The multidrug resistance 1 gene Abcb1 in brain and placenta: comparative analysis in human and guinea pig.
ABSTRACT: The Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1; alternatively ABCB1) gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP binding cassette transporter, extrudes multiple endogenous and exogenous substrates from the cell, playing an important role in normal physiology and xenobiotic distribution and bioavailability. To date, the predominant animal models used to investigate the role of P-gp have been the mouse and rat, which have two distinct genes, Abcb1a and Abcb1b. In contrast, the human has a single gene, ABCB1, for which only a single isoform has been validated. We and others have previously shown important differences between Abcb1a and Abcb1b, limiting the extrapolation from rodent findings to the human. Since the guinea pig has a relatively long gestation, hemomonochorial placentation and neuroanatomically mature offspring, it is more similar to the human, and may provide a more comparable model for investigating the regulation of P-gp in the brain and placenta, however, to date, the Abcb1 gene in the guinea pig remains to be characterized. The placenta and fetal brain are barrier sites that express P-gp and that play a critical role of protection of the fetus and the fetal brain from maternally administered drugs and other xenobiotics. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative PCR (QPCR) to sequence the expressed isoforms of guinea pig Abcb1, we demonstrate that like the human, the guinea pig genome contains one gene for Abcb1 but that it is expressed as at least three different isoforms via alternative splicing and alternate exon usage. Further, we demonstrate that these isoforms are more closely related to human than to rat or mouse isoforms. This striking, overall similarity and evolutionary relatedness between guinea pig Abcb1 and human ABCB1 indicate that the guinea pig represents a relevant animal model for investigating the function and regulation of P-gp in the placenta and brain.
Project description:AIM: To investigate the changes of expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-GP) in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, liver, intestinal mucosa and kidney of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetic rats were prepared via a single dose of streptozocin (65 mg/kg, ip). Abcb1/P-GP mRNA and protein expression levels in tissues were evaluated using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) analysis and Western blot, respectively. P-GP function was investigated via measuring tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios and body fluid excretion percentages of rhodamine 123. RESULTS: In 5- and 8-week diabetic rats, Abcb1a mRNA levels were significantly decreased in cerebral cortices and intestinal mucosa, but dramatically increased in hippocampus and kidney. In liver, the level was increased in 5-week diabetic rats, and decreased in 8-week diabetic rats. Abcb1b mRNA levels were increased in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and kidney, but reduced in liver and intestinal mucosa in the diabetic rats. Western blot results were in accordance with the alterations of Abcb1a mRNA levels in most tissues examined. P-GP activity was markedly decreased in most tissues of diabetic rats, except kidney tissues. CONCLUSION: Alterations in the expression and function of Abcb1/P-GP under diabetic conditions are tissue specific, Abcb1 specific and diabetic duration-dependent.
Project description:This study was aimed to investigate whether vitamin A deficiency could alter P-GP expression and function in tissues of rats and whether such effects affected the drug distribution in vivo of vitamin A-deficient rats. We induced vitamin A-deficient rats by giving them a vitamin A-free diet for 12 weeks. Then, Abcb1/P-GP expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR and Western blot. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that Abcb1a mRNA levels were increased in hippocampus and liver. In kidney, it only showed an upward trend. Abcb1b mRNA levels were increased in hippocampus, but decreased in cerebral cortex, liver and kidney. Western blot results were in good accordance with the alterations of Abcb1b mRNA levels. P-GP function was investigated through tissue distribution and body fluid excretion of rhodamine 123 (Rho123), and the results proclaimed that P-GP activities were also in good accordance with P-GP expression in cerebral cortex, liver and kidney. The change of drug distribution was also investigated through the tissue distribution of vincristine, and the results showed a significantly upward trend in all indicated tissues of vitamin A-deficient rats. In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency may alter Abcb1/P-GP expression and function in rat tissues, and the alterations may increase drug activity/toxicity through the increase of tissue accumulation.
