The membrane-associated proteins FCHo and SGIP are allosteric activators of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex.
ABSTRACT: The AP2 clathrin adaptor complex links protein cargo to the endocytic machinery but it is unclear how AP2 is activated on the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate that the membrane-associated proteins FCHo and SGIP1 convert AP2 into an open, active conformation. We screened for Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that phenocopy the loss of AP2 subunits and found that AP2 remains inactive in fcho-1 mutants. A subsequent screen for bypass suppressors of fcho-1 nulls identified 71 compensatory mutations in all four AP2 subunits. Using a protease-sensitivity assay we show that these mutations restore the open conformation in vivo. The domain of FCHo that induces this rearrangement is not the F-BAR domain or the µ-homology domain, but rather is an uncharacterized 90 amino acid motif, found in both FCHo and SGIP proteins, that directly binds AP2. Thus, these proteins stabilize nascent endocytic pits by exposing membrane and cargo binding sites on AP2.
Project description:The AP2 adaptor complex (alpha, beta2, sigma2, and mu2 subunits) crosslinks the endocytic clathrin scaffold to PtdIns4,5P(2)-containing membranes and transmembrane protein cargo. In the "locked" cytosolic form, AP2's binding sites for the two endocytic motifs, YxxPhi on the C-terminal domain of mu2 (C-mu2) and [ED]xxxL[LI] on sigma2, are blocked by parts of beta2. Using protein crystallography, we show that AP2 undergoes a large conformational change in which C-mu2 relocates to an orthogonal face of the complex, simultaneously unblocking both cargo-binding sites; the previously unstructured mu2 linker becomes helical and binds back onto the complex. This structural rearrangement results in AP2's four PtdIns4,5P(2)- and two endocytic motif-binding sites becoming coplanar, facilitating their simultaneous interaction with PtdIns4,5P(2)/cargo-containing membranes. Using a range of biophysical techniques, we show that the endocytic cargo binding of AP2 is driven by its interaction with PtdIns4,5P(2)-containing membranes.
Project description:Eukaryotic cells internalize transmembrane receptors via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but it remains unclear how the machinery underpinning this process is regulated. We recently discovered that membrane-associated muniscin proteins such as FCHo and SGIP initiate endocytosis by converting the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex to an open, active conformation that is then phosphorylated (Hollopeter et al., 2014). Here we report that loss of ncap-1, the sole C. elegans gene encoding an adaptiN Ear-binding Coat-Associated Protein (NECAP), bypasses the requirement for FCHO-1. Biochemical analyses reveal AP2 accumulates in an open, phosphorylated state in ncap-1 mutant worms, suggesting NECAPs promote the closed, inactive conformation of AP2. Consistent with this model, NECAPs preferentially bind open and phosphorylated forms of AP2 in vitro and localize with constitutively open AP2 mutants in vivo. NECAPs do not associate with phosphorylation-defective AP2 mutants, implying that phosphorylation precedes NECAP recruitment. We propose NECAPs function late in endocytosis to inactivate AP2.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is an evolutionarily ancient membrane transport system regulating cellular receptivity and responsiveness. Plasmalemma clathrin-coated structures range from unitary domed assemblies to expansive planar constructions with internal or flanking invaginated buds. Precisely how these morphologically-distinct coats are formed, and whether all are functionally equivalent for selective cargo internalization is still disputed. We have disrupted the genes encoding a set of early arriving clathrin-coat constituents, FCHO1 and FCHO2, in HeLa cells. Endocytic coats do not disappear in this genetic background; rather clustered planar lattices predominate and endocytosis slows, but does not cease. The central linker of FCHO proteins acts as an allosteric regulator of the prime endocytic adaptor, AP-2. By loading AP-2 onto the plasma membrane, FCHO proteins provide a parallel pathway for AP-2 activation and clathrin-coat fabrication. Further, the steady-state morphology of clathrin-coated structures appears to be a manifestation of the availability of the muniscin linker during lattice polymerization.
Project description:Multimeric adaptors are broadly involved in vesicle-mediated membrane trafficking. AP2 adaptor, in particular, plays a central role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) by recruiting cargo and clathrin to endocytic sites. It is generally thought that trafficking adaptors such as AP2 adaptor assemble spontaneously. In this work, however, we discovered that AP2 adaptor assembly is an ordered process controlled by alpha and gamma adaptin binding protein (AAGAB), an uncharacterized factor identified in our genome-wide genetic screen of CME. AAGAB guides the sequential association of AP2 subunits and stabilizes assembly intermediates. Without the assistance of AAGAB, AP2 subunits fail to form the adaptor complex, leading to their degradation. The function of AAGAB is abrogated by a mutation that causes punctate palmoplantar keratoderma type 1 (PPKP1), a human skin disease. Since other multimeric trafficking adaptors operate in an analogous manner to AP2 adaptor, their assembly likely involves a similar regulatory mechanism.
