Direct Interaction between Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain and FK506 Binding Protein 38 in Cashmere Goat Fetal Fibroblast Cells.
ABSTRACT: Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) and FK506 binding protein 38 (FKBP38) are two important regulatory proteins in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. There are contradictory data on the interaction between Rheb and FKBP38 in human cells, but this association has not been examined in cashmere goat cells. To investigate the interaction between Rheb and FKBP38, we overexpressed goat Rheb and FKBP38 in goat fetal fibroblasts, extracted whole proteins, and performed coimmunoprecipitation to detect them by western blot. We found Rheb binds directly to FKBP38. Then, we constructed bait vectors (pGBKT7-Rheb/FKBP38) and prey vectors (pGADT7-Rheb/FKBP38), and examined their interaction by yeast two-hybrid assay. Their direct interaction was observed, regardless of which plasmid served as the prey or bait vector. These results indicate that the 2 proteins interact directly in vivo. Novel evidence is presented on the mTOR signal pathway in Cashmere goat cells.
Project description:The Ras-like small GTPase Rheb is an upstream activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). It has recently been shown that Rheb activates mTOR by binding to its endogenous inhibitor FKBP38 and preventing it from association with mTOR. The interaction of Rheb with FKBP38 is controlled by its guanine nucleotide binding states, which are responsive to growth factor and amino acid conditions. In this study, we show that Rheb interacts with FKBP38 through a section within its switch I region that is equivalent to the effector domain of other Ras-like small GTPases. We find that the ability for Rheb to interact with FKBP38 correlates with its activity for mTOR activation. Our findings suggest that FKBP38 is a bona fide effector of Rheb and that the ability to interact with FKBP38 is important for Rheb as an activator of mTOR.
Project description:FKBP38 is a member of the family of FK506-binding proteins that acts as an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The inhibitory action of FKBP38 is antagonized by Rheb, an oncogenic small GTPase, which interacts with FKBP38 and prevents its association with mTOR. In addition to the role in mTOR regulation, FKBP38 is also involved in binding and recruiting Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), two anti-apoptotic proteins, to mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the possibility that Rheb controls apoptosis by regulating the interaction of FKBP38 with Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L). We demonstrate in vitro that the interaction of FKBP38 with Bcl-2 is regulated by Rheb in a GTP-dependent manner. In cultured cells, the interaction is controlled by Rheb in response to changes in amino acid and growth factor conditions. Importantly, we found that the Rheb-dependent release of Bcl-X(L) from FKBP38 facilitates the association of this anti-apoptotic protein with the pro-apoptotic protein Bak. Consequently, when Rheb activity increases, cells become more resistant to apoptotic inducers. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism through which growth factors and amino acids control apoptosis.
Project description:Theileria annulata can infect monocytes/macrophages and B lymphocytes and causes severe lymphoproliferative disease in ruminants. Meanwhile, infection by T. annulata leads to the permanent proliferation of cell population through regulating signaling pathways of host cells. Cysteine proteinases (CPs) are one kind of protein hydrolase and usually play critical roles in parasite virulence, host invasion, nutrition and host immune response. However, the biological function of T. annulata CP (TaCP) is still unclear. In this study, a yeast-two-hybrid assay was performed to screen host proteins interacting with TaCP, to provide information to help our understanding of the molecular mechanisms between T. annulata and host cells.The cDNA from purified bovine B cells was inserted into pGADT7-SfiI vector (pGADT7-SfiI-BcDNA, Prey plasmid) for constructing the yeast two-hybrid cDNA library. TaCP was cloned into the pGBKT7 vector (pGBKT7-TaCP) and was considered as bait plasmid after evaluating the expression, auto-activation and toxicity tests in the yeast strain Y2HGold. The yeast two-hybrid screening was carried out via co-transforming bait and prey plasmids into yeast strain Y2HGold. Sequences of positive preys were analyzed using BLAST, Gene Ontology, UniProt and STRING.Two host proteins, CRBN (Bos taurus cereblon transcript variant X2) and Ppp4C (Bos indicus protein phosphatase 4 catalytic subunit) were identified to interact with TaCP. The results of functional analysis showed that the two proteins were involved in many cellular processes, such as ubiquitylation regulation, microtubule organization, DNA repair, cell apoptosis and maturation of spliceosomal snRNPs.This study is the first to screen the host proteins of bovine B cells interacting with TaCP, and 2 proteins, CRBN and Ppp4C, were identified using yeast two-hybrid technique. The results of functional analysis suggest that the two proteins are involved in many cellular processes, such as ubiquitylation regulating, microtubule organization, DNA repair, cell apoptosis and maturation of spliceosomal snRNPs. The interaction with CRBN and Ppp4C indicate that TaCP possibly is involved in regulating signaling pathways and cell proliferation, which is helpful for understanding the interaction between T. annulata and host cells.
