Mean Square (RMS) values showed significant differences among groups (F(5,108)=56.69; p<0.001). The multiple comparisons showed that RMS was greater at 48 h compared to 0 h in the preterm group in the kangaroo position, but not in the group not submitted in the kangaroo position. The RMS in the term equivalent aged group in the kangaroo position was also greater when compared with those in the term group.The kangaroo position increases electromyographic activity in the brachial biceps of preterm newborns and those who have reached the age equivalent to term.
Project description:Background:Kangaroo mother care is a comprehensive intervention given for all newborns especially for premature and low birthweight infants. It is the most feasible and preferred intervention for decreasing neonatal morbidity and mortality. Even though time to initiating breastfeeding has been examined by randomized controlled trials, varying findings have been reported. Therefore, the main objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate the pooled mean time to initiate breastfeeding among preterm and low birthweight infants. Methods:The authors searched for randomized controlled trial studies conducted on the effects of kangaroo mother care on the time to breastfeeding initiation among preterm and low birthweight infants. Published articles were identified through a computerized search of electronic databases that includes MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL. The search terms were kangaroo mother care or (skin to skin), or conventional care, newborns, preterm infants, low birthweight infants and randomized controlled trial. A total of 467 eligible titles were identified and eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The extracted data were entered and analyzed using Cochrane Review Manager-5-3 software. Heterogeneity across studies was evaluated by Chi2 test and inconsistency index (I2). Publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot. The random effect model was applied to estimate the pooled mean time to initiate breastfeeding with 95% confidence interval. Results:In this meta-analysis, the overall pooled mean time to initiate breastfeeding was 2.6?days (95% CI 1.23, 3.96). Preterm and low birthweight infants receiving kangaroo mother care intervention initiated breastfeeding 2?days 14?h 24?min earlier than conventional care of radiant warmer/incubator method. Conclusions:Kangaroo mother care promotes early initiation of breastfeeding as compared to conventional care method. Therefore, health facilities need to implement the kangaroo mother care for preterm and low birthweight infants.
Project description:As a standard of care for preterm/term newborns effective pain management may improve their clinical and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Neonatal pain is assessed using context-specific, validated, and objective pain methods, despite the limitations of currently available tools. Therapeutic approaches reducing invasive procedures and using pharmacologic, behavioral, or environmental measures are used to manage neonatal pain. Nonpharmacologic approaches like kangaroo care, facilitated tucking, non-nutritive sucking, sucrose, and others can be used for procedural pain or adjunctive therapy. Local/topical anesthetics, opioids, NSAIDs/acetaminophen and other sedative/anesthetic agents can be incorporated into NICU protocols for managing moderate/severe pain or distress in all newborns.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Currently available MRI scoring systems of cerebral maturation in term and preterm infant at term equivalent age do not include the changes of transient fetal compartments that persist to term age. We studied the visibility and the pattern of these structures in healthy term newborns compared to preterm infants at term equivalent age in order to investigate if they can be included in a new MRI score system. We hypothesized that transient fetal compartments are different in both groups, and that these differences can be characterized using the clinical T2-weighted MRIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Using 3T MRI T2-weighted brain sequences of 21 full-term and 41 preterm infants (< 32 weeks), scanned at term equivalent age, 3 raters independently scored the maturation level of 3 transient fetal compartments: the periventricular crossroads, von Monakow segments of the white matter, and the subplate compartment. These 3 new items were included in a scoring system along with validated parameters of brain maturation (germinal matrix, bands of migration, subarachnoid space and quality of gyrification). A cumulative maturity score was calculated separately for both groups of newborns by adding together each item. More mature were the brain structures, higher was the cumulative maturity score. RESULTS:Cumulative maturity score distinguished full-term from preterm infants (mean score 41/60 ± 1.4 versus 37/60 ± 2.5 points, p < 0.001), with an increase of 0.5 points for each supplemental gestational week at birth (r?=?0.5, 95% CI 0.5 - 0.85). While a majority of transient fetal compartments were less mature in preterm group at term equivalent age, von Monakow segments of the white matter and subplate compartment presented a more advanced maturational stage in the preterm group compared to the term group. No subject had all scored items in the most mature state. Except a slight intra-rater agreement for von Monakow segment II, inter- and intra-rater agreements were moderate to excellent indicating the potential of the developed scoring system in routine clinical practice. CONCLUSION:Brain transient fetal structures can be assessed on regular T2-weighted MRI in newborns. Their appearance differs between term and preterm babies. However our results suggest a more complex situation, with both delayed and accelerated maturation pattern in preterm infants. It remains to be determined if these differences could be biomarkers of the future neurodevelopment of preterm infants.
