Synergistic effects of Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 and selected prebiotics on inhibition of Salmonella colonization in the swine proximal colon PolyFermS model.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Probiotics and prebiotics are promising strategies to counteract Salmonella prevalence in swine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prebiotics (fructo- (FOS), galacto- (GOS) and mannan- (MOS) oligosaccharides) and the bacteriocinogenic Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 (RBL67) on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium N-15 (N-15) colonization using the PolyFermS in vitro continuous fermentation model simulating the swine proximal colon. MATERIAL AND METHODS:The PolyFermS model was designed with a first-stage reactor containing immobilized fecal pig microbiota. This reactor continuously inoculated five parallel second-stage reactors, a control and four treatment reactors, all operated with proximal colon conditions. FOS and GOS (5.2 g/day), and MOS (half dosage) and RBL67 (10(8) copy numbers/mL applied daily) were tested on the ability of N-15 to colonize reactors, inoculated with the same microbiota. Reactor effluents were collected daily and analyzed for microbial composition (quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene pool) and main metabolites (HPLC). RESULTS:RBL67 and N-15 were shown to stably colonize the system. Colonization of N-15 was strongly inhibited by FOS and GOS, whereas addition of RBL67 alone or combined with MOS showed intermediate results. However, the effect of FOS and GOS was enhanced when prebiotics were combined with a daily addition of RBL67. FOS and GOS increased the total short chain fatty acid production, especially acetate and propionate. RBL67 combined with FOS additionally stimulated butyrate production. CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrates the suitability of the porcine PolyFermS in vitro model to study nutritional effects of pro- and prebiotics on gut microbiota composition and activity. It can further be used to monitor Salmonella colonization. The inhibition effects of FOS and GOS on N-15 colonization are partly due to an increased acetate production, while further antimicrobial mechanisms may contribute to an enhanced inhibition with prebiotic-RBL67 combinations. A future direction of this work could be to understand the anti-Salmonella effects of Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 in the presence of prebiotics to unravel the mechanism of this probiotic:pathogen interaction.
Project description:In vitro gut modeling provides a useful platform for a fast and reproducible assessment of treatment-related changes. Currently, pig intestinal fermentation models are mainly batch models with important inherent limitations. In this study we developed a novel in vitro continuous fermentation model, mimicking the porcine proximal colon, which we validated during 54 days of fermentation. This model, based on our recent PolyFermS design, allows comparing different treatment effects on the same microbiota. It is composed of a first-stage inoculum reactor seeded with immobilized fecal swine microbiota and used to constantly inoculate (10% v/v) five second-stage reactors, with all reactors fed with fresh nutritive chyme medium and set to mimic the swine proximal colon. Reactor effluents were analyzed for metabolite concentrations and bacterial composition by HPLC and quantitative PCR, and microbial diversity was assessed by 454 pyrosequencing. The novel PolyFermS featured stable microbial composition, diversity and metabolite production, consistent with bacterial activity reported for swine proximal colon in vivo. The constant inoculation provided by the inoculum reactor generated reproducible microbial ecosystems in all second-stage reactors, allowing the simultaneous investigation and direct comparison of different treatments on the same porcine gut microbiota. Our data demonstrate the unique features of this novel PolyFermS design for the swine proximal colon. The model provides a tool for efficient, reproducible and cost-effective screening of environmental factors, such as dietary additives, on pig colonic fermentation.
Project description:In vitro gut fermentation modeling offers a useful platform for ecological studies of the intestinal microbiota. In this study we describe a novel Polyfermentor Intestinal Model (PolyFermS) designed to compare the effects of different treatments on the same complex gut microbiota. The model operated in conditions of the proximal colon is composed of a first reactor containing fecal microbiota immobilized in gel beads, and used to continuously inoculate a set of parallel second-stage reactors. The PolyFermS model was validated with three independent intestinal fermentations conducted for 38 days with immobilized human fecal microbiota obtained from three child donors. The microbial diversity of reactor effluents was compared to donor feces using the HITChip, a high-density phylogenetic microarray targeting small subunit rRNA sequences of over 1100 phylotypes of the human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the metabolic response to a decrease of pH from 5.7 to 5.5, applied to balance the high fermentative activity in inoculum reactors, was studied. We observed a reproducible development of stable intestinal communities representing major taxonomic bacterial groups at ratios similar to these in feces of healthy donors, a high similarity of microbiota composition produced in second-stage reactors within a model, and a high time stability of microbiota composition and metabolic activity over 38 day culture. For all tested models, the pH-drop of 0.2 units in inoculum reactors enhanced butyrate production at the expense of acetate, but was accompanied by a donor-specific reorganization of the reactor community, suggesting a concerted metabolic adaptation and trigger of community-specific lactate or acetate cross-feeding pathways in response to varying pH. Our data showed that the PolyFermS model allows the stable cultivation of complex intestinal microbiota akin to the fecal donor and can be developed for the direct comparison of different experimental conditions in parallel reactors continuously inoculated with the exact same microbiota.