Project description:During spermatogenesis, immature spermatocytes traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and enter the apical apartment of seminiferous epithelium for further development. This course involves extensive junction disassembly and reassembly at the BTB. P-glycoprotein is known to be coded by two genes in rodents, namely Abcb1a and Abcb1b. Our previous studies showed that simultaneously silencing Abcb1a and Abcb1b genes in Sertoli cells impeded BTB integrity. However, the individual role of Abcb1a and Abcb1b in regulating BTB dynamics remains uninvestigated. Here, single knockdown of Abcb1a by RNAi impeded the in vitro Sertoli cell permeability barrier via redistributing TJ proteins, accelerating endocytosis, and affecting endocytic vesicle-mediated protein transportation that undermined Sertoli cell barrier. F5-peptide model was used to induce cell junction disruption and subsequent restructuring in primary Sertoli cells. F5-peptide perturbed this barrier, but its removal allowed barrier 'resealing'. Abcb1b knockdown was found to inhibit barrier resealing following F5-peptide removal by suppressing the restore of the expression and distribution of junction proteins at BTB, and reducing the migration of internalized junction proteins back to Sertoli cell interface. In summary, Abcb1a is critical in maintaining BTB integrity, while Abcb1b is crucial for junction reassembly at the BTB.
Project description:The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/Abcb1a) restricts at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) brain distribution of many drugs. ABCB1 may be involved in drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at the BBB, which may lead to changes in brain distribution and central nervous system side effects of drugs. Positron emission tomography (PET) with the ABCB1 substrates (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide and the ABCB1 inhibitor tariquidar has allowed direct comparison of ABCB1-mediated DDIs at the rodent and human BBB. In this work we evaluated different factors which could influence the magnitude of the interaction between tariquidar and (R)-[(11)C]verapamil or [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide at the BBB and thereby contribute to previously observed species differences between rodents and humans. We performed in vitro transport experiments with [(3)H]verapamil and [(3)H]-N-desmethyl-loperamide in ABCB1 and Abcb1a overexpressing cell lines. Moreover we conducted in vivo PET experiments and biodistribution studies with (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide in wild-type mice without and with tariquidar pretreatment and in homozygous Abcb1a/1b((-/-)) and heterozygous Abcb1a/1b((+/-)) mice. We found no differences for in vitro transport of [(3)H]verapamil and [(3)H]-N-desmethyl-loperamide by ABCB1 and Abcb1a and its inhibition by tariquidar. [(3)H]-N-Desmethyl-loperamide was transported with a 5 to 9 times higher transport ratio than [(3)H]verapamil in ABCB1- and Abcb1a-transfected cells. In vivo, brain radioactivity concentrations were lower for [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide than for (R)-[(11)C]verapamil. Both radiotracers showed tariquidar dose dependent increases in brain distribution with tariquidar half-maximum inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 1052 nM (95% confidence interval CI: 930-1189) for (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and 1329 nM (95% CI: 980-1801) for [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide. In homozygous Abcb1a/1b((-/-)) mice brain radioactivity distribution was increased by 3.9- and 2.8-fold and in heterozygous Abcb1a/1b((+/-)) mice by 1.5- and 1.1-fold, for (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide, respectively, as compared with wild-type mice. For both radiotracers radiolabeled metabolites were detected in plasma and brain. When brain and plasma radioactivity concentrations were corrected for radiolabeled metabolites, brain distribution of (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide was increased in tariquidar (15 mg/kg) treated animals by 14.1- and 18.3-fold, respectively, as compared with vehicle group. Isoflurane anesthesia altered [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide but not (R)-[(11)C]verapamil metabolism, and this had a direct effect on the magnitude of the increase in brain distribution following ABCB1 inhibition. Our data furthermore suggest that in the absence of ABCB1 function brain distribution of [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide but not (R)-[(11)C]verapamil may depend on cerebral blood flow. In conclusion, we have identified a number of important factors, i.e., substrate affinity to ABCB1, brain uptake of radiolabeled metabolites, anesthesia, and cerebral blood flow, which can directly influence the magnitude of ABCB1-mediated DDIs at the BBB and should therefore be taken into consideration when interpreting PET results.