Project description:Endocytic adaptor proteins facilitate cargo recruitment and clathrin-coated pit nucleation. The prototypical clathrin adaptor AP2 mediates cargo recruitment, maturation, and scission of the pit by binding cargo, clathrin, and accessory proteins, including the Eps-homology (EH) domain proteins Eps15 and intersectin. However, clathrin-mediated endocytosis of some cargoes proceeds efficiently in AP2-depleted cells. We found that Dab2, another endocytic adaptor, also binds to Eps15 and intersectin. Depletion of EH domain proteins altered the number and size of clathrin structures and impaired the endocytosis of the Dab2- and AP2-dependent cargoes, integrin ?1 and transferrin receptor, respectively. To test the importance of Dab2 binding to EH domain proteins for endocytosis, we mutated the EH domain-binding sites. This mutant localized to clathrin structures with integrin ?1, AP2, and reduced amounts of Eps15. Of interest, although integrin ?1 endocytosis was impaired, transferrin receptor internalization was unaffected. Surprisingly, whereas clathrin structures contain both Dab2 and AP2, integrin ?1 and transferrin localize in separate pits. These data suggest that Dab2-mediated recruitment of EH domain proteins selectively drives the internalization of the Dab2 cargo, integrin ?1. We propose that adaptors may need to be bound to their cargo to regulate EH domain proteins and internalize efficiently.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling involves the spatiotemporally controlled assembly of clathrin coat components at phosphatidylinositiol (4, 5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)]-enriched membrane sites within the periactive zone. Such spatiotemporal control is needed to coordinate SV cargo sorting with clathrin/AP2 recruitment and to restrain membrane fission and synaptojanin-mediated uncoating until membrane deformation and clathrin coat assembly are completed. The molecular events underlying these control mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that the endocytic SH3 domain-containing accessory protein intersectin 1 scaffolds the endocytic process by directly associating with the clathrin adaptor AP2. Acute perturbation of the intersectin 1-AP2 interaction in lamprey synapses in situ inhibits the onset of SV recycling. Structurally, complex formation can be attributed to the direct association of hydrophobic peptides within the intersectin 1 SH3A-B linker region with the "side sites" of the AP2 alpha- and beta-appendage domains. AP2 appendage association of the SH3A-B linker region inhibits binding of the inositol phosphatase synaptojanin 1 to intersectin 1. These data identify the intersectin-AP2 complex as an important regulator of clathrin-mediated SV recycling in synapses.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is key to maintaining the transmembrane protein composition of cells' limiting membranes. During mammalian CME, a reversible phosphorylation event occurs on Thr156 of the ?2 subunit of the main endocytic clathrin adaptor, AP2. We show that this phosphorylation event starts during clathrin-coated pit (CCP) initiation and increases throughout CCP lifetime. ?2Thr156 phosphorylation favors a new, cargo-bound conformation of AP2 and simultaneously creates a binding platform for the endocytic NECAP proteins but without significantly altering AP2's cargo affinity in vitro. We describe the structural bases of both. NECAP arrival at CCPs parallels that of clathrin and increases with ?2Thr156 phosphorylation. In turn, NECAP recruits drivers of late stages of CCP formation, including SNX9, via a site distinct from where NECAP binds AP2. Disruption of the different modules of this phosphorylation-based temporal regulatory system results in CCP maturation being delayed and/or stalled, hence impairing global rates of CME.
Project description:Endocytic protein trafficking is directed by sorting signals on cargo molecules that are recognized by cytosolic adaptor proteins. However, the steps necessary to segregate the variety of cargoes during endocytosis remain poorly defined. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrate that multiple plasma membrane endocytic adaptors function redundantly to regulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis and to recruit components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery to the cell surface to direct the sorting of ubiquitin-modified substrates. Moreover, our data suggest that preassembly of cargoes with the ESCRT-0 complex at the plasma membrane enhances the efficiency of downstream sorting events in the endolysosomal system. In the absence of a heterooligomeric adaptor complex composed of FCHO, Eps15, and intersectin, ESCRT-0 accumulation at the cell surface is diminished, and the degradation of a ubiquitin-modified cargo slows significantly without affecting the rate of its clathrin-mediated internalization. Consistent with a role for the ESCRT machinery during cargo endocytosis, we further show that the ESCRT-0 complex accumulates at a subset of clathrin-coated pits on the surface of human cells. Our findings suggest a unique mechanism by which ubiquitin-modified cargoes are sequestered into the endolysosomal pathway.
Project description:The size of endocytic clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) is remarkably uniform, suggesting that it is optimized to achieve the appropriate levels of cargo and lipid internalization. The three most abundant proteins in mammalian endocytic CCVs are clathrin and the two cargo-selecting, clathrin adaptors, CALM and AP2. Here we demonstrate that depletion of CALM causes a substantial increase in the ratio of "open" clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) to "necked"/"closed" CCVs and a doubling of CCP/CCV diameter, whereas AP2 depletion has opposite effects. Depletion of either adaptor, however, significantly inhibits endocytosis of transferrin and epidermal growth factor. The phenotypic effects of CALM depletion can be rescued by re-expression of wild-type CALM, but not with CALM that lacks a functional N-terminal, membrane-inserting, curvature-sensing/driving amphipathic helix, the existence and properties of which are demonstrated. CALM is thus a major factor in controlling CCV size and maturation and hence in determining the rates of endocytic cargo uptake.
Project description:Recent studies have revealed the detailed timing of protein recruitment to endocytic sites in budding yeast. However, little is understood about the early stages of their formation. Here we identify the septin-associated protein Syp1p as a component of the machinery that drives clathrin-mediated endocytosis in budding yeast. Syp1p arrives at endocytic sites early in their formation and shares unique dynamics with the EH-domain protein Ede1p. We find that Syp1p is related in amino acid sequence to several mammalian proteins one of which, SGIP1-alpha, is an endocytic component that binds the Ede1p homolog Eps15. Like Syp1p, SGIP1-alpha arrives early at sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, suggesting that Syp1p/Ede1p and SGIP1-alpha/Eps15 may have a conserved function. In yeast, both Syp1p and Ede1p play important roles in the rate of endocytic site turnover. Additionally, Ede1p is important for endocytic site formation, whereas Syp1p acts as a polarized factor that recruits both Ede1p and endocytic sites to the necks of emerging buds. Thus Ede1p and Syp1p are conserved, early-arriving endocytic proteins with roles in the formation and placement of endocytic sites, respectively.