Project description:In vitro gut modeling is a useful approach to investigate some factors and mechanisms of the gut microbiota independent of the effects of the host. This study tested the use of immobilized fecal microbiota to develop different designs of continuous colonic fermentation models mimicking elderly gut fermentation. Model 1 was a three-stage fermentation mimicking the proximal, transverse and distal colon. Models 2 and 3 were based on the new PolyFermS platform composed of an inoculum reactor seeded with immobilized fecal microbiota and used to continuously inoculate with the same microbiota different second-stage reactors mounted in parallel. The main gut bacterial groups, microbial diversity and metabolite production were monitored in effluents of all reactors using quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing, and HPLC, respectively. In all models, a diverse microbiota resembling the one tested in donor's fecal sample was established. Metabolic stability in inoculum reactors seeded with immobilized fecal microbiota was shown for operation times of up to 80 days. A high microbial and metabolic reproducibility was demonstrated for downstream control and experimental reactors of a PolyFermS model. The PolyFermS models tested here are particularly suited to investigate the effects of environmental factors, such as diet and drugs, in a controlled setting with the same microbiota source.
Project description:The gut microbiota has been implicated in glucose intolerance and its progression towards type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Relevant randomized clinical trial with prebiotic intervention was inadequate. We sought to evaluate the impact of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on glycemia during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intestinal microbiota. A randomized double-blind cross-over study was performed with 35 adults treated with FOS and GOS for 14 days (16?g/day). Faeces sampling, OGTT and anthropometric parameters were performed. Short-term intake of high-dose prebiotics had adverse effect on glucose metabolism, as in FOS intervention demonstrated by OGTT (P?<?0.001), and in GOS intervention demonstrated by fasting glucose (P?<?0.05). A significant increase in the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium was observed both in FOS and GOS group, while the butyrate-producing bacteria like Phascolarctobacterium in FOS group and Ruminococcus in GOS group were decreased. A random forest model using the initial microbiota was developed to predict OGTT levels after prebiotic intervention with relative success (R?=?0.726). Our study alerted even though FOS and GOS increased Bifidobacterium, they might have adverse effect on glucose metabolism by reducing butyrate-producing microbes. Individualized prebiotics intervention based on gut microbiome needs to be evaluated in future.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar (ser.) Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a foodborne pathogen often associated with contaminated poultry products. This study evaluated the anti-adherence and intracellular clearance capability of oligosaccharides extracted from palm kernel cake (PKC), a by-product of the palm oil industry, and compared its efficacy with commercial prebiotics- fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS)-against S. Enteritidis in vitro. Based on the degree of polymerization (DP), PKC oligosaccharides were further divided into 'Small' (DP ? 6) and 'Big' (DP > 6) fractions. Results showed that the Small and Big PKC fractions were able to reduce (p < 0.05) S. Enteritidis adherence to Cancer coli-2 (Caco-2) cells at 0.1 mg/ mL while MOS and FOS showed significant reduction at 1.0 mg/mL and 10.0 mg/mL, respectively. In terms of S. Enteritidis clearance, oligosaccharide-treated macrophages showed better S. Enteritidis clearance over time at 50 µg/mL for Small, Big and MOS, while FOS required a concentration of 500 µg/mL for a similar effect. This data highlights that oligosaccharides from PKC, particularly those of lower DP, were more effective than MOS and FOS at reducing S. Enteritidis adherence and enhancing S. Enteritidis clearance in a cell culture model.
Project description:Previous reviews (2005 to 2009) on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants.Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s) or prebiotic(s) to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi² test. An I² test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I²> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity.Four probiotics studies (N=212), 4 prebiotics studies (N=126) were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34) or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34), number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20). Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide/Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS) yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50), GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50). There were no significant differences in head growth (MD -0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76) or age at full enteral feed (MD -0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86). Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86). GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27) and (MD 0.48, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.68, n=56).There is not enough evidence to state that supplementation with probiotics or prebiotics results in improved growth and clinical outcomes in exclusively formula fed preterm infants.