Project description:Brain edema is an important factor leading to morbidity and mortality associated with primary brain tumors. Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, is routinely prescribed with antineoplastic agents to alleviate pain associated with chemotherapy and reduce intracranial pressure. We investigated whether dexamethasone treatment increased the expression and activity of multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters at the blood-brain barrier. Treatment of primary rat brain microvascular endothelial cells with submicromolar concentrations of dexamethasone induced significantly higher levels of drug efflux transporters such as breast cancer resistance protein (abcg2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp; abcb1a/abcb1b), and MDR protein 2 (Mrp2; abcc2) as indicted by protein and mRNA levels as well as by functional activity. The effect of dexamethasone on transporter function was significant within 6 h of treatment, was dose dependent, and was reversible. Dexamethasone-induced upregulation of Bcrp and P-gp expression and function was partially abrogated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU486. In contrast, RU486 had no effect on the dexamethasone-induced upregulation of Mrp2, suggesting a GR-independent regulation of Mrp2, and a GR-dependent regulation of P-gp and Bcrp. In addition to the dexamethasone-induced upregulation of MDR transporters, we measured a dose-dependent and reversible increase in the expression of the nuclear transcription factor pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). Administering dexamethasone to rats caused increased expression of PXR in brain microvessels within 24 h. These results suggest that adjuvant therapy with corticosteroids such as dexamethasone in the treatment of brain tumors may increase the expression of MDR transporters at the blood-brain barrier through pathways involving GR and PXR.
Project description:Many pregnant women and prematurely born infants require medication for clinical conditions including cancer, cardiac defects and psychiatric disorders. In adults drug transfer from blood into brain is mostly restricted by efflux mechanisms (ATP-binding cassette, ABC transporters). These mechanisms have been little studied during brain development. Here expression of eight ABC transporters (abcb1a, abcb1b, abcg2, abcc1, abcc2, abcc3, abcc4, abcc5) and activity of conjugating enzyme glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were measured in livers, brain cortices (blood-brain-barrier) and choroid plexuses (blood-cerebrospinal fluid, CSF, barrier) during postnatal rat development. Controls were compared to animals chronically injected (4 days, 200?mg/kg/day) with known abcb1a inducer diallyl sulfide (DAS). Results reveal both tissue- and age-dependent regulation. In liver abcb1a and abcc3 were up-regulated at all ages. In cortex abcb1a/b, abcg2 and abcc4/abcc5 were up-regulated in adults only, while in choroid plexus abcb1a and abcc2 were up-regulated only at P14. DAS treatment increased GST activity in livers, but not in cortex or choroid plexuses. Immunocytochemistry of ABC transporters at the CSF-brain interface showed that PGP and BCRP predominated in neuroepithelium while MRP2/4/5 were prominent in adult ependyma. These results indicate an age-related capacity of brain barriers to dynamically regulate their defence mechanisms when chronically challenged by xenobiotic compounds.
Project description:Placental P-glycoprotein (P-gp) acts to protect the developing fetus from exogenous compounds. This protection declines with advancing gestation leaving the fetus and fetal brain vulnerable to these compounds and potential teratogens in maternal circulation. This vulnerability may be more pronounced in pregnancies complicated by infection, which is common during pregnancy. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (released during infection) have been shown to be potent inhibitors of P-gp, but nothing is known regarding their effects at the developing blood-brain barrier (BBB). We hypothesized that P-gp function and expression in endothelial cells of the developing BBB will be inhibited by pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have derived brain endothelial cell (BEC) cultures from various stages of development of the guinea pig: gestational day (GD) 50, 65 (term ~68 days) and postnatal day (PND) 14. Once these cultures reached confluence, BECs were treated with various doses (10(0)-10(4 )pg/mL) of pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) or tumor necrosis factor- ? (TNF-?). P-gp function or abcb1 mRNA (encodes P-gp) expression was assessed following treatment. Incubation of GD50 BECs with IL-1?, IL-6 or TNF-? resulted in no change in P-gp function. GD65 BECs displayed a dose-dependent decrease in function with all cytokines tested; maximal effects at 42%, 65% and 34% with IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? treatment, respectively (P<0.01). Inhibition of P-gp function by IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? was even greater in PND14 BECs; maximal effects at 36% (P<0.01), 84% (P<0.05) and 55% (P<0.01), respectively. Cytokine-induced reductions in P-gp function were associated with decreased abcb1 mRNA expression. These data suggest that BBB P-gp function is increasingly responsive to the inhibitory effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with increasing developmental age. Thus, women who experience infection and take prescription medication during pregnancy may expose the developing fetal brain to greater amounts of exogenous compounds - many of which are considered potentially teratogenic.
