Correlation between CYP1A1 transcript, protein level, enzyme activity and DNA adduct formation in normal human mammary epithelial cell strains exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.
ABSTRACT: The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo(a)pyrene (BP) is thought to bind covalently to DNA, through metabolism by cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and CYP1B1, and other enzymes, to form r7, t8, t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N(2)-deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]-pyrene (BPdG). Evaluation of RNA expression data, to understand the contribution of different metabolic enzymes to BPdG formation, is typically presented as fold-change observed upon BP exposure, leaving the actual number of RNA transcripts unknown. Here, we have quantified RNA copies/ng cDNA (RNA cpn) for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, as well asquinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which may reduce formation of BPdG adducts, using primary normal human mammary epithelial cell (NHMEC) strains, and the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. In unexposed NHMECs, basal RNA cpn values were 58-836 for CYP1A1, 336-5587 for CYP1B1 and 5943-40112 for NQO1. In cells exposed to 4.0 µM BP for 12h, RNA cpn values were 251-13234 for CYP1A1, 4133-57078 for CYP1B1 and 4456-55887 for NQO1. There were 3.5 (mean, range 0.2-15.8) BPdG adducts/10(8) nucleotides in the NHMECs (n = 16), and 790 in the MCF-7s. In the NHMECs, BP-induced CYP1A1 RNA cpn was highly associated with BPdG (P = 0.002), but CYP1B1 and NQO1 were not. Western blots of four NHMEC strains, chosen for different levels of BPdG adducts, showed a linear correlation between BPdG and CYP1A1, but not CYP1B1 or NQO1. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, which measures CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 together, correlated with BPdG, but NQO1 activity did not. Despite more numerous levels of CYP1B1 and NQO1 RNA cpn in unexposed and BP-exposed NHMECs and MCF-7cells, BPdG formation was only correlated with induction of CYP1A1 RNA cpn. The higher level of BPdG in MCF-7 cells, compared to NHMECs, may have been due to a much increased induction of CYP1A1 and EROD. Overall, BPdG correlation was observed with CYP1A1 protein and CYP1A1/1B1 enzyme activity, but not with CYP1B1 or NQO1 protein, or NQO1 enzyme activity.
Project description:We hypothesized that chlorophyllin (CHLN) would reduce benzo[a]pyrene-DNA (BP-DNA) adduct levels. Using normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMECs) exposed to 4 microM BP for 24 hr in the presence or absence of 5 microM CHLN, we measured BP-DNA adducts by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). The protocol included the following experimental groups: BP alone, BP given simultaneously with CHLN (BP+CHLN) for 24 hr, CHLN given for 24 hr followed by BP for 24 hr (preCHLN, postBP), and CHLN given for 48 hr with BP added for the last 24 hr (preCHLN, postBP+CHLN). Incubation with CHLN decreased BPdG levels in all groups, with 87% inhibition in the preCHLN, postBP+CHLN group. To examine metabolic mechanisms, we monitored expression by Affymetrix microarray (U133A), and found BP-induced up-regulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, as well as up-regulation of groups of interferon-inducible, inflammation and signal transduction genes. Incubation of cells with CHLN and BP in any combination decreased expression of many of these genes. Using reverse transcription real time PCR (RT-PCR) the maximal inhibition of BP-induced gene expression, >85% for CYP1A1 and >70% for CYP1B1, was observed in the preCHLN, postBP+CHLN group. To explore the relationship between transcription and enzyme activity, the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was used to measure the combined CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 activities. BP exposure caused the EROD levels to double, when compared with the unexposed controls. The CHLN-exposed groups all showed EROD levels similar to the unexposed controls. Therefore, the addition of CHLN to BP-exposed cells reduced BPdG formation and CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, but EROD activity was not significantly reduced.
