Structural changes enable start codon recognition by the eukaryotic translation initiation complex.
ABSTRACT: During eukaryotic translation initiation, initiator tRNA does not insert fully into the P decoding site on the 40S ribosomal subunit. This conformation (POUT) is compatible with scanning mRNA for the AUG start codon. Base pairing with AUG is thought to promote isomerization to a more stable conformation (PIN) that arrests scanning and promotes dissociation of eIF1 from the 40S subunit. Here, we present a cryoEM reconstruction of a yeast preinitiation complex at 4.0 Å resolution with initiator tRNA in the PIN state, prior to eIF1 release. The structure reveals stabilization of the codon-anticodon duplex by the N-terminal tail of eIF1A, changes in the structure of eIF1 likely instrumental in its subsequent release, and changes in the conformation of eIF2. The mRNA traverses the entire mRNA cleft and makes connections to the regulatory domain of eIF2?, eIF1A, and ribosomal elements that allow recognition of context nucleotides surrounding the AUG codon.
Project description:Selection of the correct start codon during initiation of translation on the ribosome is a key event in protein synthesis. In eukaryotic initiation, several factors have to function in concert to ensure that the initiator tRNA finds the cognate AUG start codon during mRNA scanning. The two initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A are known to provide important functions for the initiation process and codon selection. Here, we have used molecular dynamics free energy calculations to evaluate the energetics of initiator tRNA binding to different near-cognate codons on the yeast 40S ribosomal subunit, in the presence and absence of these two initiation factors. The results show that eIF1 and eIF1A together cause a relatively uniform and high discrimination against near-cognate codons. This works such that eIF1 boosts the discrimination against a first position near-cognate G-U mismatch, and also against a second position A-A base pair, while eIF1A mainly acts on third codon position. The computer simulations further reveal the structural basis of the increased discriminatory effect caused by binding of eIF1 and eIF1A to the 40S ribosomal subunit.
Project description:Selection of the AUG start codon is a key step in translation initiation requiring hydrolysis of GTP in the eIF2*GTP*Met-tRNA(i)(Met) ternary complex (TC) and subsequent P(i) release from eIF2*GDP*P(i). It is thought that eIF1 prevents recognition of non-AUGs by promoting scanning and blocking P(i) release at non-AUG codons. We show that Sui(-) mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF1, which increase initiation at UUG codons, reduce interaction of eIF1 with 40S subunits in vitro and in vivo, and both defects are diminished in cells by overexpressing the mutant proteins. Remarkably, Sui(-) mutation ISQLG(93-97)ASQAA (abbreviated 93-97) accelerates eIF1 dissociation and P(i) release from reconstituted preinitiation complexes (PICs), whereas a hyperaccuracy mutation in eIF1A (that suppresses Sui(-) mutations) decreases the eIF1 off-rate. These findings demonstrate that eIF1 dissociation is a critical step in start codon selection, which is modulated by eIF1A. We also describe Gcd(-) mutations in eIF1 that impair TC loading on 40S subunits or destabilize the multifactor complex containing eIF1, eIF3, eIF5, and TC, showing that eIF1 promotes PIC assembly in vivo beyond its important functions in AUG selection.
Project description:The eukaryotic 43S preinitiation complex (PIC), bearing initiator methionyl transfer RNA (Met-tRNAi) in a ternary complex (TC) with eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2)-GTP, scans the mRNA leader for an AUG codon in favorable context. AUG recognition evokes rearrangement from an open PIC conformation with TC in a "POUT" state to a closed conformation with TC more tightly bound in a "PIN" state. eIF1 binds to the 40S subunit and exerts a dual role of enhancing TC binding to the open PIC conformation while antagonizing the PIN state, necessitating eIF1 dissociation for start codon selection. Structures of reconstituted PICs reveal juxtaposition of eIF1 Loop 2 with the Met-tRNAi D loop in the PIN state and predict a distortion of Loop 2 from its conformation in the open complex to avoid a clash with Met-tRNAi We show that Ala substitutions in Loop 2 increase initiation at both near-cognate UUG codons and AUG codons in poor context. Consistently, the D71A-M74A double substitution stabilizes TC binding to 48S PICs reconstituted with mRNA harboring a UUG start codon, without affecting eIF1 affinity for 40S subunits. Relatively stronger effects were conferred by arginine substitutions; and no Loop 2 substitutions perturbed the rate of TC loading on scanning 40S subunits in vivo. Thus, Loop 2-D loop interactions specifically impede Met-tRNAi accommodation in the PIN state without influencing the POUT mode of TC binding; and Arg substitutions convert the Loop 2-tRNAi clash to an electrostatic attraction that stabilizes PIN and enhances selection of poor start codons in vivo.