Project description:As a member of a subclass of immunophilins, it is controversial that FKBP38 acts an upstream regulator of mTOR signaling pathway, which control the process of cell-growth, proliferation and differentiation. In order to explore the relationship between FKBP38 and mTOR in the Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) cells, a full-length cDNA was cloned (GenBank accession number JF714970) and expression pattern was analyzed. The cloned FKBP38 gene is 1,248 bp in length, containing an open reading frame (ORF) from nucleotide 13 to 1,248 which encodes 411 amino acids, and 12 nucleotides in front of the initiation codon. The full cDNA sequence shares 98% identity with cattle, 94% with horse and 90% with human. The putative amino acid sequence shows the higher homology which is 98%, 97% and 94%, correspondingly. The bioinformatics analysis showed that FKBP38 contained a FKBP_C domain, two TPR domains and a TM domain. Psite analysis suggested that the ORF encoding protein contained a leucine-zipper pattern and a Prenyl group binding site (CAAX box). Tissue-specific expression analysis was performed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and showed that the FKBP38 expression was detected in all the tested tissues and the highest level of mRNA accumulation was detected in testis, suggesting that FKBP38 plays an important role in goat cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anaplasma ovis is a gram-negative, tick-borne obligate intraerythrocytic pathogen, which causes ovine anaplasmosis in small ruminants worldwide. VirB10 of A. ovis is an integral component of the Type IV Secretion System (T4SS). The T4SS is used by bacteria to transfer DNA and/or proteins undeviatingly into the host cell to increase their virulence. To more thoroughly understand the interaction between A. ovis and Dermacentor silvarum, a vector containing the virb10 gene of A. ovis was used as a bait plasmid to screen interacting proteins from the cDNA library of the D. silvarum salivary gland using the yeast two-hybrid system. METHODS:The cDNA of the D. silvarum salivary gland was cloned into the pGADT7-SmaI vector (prey plasmid) to construct the yeast two-hybrid cDNA library. The virb10 gene was cloned into the pGBKT7 vector to generate a bait plasmid. Any gene auto-activation or toxicity effects in the yeast strain Y2HGold were excluded. The screening was performed by combining the bait and prey plasmids in yeast strains to identify positive preys. The positive preys were then sequenced, and the obtained sequences were subjected to further analyses using Gene Ontology, UniProt, SMART, and STRING. Additionally, the interaction between the bait and the prey was evaluated using the glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay. RESULTS:A total of two clones were obtained from the cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid system, and the sequence analysis showed that both clones encoded the same large tegument protein, UL36. Furthermore, the proteins GST-UL36 and His-VirB10 were successfully expressed in vitro and the interaction between the two proteins was successfully demonstrated by the GST pull-down assay. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this study is the first to screen for D. silvarum salivary gland proteins that interact with A. ovis VirB10. The resulting candidate, UL36, is a multi-functional protein. Further investigations into the functionality of UL36 should be carried out, which might help in identifying novel prevention and treatment strategies for A. ovis infection. The present study provides a base for exploring and further understanding the interactions between A. ovis and D. silvarum.
Project description:Rheb G-protein plays critical roles in the TSC/Rheb/mTOR signaling pathway by activating mTORC1. The activation of mTORC1 by Rheb can be faithfully reproduced in vitro by using mTORC1 immunoprecipitated by the use of anti-raptor antibody from mammalian cells starved for nutrients. The low in vitro kinase activity against 4E-BP1 of this mTORC1 preparation is dramatically increased by the addition of recombinant Rheb. On the other hand, the addition of Rheb does not activate mTORC2 immunoprecipitated from mammalian cells by the use of anti-rictor antibody. The activation of mTORC1 is specific to Rheb, because other G-proteins such as KRas, RalA/B, and Cdc42 did not activate mTORC1. Both Rheb1 and Rheb2 activate mTORC1. In addition, the activation is dependent on the presence of bound GTP. We also find that the effector domain of Rheb is required for the mTORC1 activation. FKBP38, a recently proposed mediator of Rheb action, appears not to be involved in the Rheb-dependent activation of mTORC1 in vitro, because the preparation of mTORC1 that is devoid of FKBP38 is still activated by Rheb. The addition of Rheb results in a significant increase of binding of the substrate protein 4E-BP1 to mTORC1. PRAS40, a TOR signaling (TOS) motif-containing protein that competes with the binding of 4EBP1 to mTORC1, inhibits Rheb-induced activation of mTORC1. A preparation of mTORC1 that is devoid of raptor is not activated by Rheb. Rheb does not induce autophosphorylation of mTOR. These results suggest that Rheb induces alteration in the binding of 4E-BP1 with mTORC1 to regulate mTORC1 activation.
