Multifaceted genome control by Set1 Dependent and Independent of H3K4 methylation and the Set1C/COMPASS complex.
ABSTRACT: Histone modifiers are critical regulators of chromatin-based processes in eukaryotes. The histone methyltransferase Set1, a component of the Set1C/COMPASS complex, catalyzes the methylation at lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me), a hallmark of euchromatin. Here, we show that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Set1 utilizes distinct domain modules to regulate disparate classes of repetitive elements associated with euchromatin and heterochromatin via H3K4me-dependent and -independent pathways. Set1 employs its RNA-binding RRM2 and catalytic SET domains to repress Tf2 retrotransposons and pericentromeric repeats while relying on its H3K4me function to maintain transcriptional repression at the silent mating type (mat) locus and subtelomeric regions. These repressive functions of Set1 correlate with the requirement of Set1C components to maintain repression at the mat locus and subtelomeres while dispensing Set1C in repressing Tf2s and pericentromeric repeats. We show that the contributions of several Set1C subunits to the states of H3K4me diverge considerably from those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologs. Moreover, unlike S. cerevisiae, the regulation of Set1 protein level is not coupled to the status of H3K4me or histone H2B ubiquitination by the HULC complex. Intriguingly, we uncover a genome organization role for Set1C and H3K4me in mediating the clustering of Tf2s into Tf bodies by antagonizing the acetyltransferase Mst1-mediated H3K4 acetylation. Our study provides unexpected insights into the regulatory intricacies of a highly conserved chromatin-modifying complex with diverse roles in genome control.
Project description:Histone modifiers play essential roles in controlling transcription and organizing eukaryotic genomes into functional domains. Here, we show that Set1, the catalytic subunit of the highly conserved Set1C/COMPASS complex responsible for histone H3K4 methylation (H3K4me), behaves as a repressor of the transcriptome largely independent of Set1C and H3K4me in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Intriguingly, while Set1 is enriched at highly expressed and repressed loci, Set1 binding levels do not generally correlate with the levels of transcription. We show that Set1 is recruited by the ATF/CREB homolog Atf1 to heterochromatic loci and promoters of stress-response genes. Moreover, we demonstrate that Set1 coordinates with the class II histone deacetylase Clr3 in heterochromatin assembly at prominent chromosomal landmarks and repression of the transcriptome that includes Tf2 retrotransposons, noncoding RNAs, and regulators of development and stress-responses. Our study delineates a molecular framework for elucidating the functional links between transcriptome control and chromatin organization.
Project description:The SET domain proteins, SUV39 and G9a have recently been shown to be histone methyltransferases specific for lysines 9 and 27 (G9a only) of histone 3 (H3). The SET domains of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Set1 and Drosophila trithorax proteins are closely related to each other but distinct from SUV39 and G9a. We characterized the complex associated with Set1 and Set1C and found that it is comprised of eight members, one of which, Bre2, is homologous to the trithorax-group (trxG) protein, Ash2. Set1C requires Set1 for complex integrity and mutation of Set1 and Set1C components shortens telomeres. One Set1C member, Swd2/Cpf10 is also present in cleavage polyadenylation factor (CPF). Set1C methylates lysine 4 of H3, thus adding a new specificity and a new subclass of SET domain proteins known to methyltransferases. Since methylation of H3 lysine 4 is widespread in eukaryotes, we screened the databases and found other Set1 homologues. We propose that eukaryotic Set1Cs are H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases and are related to trxG action through association with Ash2 homologues.
Project description:The methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me) is critical for the formation of transcriptionally active chromatin in eukaryotes. In yeast, Drosophila, and some human cell lines, H3K4me is globally stimulated by the monoubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub1), another histone modification associated with transcription. The mechanism of this "trans-histone" modification pathway remains uncertain, and studies carried out in different experimental systems have suggested that H2Bub1 could either influence the subunit composition of methyltransferase complexes or directly stimulate methyltransferase activity. We have reconstituted this pathway in vitro using the native H3K4-specific methyltransferase complex Set1C purified from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and chromatin substrates that contain semisynthetic H2Bub1. We found that the activity of S. pombe Set1C toward nucleosomal histone H3 is directly enhanced by H2Bub1 in vitro. Importantly, Set1C purified from cells lacking H2Bub1 retained activity on free histone substrates, suggesting that Set1C remains intact in the absence of H2Bub1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed a defect in recruitment of intact Set1C to transcribed chromatin in H2Bub1-deficient mutants. Our data argue that trans-histone crosstalk in S. pombe involves direct enhancement of Set1C methyltransferase activity by H2Bub1 and suggest that this represents a conserved aspect of H2Bub1-H3K4me crosstalk in eukaryotes.