Project description:Introduction: Visual impairment is a concern in premature infants as perinatal factors may alter maturation during visual development. This observational study aimed at evaluating visual maturation at term equivalent age and factors associated with impaired visual maturation. Methods: Infants born before 32 weeks' gestation were evaluated with routine brain MRI, visual acuity, refraction, fundus, and clinical eye examination. Environmental factors were collected from infant's files. Results: Fifty-four infants (29.5 ± 1.7 weeks' gestation, birth weight 1194 ± 288 g) were studied at term equivalent age. Visual acuity was higher in premature infants at term equivalent age than in a reference publication with the same method in term newborns at birth (1.54 ± 0.67 vs. 0.99 ± 0.40 cycles/degree, p = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, abnormal brain MRI was the only factor associated with visual acuity (r2= 0.203; p = 0.026). Incomplete retinal vascularization was observed in 29/53 of infants at term equivalent age and associated with MRI abnormalities of the posterior fossa (p = 0.027) and larger refractive sphere difference between both eyes (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 0.6 ± 0.4 diopters; p = 0.0005). Retinopathy of prematurity was associated with indices of smaller cerebral volume (p = 0.035). Conclusion: Higher visual acuity in premature infants at term equivalent age than in term newborns at birth may be related to longer visual experience from birth. Lower visual acuity was correlated with abnormal MRI in preterm infants at term equivalent age.
Project description:This study assessed the feasibility and obtrusiveness of measuring salivary oxytocin in preterm infants receiving Kangaroo care, because this is a period of maximal bonding or co-regulation. We also analysed possible influential determinants, including maternal oxytocin.The saliva of preterm infants and their mothers was collected prior to, and during, Kangaroo care using cotton swabs and pooled into vials until sufficient volumes were obtained to measure oxytocin levels using a radioimmunoassay. The obtrusiveness of the infants' collections was measured with a Likert scale.Saliva was collected unobtrusively prior to, and during, 30 Kangaroo care sessions in 21 preterm infants. This resulted in three vials with sufficient volumes of before-Kangaroo care saliva and three with during-Kangaroo care saliva. Oxytocin was detectable in all six vials. The Kangaroo care duration and the intensity of the mother-infant interaction before and during Kangaroo care seemed to be the most important determinants, and these should preferably be standardised in any future trials.Oxytocin was measured unobtrusively in the pooled saliva of preterm infants both before and during Kangaroo care and could therefore be investigated as a biomarker in future studies.
Project description:In 2013, an estimated 2.8 million newborns died and 2.7 million were stillborn. A much greater number suffer from long term impairment associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and perinatal or infectious causes. With the approaching deadline for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015, there was a need to set the new research priorities on newborns and stillbirth with a focus not only on survival but also on health, growth and development. We therefore carried out a systematic exercise to set newborn health research priorities for 2013-2025.We used adapted Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methods for this prioritization exercise. We identified and approached the 200 most productive researchers and 400 program experts, and 132 of them submitted research questions online. These were collated into a set of 205 research questions, sent for scoring to the 600 identified experts, and were assessed and scored by 91 experts.Nine out of top ten identified priorities were in the domain of research on improving delivery of known interventions, with simplified neonatal resuscitation program and clinical algorithms and improved skills of community health workers leading the list. The top 10 priorities in the domain of development were led by ideas on improved Kangaroo Mother Care at community level, how to improve the accuracy of diagnosis by community health workers, and perinatal audits. The 10 leading priorities for discovery research focused on stable surfactant with novel modes of administration for preterm babies, ability to diagnose fetal distress and novel tocolytic agents to delay or stop preterm labour.These findings will assist both donors and researchers in supporting and conducting research to close the knowledge gaps for reducing neonatal mortality, morbidity and long term impairment. WHO, SNL and other partners will work to generate interest among key national stakeholders, governments, NGOs, and research institutes in these priorities, while encouraging research funders to support them. We will track research funding, relevant requests for proposals and trial registers to monitor if the priorities identified by this exercise are being addressed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Kangaroo mother care, an evidence based practice and a national policy for management of low birth weight newborns in Nepal, is not widely practiced. This implementation research study aimed to explore the consumer preference and acceptability of the traditional and a new ergonomic wrap on the continuation of kangaroo mother care in the facility and community following discharge. METHODS:A mixed method feasibility study was done from May to October 2015. Ninety-six families of stable low birth weight newborns weighing 1800 to 2499 grams were counseled and taught to practice kangaroo mother care using both wraps. They were randomized into two groups of 48 with one group trying out the traditional wrap for the first six hours and the new wrap for the next six, and vice versa. Mothers were allowed to choose between the wraps for continuation of kangaroo mother care at the facility and post discharge. They were followed up telephonically weekly over 28 days postpartum to ascertain practice of kangaroo mother care. In-depth interviews with mothers (n = 12) and focus group discussions with health workers (n = 16) further evaluated the intervention. Descriptive statistics are presented for the quantitative part of the study. RESULTS:Mothers in the two groups chose the new wrap with no significant difference (81.3% vs 89.6%, p = 0.24). Of the 96 randomized mothers, 85% chose the new wrap. During the hospital stay, six mothers dropped out and remaining 90 mothers who were discharged with the intention of continuing Kangaroo Mother Care, 78 and 12 mothers did so with the new and traditional wrap respectively. New wrap users (429.1 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 351.7-470.3) performed skin-to-skin contact for an extra 77.4 hours overall than traditional wrap (351.7 hours, 95%CI: 259.3-444) users from first day to 28 day postpartum. Health workers and mothers reported positive experience with the new wrap as it was easy to wear without assistance, secure and flexible to move around in kangaroo mother care position. CONCLUSIONS:Involvement of mothers and families with provision of ergonomic wraps showed improvement in kangaroo mother care practice during hospital stay and at home.