Project description:Brain endothelial cells (BECs) form a major component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In late gestation, these cells express high levels of the multidrug transporter p-glycoprotein (P-gp; encoded by Abcb1), which prevents the passage of an array of endogenous factors and xenobiotics into the fetal brain. P-gp levels in the BECs increase dramatically in late gestation, coincident with astrocyte differentiation. However, the role of astrocytes in modulating P-gp in the developing BBB is unknown. We hypothesized that factors produced by astrocytes positively regulate P-gp in BECs. Astrocytes and BECs were isolated from fetal and postnatal guinea pigs. Levels of Abcb1 mRNA and P-gp were increased in BECs co-cultured with astrocytes compared to BECs in monoculture. Moreover, postnatal astrocytes enhanced P-gp function in fetal BECs but fetal astrocytes had no effect on postnatal BECs. These effects were dependent on secreted proteins with a molecular weight in the range of 3-100 kDa. LC/MS-MS revealed significant differences in proteins secreted by fetal and postnatal astrocytes. We propose that astrocytes are critical modulators of P-gp at the developing BBB. As such, aberrations in astrocyte maturation, observed in neurodevelopmental disorders, will likely decrease P-gp at the BBB. This would allow increased transfer of P-gp endogenous and exogenous substrates into the brain, many of which have neurodevelopmental consequences.
Project description:PURPOSE:Multidrug resistance (MDR) impedes cancer treatment. Two efflux transporters from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family, ABCB1 and ABCG2, may contribute to MDR by restricting the entry of therapeutic drugs into tumor cells. Although a higher expression of these transporters has been correlated with an unfavorable response to chemotherapy, transporter expression does not necessarily correlate with function. In this study, we characterized the pharmacological properties of [18F]AVT-011, a new PET radiotracer for imaging transporter-mediated MDR in tumors. METHODS:AVT-011 was radiolabeled with 18F and evaluated with PET imaging in preclinical models. Transport of [18F]AVT-011 by ABCB1 and/or ABCG2 was assessed by measuring its uptake in the brains of wild-type, Abcb1a/b-/-, and Abcg2-/- mice at baseline and after administration of the ABCB1 inhibitor tariquidar (n = 5/group). Metabolism and biodistribution of [18F]AVT-011 were also measured. To measure ABCB1 function in tumors, we performed PET experiments using both [18F]AVT-011 and [18F]FDG in mice bearing orthotopic breast tumors (n = 7-10/group) expressing clinically relevant levels of ABCB1. RESULTS:At baseline, brain uptake was highest in Abcb1a/b-/- mice. After tariquidar administration, brain uptake increased 3-fold and 8-fold in wild-type and Abcg2-/- mice, respectively, but did not increase further in Abcb1a/b-/- mice. At 30 min after injection, the radiotracer was > 90% in its parent form and had highest uptake in organs of the hepatobiliary system. Compared with that in drug-sensitive tumors, uptake of [18F]AVT-011 was 32% lower in doxorubicin-resistant tumors with highest ABCB1 expression and increased by 40% with tariquidar administration. Tumor uptake of [18F]FDG did not significantly differ among groups. CONCLUSION:[18F]AVT-011 is a dual ABCB1/ABCG2 substrate radiotracer that can quantify transporter function at the blood-brain barrier and in ABCB1-expressing tumors, making it potentially suitable for clinical imaging of ABCB1-mediated MDR in tumors.
Project description:P-Glycoprotein (P-gp, Abcb1) plays a crucial role in drug disposition and functions by hydrolyzing ATP. However, little is known about the regulatory elements governing the transcription of the porcine Abcb1 gene. In this study, the transcription start site of the pig Abcb1 gene was identified by 5'-RACE. A 1.9-kb fragment of the 5'-flanking region of the Abcb1 gene was cloned from pig genomic DNA and sequenced. The region critical for its promoter activity was investigated via progressive deletions. Further, using mutation assays, two proximal Sp1 binding sites within the 5'-flanking region of Abcb1 were proven to be important cis-regulatory elements involved in regulating the constitutive expression of porcine Abcb1. RNA interference experiments showed that Sp1 regulated the expression of the porcine P-gp at both mRNA and protein levels. Hence, the current work provides valuable information on the regulatory mechanisms of pig Abcb1.