Project description:Set1 and Jhd2 regulate the methylation state of histone H3 lysine-4 (H3K4me) through their opposing methyltransferase and demethylase activities in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae H3K4me associates with actively transcribed genes and, like both SET1 and JHD2 themselves, is known to regulate gene expression diversely. It remains unclear, however, if Set1 and Jhd2 act solely through H3K4me. Relevantly, Set1 methylates lysine residues in the kinetochore protein Dam1 while genetic studies of the S. pombe SET1 ortholog suggest the existence of non-H3K4 Set1 targets relevant to gene regulation. We interrogated genetic interactions of JHD2 and SET1 with essential genes involved in varied aspects of the transcription cycle. Our findings implicate JHD2 in genetic inhibition of the histone chaperone complexes Spt16-Pob3 (FACT) and Spt6-Spn1 This targeted screen also revealed that JHD2 inhibits the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS) transcription termination complex. We find that while Jhd2's impact on these transcription regulatory complexes likely acts via H3K4me, Set1 governs the roles of FACT and NNS through opposing H3K4-dependent and -independent functions. We also identify diametrically opposing consequences for mutation of H3K4 to alanine or arginine, illuminating that caution must be taken in interpreting histone mutation studies. Unlike FACT and NNS, detailed genetic studies suggest an H3K4me-centric mode of Spt6-Spn1 regulation by JHD2 and SET1 Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcript quantification experiments show that Jhd2 opposes the positioning of a Spt6-deposited nucleosome near the transcription start site of SER3, a Spt6-Spn1 regulated gene, leading to hyper-induction of SER3 In addition to confirming and extending an emerging role for Jhd2 in the control of nucleosome occupancy near transcription start sites, our findings suggest some of the chromatin regulatory functions of Set1 are independent of H3K4 methylation.
Project description:Methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me) is an evolutionarily conserved modification whose role in the regulation of gene expression has been extensively studied. In contrast, the function of H3K4 acetylation (H3K4ac) has received little attention because of a lack of tools to separate its function from that of H3K4me. Here we show that, in addition to being methylated, H3K4 is also acetylated in budding yeast. Genetic studies reveal that the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) Gcn5 and Rtt109 contribute to H3K4 acetylation in vivo. Whilst removal of H3K4ac from euchromatin mainly requires the histone deacetylase (HDAC) Hst1, Sir2 is needed for H3K4 deacetylation in heterochomatin. Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we show that H3K4ac is enriched at promoters of actively transcribed genes and located just upstream of H3K4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3), a pattern that has been conserved in human cells. We find that the Set1-containing complex (COMPASS), which promotes H3K4me2 and -me3, also serves to limit the abundance of H3K4ac at gene promoters. In addition, we identify a group of genes that have high levels of H3K4ac in their promoters and are inadequately expressed in H3-K4R, but not in set1? mutant strains, suggesting that H3K4ac plays a positive role in transcription. Our results reveal a novel regulatory feature of promoter-proximal chromatin, involving mutually exclusive histone modifications of the same histone residue (H3K4ac and H3K4me).
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4) is methylated by the Set1 complex (Set1C or COMPASS). Besides the catalytic Set1 subunit, several proteins that form the Set1C (Swd1, Swd2, Swd3, Spp1, Bre2, and Sdc1) are also needed to mediate proper H3K4 methylation. Until this study, it has been unclear how individual Set1C members interact and how this interaction may impact histone methylation and gene expression. In this study, Bre2 and Sdc1 are shown to directly interact, and it is shown that the association of this heteromeric complex is needed for proper H3K4 methylation and gene expression to occur. Interestingly, mutational and biochemical analysis identified the C terminus of Bre2 as a critical protein-protein interaction domain that binds to the Dpy-30 domain of Sdc1. Using the human homologs of Bre2 and Sdc1, ASH2L and DPY-30, respectively, we demonstrate that the C terminus of ASH2L also interacts with the Dpy-30 domain of DPY-30, suggesting that this protein-protein interaction is maintained from yeast to humans. Because of the functionally conserved nature of the C terminus of Bre2 and ASH2L, this region was named the SDI (Sdc1 Dpy-30 interaction) domain. Finally, we show that the SDI-Dpy-30 domain interaction is physiologically important for the function of Set1 in vivo, because specific disruption of this interaction prevents Bre2 and Sdc1 association with Set1, resulting in H3K4 methylation defects and decreases in gene expression. Overall, these and other mechanistic studies on how H3K4 methyltransferase complexes function will likely provide insights into how human MLL and SET1-like complexes or overexpression of ASH2L leads to oncogenesis.