Project description:Women are increasingly using botanical dietary supplements (BDS) to reduce menopausal hot flashes. Although licorice (Glycyrrhiza sp.) is one of the frequently used ingredients in BDS, the exact plant species is often not identified. We previously showed that in breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A), Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG) and G. inflata (GI), and their compounds differentially modulated P450 1A1 and P450 1B1 gene expression, which are responsible for estrogen detoxification and genotoxicity, respectively. GG and isoliquiritigenin (LigC) increased CYP1A1, whereas GI and its marker compound, licochalcone A (LicA), decreased CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of the bioactive licorice compounds, the metabolism of LicA, and whether GG, GI, and/or pure LicA modulate NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in an ACI rat model. In addition, the effect of licorice extracts and compounds on biomarkers of estrogen chemoprevention (CYP1A1) as well as carcinogenesis (CYP1B1) was studied. LicA was extensively glucuronidated and formed GSH adducts; however, free LicA as well as LigC were bioavailable in target tissues after oral intake of licorice extracts. GG, GI, and LicA caused induction of NQO1 activity in the liver. In mammary tissue, GI increased CYP1A1 and decreased CYP1B1, whereas GG only increased CYP1A1 LigC may have contributed to the upregulation of CYP1A1 after GG and GI administration. In contrast, LicA was responsible for GI-mediated downregulation of CYP1B1 These studies highlight the polypharmacologic nature of botanicals and the importance of standardization of licorice BDS to specific Glycyrrhiza species and to multiple constituents.
Project description:Four dioxin-inducible enzymes--NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and three cytochromes P450 (CYP1A1, CYP1A2 & CYP1B1)--are implicated in both detoxication and metabolic activation of various endobiotics and xenobiotics. NQO1 is generally regarded as a cytosolic enzyme; whereas CYP1 proteins are located primarily in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 proteins are also targeted to mitochondria. This lab has generated Cyp1a1(mc/mc) and Cyp1a1(mtt/mtt) knock-in mouse lines in which CYP1A1 protein is targeted exclusively to ER (microsomes) and mitochondria, respectively. Comparing dioxin-treated Cyp1(+/+) wild-type, Cyp1a1(mc/mc), Cyp1a1(mtt/mtt), and Cyp1a1(-/-), Cyp1b1(-/-) and Nqo1(-/-) knockout mice, in the present study we show that [a] NQO1 protein locates to cytosol, ER and mitochondria, [b] CYP1B1 protein (similar to CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 proteins) traffics to mitochondria as well as ER, and [c] NQO1 and CYP1B1 targeting to mitochondrial or ER membranes is independent of CYP1A1 presence in that membrane.
Project description:We investigated the toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) in A549 cells. Cells were treated for 4 h and 24 h with: B[a]P (0.1 and 1 ?M), 1-NP (1 and 10 ?M) and 3-NBA (0.5 and 5 ?M). Bulky DNA adducts, lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein oxidation and mRNA expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, NQO1, POR, AKR1C2 and COX2 were analyzed. Bulky DNA adducts were induced after both treatment periods; the effect of 1-NP was weak. 3-NBA induced high levels of bulky DNA adducts even after 4-h treatment, suggesting rapid metabolic activation. Oxidative DNA damage was not affected. 1-NP caused protein oxidation and weak induction of lipid peroxidation after 4-h incubation. 3-NBA induced lipid peroxidation after 24-h treatment. Unlike B[a]P, induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, measured as mRNA expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, was low after treatment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) nitro-derivatives. All test compounds induced mRNA expression of NQO1, POR, and AKR1C2 after 24-h treatment. AKR1C2 expression indicates involvement of processes associated with reactive oxygen species generation. This was supported further by COX2 expression induced by 24-h treatment with 1-NP. In summary, 3-NBA was the most potent genotoxicant, whereas 1-NP exhibited the strongest oxidative properties.