Project description:As part of a supplement entitled “Born Too Soon”, this paper focuses on care of the preterm newborn. An estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and the survival gap between those born in high and low income countries is widening, with one million deaths a year due to direct complications of preterm birth, and around one million more where preterm birth is a risk factor, especially amongst those who are also growth restricted. Most premature babies (>80%) are between 32 and 37 weeks of gestation, and many die needlessly for lack of simple care. We outline a series of packages of care that build on essential care for every newborn comprising support for immediate and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, and hygienic cord and skin care. For babies who do not breathe at birth, rapid neonatal resuscitation is crucial. Extra care for small babies, including Kangaroo Mother Care, and feeding support, can halve mortality in babies weighing <2000 g. Case management of newborns with signs of infection, safe oxygen management and supportive care for those with respiratory complications, and care for those with significant jaundice are all critical, and are especially dependent on competent nursing care. Neonatal intensive care units in high income settings are de-intensifying care, for example increasing use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and this makes comprehensive preterm care more transferable. For health systems in low and middle income settings with increasing facility births, district hospitals are the key frontier for improving obstetric and neonatal care, and some large scale programmes now include specific newborn care strategies. However there are still around 50 million births outside facilities, hence home visits for mothers and newborns, as well as women’s groups are crucial for reaching these families, often the poorest. A fundamental challenge is improving programmatic tracking data for coverage and quality, and measuring disability-free survival. The power of parent’s voices has been important in high-income countries in bringing attention to preterm newborns, but is still missing from the most affected countries.
Project description:Urban green spaces have been associated with health benefits, but few studies have evaluated the role of greenness on pregnancy outcomes. We examined how the association between short-term exposure to heat and air pollution on the probability of preterm delivery is affected by the spatial variation of socioeconomic position (SEP) and greenness. We analyzed a cohort of newborns in Rome, from April to October of 2001-2013, defining preterm as births between the 22nd and the 36th week of gestation. We used a time series approach, with maximum apparent temperature (MAT), PM10, NO2, and O3 as exposure variables. As greenness indicators, we considered maternal residential proximity to green spaces and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within a 100 m buffer around each woman's residential address. We enrolled 56,576 newborns (5.1% preterm). The effect of a 1 °C increase in temperature on the daily number of preterm births was higher in women with low SEP (+2.49% (90% CI: 1.29-3.71)) and among those living within 100 m from green spaces (+3.33% (90% CI: 1.82-4.87)). No effect modification was observed for NDVI or PM10. SEP was an important effect modifier of the heat-preterm birth relationship. The role of greenness in modifying this association between heat and preterm delivery should be further investigated.
Project description:Neonatal intensive care units are willing to apply environmental enrichment via music for preterm newborns. However, no evidence of an effect of music on preterm brain development has been reported to date. Using resting-state fMRI, we characterized a circuitry of interest consisting of three network modules interconnected by the salience network that displays reduced network coupling in preterm compared with full-term newborns. Interestingly, preterm infants exposed to music in the neonatal intensive care units have significantly increased coupling between brain networks previously shown to be decreased in premature infants: the salience network with the superior frontal, auditory, and sensorimotor networks, and the salience network with the thalamus and precuneus networks. Therefore, music exposure leads to functional brain architectures that are more similar to those of full-term newborns, providing evidence for a beneficial effect of music on the preterm brain.