Project description:H2B ubiquitylation (H2Bub)-dependent H3K4 methylation is mediated by the multisubunit Set1 complex (Set1C) in yeast, but precisely how Set1C subunits contribute to this histone modification remains unclear. Here, using reconstituted Set1Cs and recombinant H2Bub chromatin, we identified Set1C subunits and domains involved in the H2Bub-dependent H3K4 methylation process, showing that the Spp1 PHDL domain, in conjunction with the Set1 n-SET domain, interacts with Swd1/Swd3 and that this interaction is essential for H2Bub-dependent H3K4 methylation. Importantly, Set1C containing an Spp1-Swd1 fusion bypasses the requirement for H2Bub for H3K4 methylation, suggesting that the role of H2Bub is to induce allosteric rearrangements of the subunit-interaction network within the active site of Set1C that are necessary for methylation activity. Moreover, the interaction between the Set1 N-terminal region and Swd1 renders the Spp1-lacking Set1C competent for H2Bub-dependent H3K4 methylation. Collectively, our results suggest that H2Bub induces conformational changes in Set1C that support H3K4 methylation activity.
Project description:While probing the role of RNA for the function of SET1C/COMPASS histone methyltransferase, we identified SET1RC (SET1 mRNA-associated complex), a complex that contains SET1 mRNA and Set1, Swd1, Spp1 and Shg1, four of the eight polypeptides that constitute SET1C. Characterization of SET1RC showed that SET1 mRNA binding did not require associated Swd1, Spp1 and Shg1 proteins or RNA recognition motifs present in Set1. RNA binding was not observed when Set1 protein and SET1 mRNA were derived from independent genes or when SET1 transcripts were restricted to the nucleus. Importantly, the protein-RNA interaction was sensitive to EDTA, to the translation elongation inhibitor puromycin and to the inhibition of translation initiation in prt1-1 mutants. Taken together, our results support the idea that SET1 mRNA binding was dependent on translation and that SET1RC assembled on nascent Set1 in a cotranslational manner. Moreover, we show that cellular accumulation of Set1 is limited by the availability of certain SET1C components, such as Swd1 and Swd3, and suggest that cotranslational protein interactions may exert an effect in the protection of nascent Set1 from degradation.
Project description:The Saccharomyces cerevisiae WD-40 repeat protein Swd2p associates with two functionally distinct multiprotein complexes: the cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF) that is involved in pre-mRNA and snoRNA 3' end formation and the SET1 complex (SET1C) that methylates histone 3 lysine 4. Based on bioinformatic analysis we predict a seven-bladed beta-propeller structure for Swd2p proteins. Northern, transcriptional run-on and in vitro 3' end cleavage analyses suggest that temperature sensitive swd2 strains were defective in 3' end formation of specific mRNAs and snoRNAs. Protein-protein interaction studies support a role for Swd2p in the assembly of 3' end formation complexes. Furthermore, histone 3 lysine 4 di-and tri-methylation were adversely affected and telomeres were shortened in swd2 mutants. Underaccumulation of the Set1p methyltransferase accounts for the observed loss of SET1C activity and suggests a requirement for Swd2p for the stability or assembly of this complex. We also provide evidence that the roles of Swd2p as component of CPF and SET1C are functionally independent. Taken together, our results establish a dual requirement for Swd2p in 3' end formation and histone tail modification.
Project description:Histone H3K4 trimethylation by the Set1/MLL family of proteins provides a hallmark for transcriptional activity from yeast to humans. In S. cerevisiae, H3K4 methylation is mediated by the Set1-containing COMPASS complex and is regulated in trans by prior ubiquitination of histone H2BK123. All of the events that regulate H2BK123ub and H3K4me are thought to occur at gene promoters. Here we report that this pathway is indispensable for methylation of the only other known substrate of Set1, K233 in Dam1, at kinetochores. Deletion of RAD6, BRE1, or Paf1 complex members abolishes Dam1 methylation, as does mutation of H2BK123. Our results demonstrate that Set1-mediated methylation is regulated by a general pathway regardless of substrate that is composed of transcriptional regulatory factors functioning independently of transcription. Moreover, our data identify a node of regulatory crosstalk in trans between a histone modification and modification on a nonhistone protein, demonstrating that changing chromatin states can signal functional changes in other essential cellular proteins and machineries.