Project description:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a class of chemicals common in the environment. Certain PAH are carcinogenic, although the degree to which genetic variation influences susceptibility to carcinogenic PAH remains unclear. Also unknown is the influence of genetic variation on the procarcinogenic effect of in utero exposures to PAH. Benzo[ a ]pyrene (B[ a ]P) is a well-studied PAH that is classified as a known human carcinogen. Within our Polish cohort, we explored interactions between maternal exposure to airborne PAH during pregnancy and maternal and newborn single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in plausible B[ a ]P metabolism genes on B[ a ]P-DNA adducts in paired cord blood samples. The study subjects included non-smoking women ( n = 368) with available data on maternal PAH exposure, paired cord adducts, and genetic data who resided in Krakow, Poland. We selected eight common variants in maternal and newborn candidate genes related to B[ a ]P metabolism, detoxification, and repair for our analyses: CYP1A1 , CYP1A2 , CYP1B1 , GSTM1 , GSTT2 , NQO1 , and XRCC1 . We observed significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and SNPs on cord B[ a ]P-DNA adducts in the following genes: maternal CYP1A1 and GSTT2 , and newborn CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 . These novel findings highlight differences in maternal and newborn genetic contributions to B[ a ]P-DNA adduct formation and have the potential to identify at-risk subpopulations who are susceptible to the carcinogenic potential of B[ a ]P.
Project description:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a class of chemicals common in the environment. Certain PAH are carcinogenic, although the degree to which genetic variation influences susceptibility to carcinogenic PAH remains unclear. Also unknown is the influence of genetic variation on the procarcinogenic effect of in utero exposures to PAH. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-studied PAH that is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Within our New York City-based cohort, we explored interactions between maternal exposure to airborne PAH during pregnancy and maternal and newborn haplotypes (and in one case, a single-nucleotide polymorphism) in key B[a]P metabolism genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in paired cord blood samples. The study subjects included non-smoking African-American (n = 132) and Dominican (n = 235) women with available data on maternal PAH exposure, paired cord adducts and genetic data who resided in the Washington Heights, Central Harlem and South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City. We selected seven maternal and newborn genes related to B[a]P metabolism, detoxification and repair for our analyses: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, GSTM3, GSTT2, NQO1 and XRCC1. We found significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and haplotype on cord B[a]P-DNA adducts in the following genes: maternal CYP1B1, XRCC1 and GSTM3, and newborn CYP1A2 and XRCC1 in African-Americans; and maternal XRCC1 and newborn NQO1 in Dominicans. These novel findings highlight differences in maternal and newborn genetic contributions to B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, as well as ethnic differences in gene-environment interactions, and have the potential to identify at-risk subpopulations who are susceptible to the carcinogenic potential of B[a]P.
Project description:The cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 is consistently overexpressed in tumour cells as compared to their normal counterparts, but its precise role in drug resistance is yet to be defined. It has been reported that transfection of CYP1B1 results in increased resistance to docetaxel in V79 cells (McFadyen et al, 2001). In this study, we analysed changes in expression of CYP1B1 mRNA associated with pulse selection of MCF-7 cells with docetaxel. Docetaxel-selected MCF-7 cells (MCF-7 Txt), which showed increased resistance to this drug as compared to parental MCF-7 cells, showed a noteworthy increase in CYP1B1 mRNA expression, paralleled by increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity levels. This effect was not observed in cisplatin- or adriamycin-selected MCF-7 cells, or in docetaxel-selected colon, lung or pancreatic carcinoma cells. Short-term treatment with docetaxel induced CYP1B1 mRNA expression in MDA 453 and BT-20 breast carcinoma cells, but not in MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 Txt cells with CYP1B1 siRNA did not significantly affect docetaxel-induced toxicity, but it decreased cell survival in the absence of drug. Preincubation of docetaxel with recombinant CYP1B1 did not affect drug toxicity in A549 cells. These results suggest that CYP1B1 does not directly inactivate docetaxel, but rather might promote cell survival in MCF-7 Txt cells, providing an explanation for its association with drug resistance.