Project description:The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase that belongs to the phosphatidylinositol kinase-related kinase family. We describe our molecular characterization of mTOR and its function (GenBank accession HM114224) in Cashmere goat (Capra hircus). The goat mTOR complementary DNA is 8617 bp, comprising an open reading frame of 7650 bp--corresponding to a polypeptide of 2549 amino acids--and a 909 bp 3' untranslated region with a polyA tract and a polyadenylation signal at nucleotides 8575-8580. In a bioinformatics analysis, goat mTOR has typical sites of activity and domains. mTOR mRNA was measured in brain, heart, testis, liver, spleen, kidney, and lung by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the expression of mTOR in fetal fibroblasts was detected by western blot. The viability of fetal fibroblasts was inhibited on treatment with CCI-779, a specific inhibitor of mTOR. Our data supplied evidence that the transcription of mTOR was detected in the seven tissues in Cashmere goat, and mTOR protein was translated in fetal fibroblasts. The proliferation of fetal fibroblasts decreases on inhibition of mTOR.
Project description:Yeast two-hybrid screens often produce vastly non-overlapping interaction data when the screens are conducted in different laboratories, or use different vectors, strains, or reporter genes. Here we investigate the underlying reasons for such inconsistencies and compare the effect of seven different vectors and their yeast two-hybrid interactions. Genome-wide array screens with 49 motility-related baits from Treponema pallidum yielded 77 and 165 interactions with bait vectors pLP-GBKT7 and pAS1-LP, respectively, including 21 overlapping interactions. In addition, 90 motility-related proteins from Escherichia coli were tested in all pairwise combinations and yielded 140 interactions when tested with pGBKT7g/pGADT7g vectors but only 47 when tested with pDEST32/pDEST22. We discuss the factors that determine these effects, including copy number, the nature of the fusion protein, and species-specific differences that explain non-conserved interactions among species. The pDEST22/pDEST32 vectors produce a higher fraction of interactions that are conserved and that are biologically relevant when compared with the pGBKT7/pGADT7-related vectors, but the latter appear to be more sensitive and thus detect more interactions overall.
Project description:Runx2, a member of the Runt domain family, is a well-known master transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation. Runx2 has also been shown to play essential roles during chondrocyte hypertrophy, an important late stage of endochondral ossification linking both bone and cartilage development. To identify the co-factors that may interact with Runx2 together to regulate this critical process, we have performed yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening using Runx2 as a bait to screen a cDNA library of hypertrophic chondrocytes. The bait expressing cassette was constructed by fusing Runx2 with the pGBKT7 vector containing the Gal4 DNA binding domain (BD). The Mate & Plate libraries were constructed using pGADT7-Rec and cDNAs derived from hypertrophic chondrocytes enriched limb tissues or hypertrophic MCT cells. After co-transformation of pGBKT7-Runx2 and the cDNA libraries, colonies that grew in nutrition deficient medium were selected and subjected to PCR and sequencing analysis. We successfully identified more than 30 candidate genes, including Lectin-1 (Lgals1), Col1a2, Edf1 and Timp-2. We have performed literature review and bioinformatics analysis of these genes using GenePaint. Most of them show ubiquitous expression with Lgals1 show enhanced expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes. We further performed preliminary expression analysis by quantitative PCR and detected differential expression of these candidate genes in proliferative and hypertrophic MCT cells, with Timp-2 significantly (around 3-fold) and Lgals1 moderately (around 1.5 fold) upregulated in hypertrophic MCT cells. Our results suggest that, candidate gene Timp-2 is very likely to interact with Runx2 and together to play essential function during cartilage development, and possibly its homeostasis.
Project description:Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a critical mediator of mitogenic activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a master regulator of mammalian cell growth and proliferation. The mechanism by which PA activates mTORC1 signaling has remained unknown. Here, we report that PA selectively stimulates mTORC1 but not mTORC2 kinase activity in cells and in vitro. Furthermore, we show that PA competes with the mTORC1 inhibitor, FK506 binding protein 38 (FKBP38), for mTOR binding at a site encompassing the rapamycin-FKBP12 binding domain. This leads to PA antagonizing FKBP38 inhibition of mTORC1 kinase activity in vitro and rescuing mTORC1 signaling from FKBP38 in cells. Phospholipase D 1, a PA-generating enzyme that is an established upstream regulator of mTORC1, is found to negatively affect mTOR-FKBP38 interaction, confirming the role of endogenous PA in this regulation. Interestingly, removal of FKBP38 alone is insufficient to activate mTORC1 kinase and signaling, which require PA even when the FKBP38 level is drastically reduced by RNAi. In conclusion, we propose a dual mechanism for PA activation of mTORC1: PA displaces FKBP38 from mTOR and allosterically stimulates the catalytic activity of mTORC1.