Project description:During eukaryotic translation initiation, the 43S preinitiation complex (43S PIC), consisting of the 40S ribosomal subunit, eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) and initiator tRNA scans mRNA to find an appropriate start codon. Key roles in the accuracy of initiation codon selection belong to eIF1 and eIF1A, whereas the mammalian-specific DHX29 helicase substantially contributes to ribosomal scanning of structured mRNAs. Here, we show that DHX29 stimulates the recognition of the AUG codon but not the near-cognate CUG codon regardless of its nucleotide context during ribosomal scanning. The stimulatory effect depends on the contact between DHX29 and eIF1A. The unique DHX29 N-terminal domain binds to the ribosomal site near the mRNA entrance, where it contacts the eIF1A OB domain. UV crosslinking assays revealed that DHX29 may rearrange eIF1A and eIF2? in key nucleotide context positions of ribosomal complexes. Interestingly, DHX29 impedes the 48S initiation complex formation in the absence of eIF1A perhaps due to forming a physical barrier that prevents the 43S PIC from loading onto mRNA. Mutational analysis allowed us to split the mRNA unwinding and codon selection activities of DHX29. Thus, DHX29 is another example of an initiation factor contributing to start codon selection.
Project description:The Simian picornavirus type 9 (SPV9) 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR) has been predicted to contain an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) with structural elements that resemble domains of hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs. In vitro reconstitution of initiation confirmed that this 5' UTR contains an IRES and revealed that it has both functional similarities and differences compared to HP IRESs. Like HP IRESs, the SPV9 IRES bound directly to 40S subunits and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 3, depended on the conserved domain IIId for ribosomal binding and consequently for function, and additionally required eIF2/initiator tRNA to yield 48S complexes that formed elongation-competent 80S ribosomes in the presence of eIF5, eIF5B, and 60S subunits. Toeprinting analysis revealed that eIF1A stabilized 48S complexes, whereas eIF1 induced conformational changes in the 40S subunit, likely corresponding to partial opening of the entry latch of the mRNA-binding channel, that were exacerbated by eIF3 and suppressed by eIF1A. The SPV9 IRES differed from HP IRESs in that its function was enhanced by eIF4A/eIF4F when the IRES was adjacent to the wild-type coding sequence, but was less affected by these factors or by a dominant negative eIF4A mutant when potentially less structured coding sequences were present. Exceptionally, this IRES promoted binding of initiator tRNA to the initiation codon in the P site of 40S subunits independently of eIF2. Although these 40S/IRES/tRNA complexes could not form active 80S ribosomes, this constitutes a second difference between the SPV9 and HP IRESs. eIF1 destabilized the eIF2-independent ribosomal binding of initiator tRNA.
Project description:The eukaryotic 43S pre-initiation complex bearing tRNAi(Met) scans the mRNA leader for an AUG start codon in favorable context. Structural analyses revealed that the ?-hairpin of 40S protein Rps5/uS7 protrudes into the 40S mRNA exit-channel, contacting the eIF2?GTP?Met-tRNAi ternary complex (TC) and mRNA context nucleotides; but its importance in AUG selection was unknown. We identified substitutions in ?-strand-1 and C-terminal residues of yeast Rps5 that reduced bulk initiation, conferred 'leaky-scanning' of AUGs; and lowered initiation fidelity by exacerbating the effect of poor context of the eIF1 AUG codon to reduce eIF1 abundance. Consistently, the ?-strand-1 substitution greatly destabilized the 'PIN' conformation of TC binding to reconstituted 43S·mRNA complexes in vitro. Other substitutions in ?-hairpin loop residues increased initiation fidelity and destabilized PIN at UUG, but not AUG start codons. We conclude that the Rps5 ?-hairpin is as crucial as soluble initiation factors for efficient and accurate start codon recognition.