Project description:Commensal gut microbiota and probiotics have numerous effects on the host's metabolic and protective systems, which occur primarily through the intestinal epithelial cell interface. Prebiotics, like galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are widely used to modulate their function and abundance. However, important structure-function relations may exist, requiring a detailed structural characterization. Here, we detailed the structural characterization of bovine whey derived oligosaccharide preparations enriched with GOS or not, dubbed GOS-enriched milk oligosaccharides (GMOS) or MOS, respectively. We explore GMOS's and MOS's potential to improve intestinal epithelial barrier function, assessed in a model based on barrier disruptive effects of the Clostridioides difficile toxin A. GMOS and MOS contain mainly GOS species composed of ?1-6- and ?1-3-linked galactoses, and 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose. Both GMOS and MOS, combined with lactobacilli, like Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LPR, NCC4007), gave synergistic epithelial barrier protection, while no such effect was observed with Bifidobacterium longum (BL NCC3001), Escherichia coli (Nissle) or fructo-oligosaccharides. Mechanistically, for barrier protection with MOS, (i) viable LPR was required, (ii) acidification of growth medium was not enough, (iii) LPR did not directly neutralize toxin A, and (iv) physical proximity of LPR with the intestinal epithelial cells was necessary. This is the first study, highlighting the importance of structure-function specificity and the necessity of the simultaneous presence of prebiotic, probiotic and host cell interactions required for a biological effect.
Project description:Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 (RBL67), a human fecal isolate and health promoting candidate shows antagonistic and protective effects against Salmonella and Listeria spec. in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms fostering these effects remain unknown. In this study, the interactions of RBL67 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium N-15 (N-15) were explored by global transcriptional analysis.Growth experiments were performed in a complex nutritive medium with controlled pH of 6.0 and suitable for balanced growth of both RBL67 and N-15. RBL67 growth was slightly enhanced in presence of N-15. Conversely, N-15 showed reduced growth in the presence of RBL67. Transcriptional analyses revealed higher expression of stress genes and amino acid related function in RBL67 in co-culture with N-15 when compared to mono-culture. Repression of the PhoP regulator was observed in N-15 in presence of RBL67. Further, RBL67 activated virulence genes located on the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. Flagellar genes, however, were repressed by RBL67. Sequential expression of flagellar, SPI 1 and fimbrial genes is essential for Salmonella infection. Our data revealed that RBL67 triggers expression of SPI 1 and fimbrial determinants prematurely, potentially leading to redundant energy expenditure. In the competitive environment of the gut such energy expenditure could lead to enhanced clearing of Salmonella.Our study provides first insights into probiotic-pathogen interactions on global transcriptional level and suggests that deregulation of virulence gene expression might be an additional protective mechanism of probiotica against infections of the host.
Project description:Recently, the concept of prebiotics has been revisited to expand beyond non-digestible oligosaccharides, and the requirements for selective stimulation were extended to include microbial groups other than, and additional to, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Here, the gut microbiota-modulating effects of well-known and novel prebiotics were studied. An <i>in vitro</i> fermentation screening platform (i-screen) was inoculated with adult fecal microbiota, exposed to different dietary fibers that had a range of concentrations (inulin, alpha-linked galacto-oligosaccharides (alpha-GOS), beta-linked GOS, xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) from corn cobs and high-fiber sugar cane, and beta-glucan from oats), and compared to a positive fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) control and a negative control (no fiber addition). All dietary fibers displayed prebiotic activity, with beta-glucan showing more distinct effects on the microbial composition and metabolism compared to the other fibers. Beta-glucan induced the growth of <i>Prevotella</i> and <i>Roseburia</i> with a concomitant increase in propionate production. Inulin and both forms of GOS and XOS had a strong bifidogenic effect on the microbial composition. A dose-response effect was observed for butyrate when exposed to beta-glucan and inulin. The findings of this study support the potential for alpha-GOS, XOS, and oat beta-glucan to serve as novel prebiotics, due to their association with the positive shifts in microbiome composition and short-chain fatty acid production that point to potential health benefits.
Project description:Galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) has been added to infant formula as prebiotics and can bring many benefits to human health. This study proved the effect of GOS in prevention and alleviation against <i>E. coli</i> O157 invasion and colonization and the mechanism behind this was explored in a mice model. The results showed that the expression of Muc2 and Occlaudin were both significantly down-regulated (<i>p</i> < 0.05) by <i>E. coli</i> O157 infection, while GOS alleviated this phenomenon, which means that GOS can reduce the colonization of <i>E. coli</i> O157 by enhancing the gut barrier function. Through the determination of inflammatory cytokines, we found that GOS can relieve inflammation caused by pathogens. At the same time, GOS can promote the growth of probiotics such as <i>Akkermansia</i>, <i>Ruminococcaceae</i> and <i>Bacteroides</i>, thus modulating microorganism environments and improving short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels in the intestine. This study provides an explanation for the mechanism behind the protection of GOS against pathogen infection.