Project description:The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-?-dioxin (dioxin) via binding to xenobiotic-responsive elements (XREs) in their enhancer regions. CYP1A1 and CYPIB1 were both inducible by dioxin in human MCF-7 cells. However, only CYP1A1 was inducible in human HepG2 cells. Further experiments focused on providing an explanation for this last observation. Dioxin induced the recruitment of AHR and the transcriptional coactivators p300 and p300/cAMP response element-binding protein binding protein-associated factor (PCAF) to the CYP1B1 enhancer in HepG2 cells but failed to induce recruitment of RNA polymerase II (polII) or the TATA binding protein (TBP) and acetylations of histones 3 and 4 or methylation of histone 3 at the promoter. Because p300 was required for dioxin induction of the aforementioned histone modifications at the CYP1B1 promoter and for induction of CYP1B1 transcription (in MCF-7 cells), the recruitments of p300 and AhR, although necessary, are not sufficient for eliciting the above responses to dioxin. Cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides at the enhancer, including those within the XREs, were partially methylated, whereas those at the promoter were fully methylated. Treatment of HepG2 cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine led to partial demethylation of the promoter, restored polII and TBP binding, and CYP1B1 inducibility. Thus, the deficiency of CYP1B1 induction in HepG2 cells is ascribable to cytosine methylation at the promoter, which prevents recruitment of TBP and polII. It is noteworthy that our data indicate that stable recruitment of p300 and PCAF to the CYP1B1 gene does not require their tethering to the promoter and to the enhancer.
Project description:4-Thiazolidinones and related derivatives are regarded as privileged structures in medicinal chemistry and a source of new drug-like compounds. To date it is known that thiazolidinones are able to induce CYP1A1 activity in 3T3-L1 cells. Therefore, to extend the knowledge of the mechanism of thiazolidinones in the cell, four chemically synthesized heterocycles were tested on 3T3-L1 cells. The 3T3-L1 cells were exposed to Les-2194, Les-3640, Les-5935, and Les-6166. Our study showed that 1 μM βNF, Les-2194, and Les-6166 decreased the expression of Ahr mRNA. In turn, βNF, Les-2194, and Les-3640 increased the Cyp1a1 mRNA expression at the same time interval. On the other hand, Les-5935 was found to decrease the Cyp1a1 mRNA expression. Interestingly, the expression of Cyp1a2 mRNA was activated only by βNF and Les-2194. The expression of Cyp1b1 mRNA in the 3T3 cell line increased after the βNF and Les-2194 treatment but declined after the exposure to Les-5935 and Les-6166. Moreover, the Les-2194 and Les-5935 compounds were shown to increase the activity of EROD, MROD, and PROD. Les-3640 increased the activity of EROD and decreased the activity of PROD. In turn, the treatment with Les-6166 resulted in an increase in the activity of EROD and a decrease in the activity of MROD and PROD in the 3T3-L1 cells.
Project description:The CYP1A family of cytochrome P450s (CYPs), comprising CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, plays a role in bioactivation of several procarcinogens to carcinogenic derivatives, and also in detoxification of several xenobiotic compounds. Resveratrol (3,4,5-trihydroxystelbine) is a naturally occurring compound that has been shown in a number of studies to inhibit the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin), but the mechanism(s) of resveratrol inhibition is controversial. In the current study, 100nM dioxin treatment for 24, 48, and 72 h induced CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 mRNA levels in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, and CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNA levels in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2. Simultaneous treatment with 10 microM resveratrol significantly inhibited dioxin-induced mRNA expression levels of these genes in both cell lines. Our studies are novel in that we used the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to assay dioxin-induced recruitment of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) to the enhancer regions and recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the promoter regions, of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes in their natural chromosomal settings. These recruitments were significantly inhibited in cells cotreated with resveratrol. Our studies thus indicate that resveratrol inhibits dioxin induction of the CYP1 family members either by directly or indirectly inhibiting the recruitment of the transcription factors AHR and ARNT to the xenobiotic response elements of the corresponding genes. The reduced transcriptional factor binding at their enhancers then results in reduced pol II recruitment at the promoters of these genes.