Project description:The translation preinitiation complex (PIC) is thought to assume an open conformation when scanning the mRNA leader, with AUG recognition evoking a closed conformation and more stable P site interaction of Met-tRNAi; however, physical evidence is lacking that AUG recognition constrains interaction of mRNA with the 40S binding cleft. We compared patterns of hydroxyl radical cleavage of rRNA by Fe(II)-BABE tethered to unique sites in eIF1A in yeast PICs reconstituted with mRNA harboring an AUG or near-cognate (AUC) start codon. rRNA residues in the P site display reduced cleavage in AUG versus AUC PICs; and enhanced cleavage in the AUC complexes was diminished by mutations of scanning enhancer elements of eIF1A that increase near-cognate recognition in vivo. This suggests that accessibility of these rRNA residues is reduced by accommodation of Met-tRNAi in the P site (PIN state) and by their interactions with the anticodon stem of Met-tRNAi. Our cleavage data also provide evidence that AUG recognition evokes dissociation of eIF1 from its 40S binding site, ejection of the eIF1A-CTT from the P-site and rearrangement to a closed conformation of the entry channel with reduced mobility of mRNA.
Project description:Translation initiation factor eIF1A stimulates preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly and scanning, but the molecular mechanisms of its functions are not understood. We show that the F131A,F133A mutation in the C-terminal tail (CTT) of eIF1A impairs recruitment of the eIF2-GTP-Met-tRNA(i)(Met) ternary complex to 40S subunits, eliminating functional coupling with eIF1. Mutating residues 17-21 in the N-terminal tail (NTT) of eIF1A also reduces PIC assembly, but in a manner rescued by eIF1. Interestingly, the 131,133 CTT mutation enhances initiation at UUG codons (Sui(-) phenotype) and decreases leaky scanning at AUG, while the NTT mutation 17-21 suppresses the Sui(-) phenotypes of eIF5 and eIF2beta mutations and increases leaky scanning. These findings and the opposite effects of the mutations on eIF1A binding to reconstituted PICs suggest that the NTT mutations promote an open, scanning-conducive conformation of the PIC, whereas the CTT mutations 131,133 have the reverse effect. We conclude that tight binding of eIF1A to the PIC is an important determinant of AUG selection and is modulated in opposite directions by residues in the NTT and CTT of eIF1A.
Project description:Selection of the AUG start codon for translation in eukaryotes is governed by codon-anticodon interactions between the initiator Met-tRNA(i)(Met) and the mRNA. Translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) binds Met-tRNA(i)(Met) to the 40S ribosomal subunit, and previous studies identified Sui(-) mutations in eIF2 that enhanced initiation from a noncanonical UUG codon, presumably by impairing Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding. Consistently, an eIF2gamma-N135D GTP-binding domain mutation impairs Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding and causes a Sui(-) phenotype. Intragenic A208V and A382V suppressor mutations restore Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding affinity and cell growth; however, only A208V suppresses the Sui(-) phenotype associated with the eIF2gamma-N135D mutation. An eIF2gamma-A219T mutation impairs Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding but unexpectedly enhances the fidelity of initiation, suppressing the Sui(-) phenotype associated with the eIF2gamma-N135D,A382V mutant. Overexpression of eIF1, which is thought to monitor codon-anticodon interactions during translation initiation, likewise suppresses the Sui(-) phenotype of the eIF2gamma mutants. We propose that structural alterations in eIF2gamma subtly alter the conformation of Met-tRNA(i)(Met) on the 40S subunit and thereby affect the fidelity of start codon recognition independent of Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding affinity.
Project description:During ribosome recycling, posttermination complexes are dissociated by ABCE1 and eRF1 into 60S and tRNA/mRNA-associated 40S subunits, after which tRNA and mRNA are released by eIF1/eIF1A, Ligatin, or MCT-1/DENR. Occasionally, 40S subunits remain associated with mRNA and reinitiate at nearby AUGs. We recapitulated reinitiation using a reconstituted mammalian translation system. The presence of eIF2, eIF3, eIF1, eIF1A, and Met-tRNAi(Met) was sufficient for recycled 40S subunits to remain on mRNA, scan bidirectionally, and reinitiate at upstream and downstream AUGs if mRNA regions flanking the stop codon were unstructured. Imposition of 3' directionality additionally required eIF4F. Strikingly, posttermination ribosomes were not stably anchored on mRNA and migrated bidirectionally to codons cognate to the P site tRNA. Migration depended on the mode of peptide release (puromycin > eRF1?eRF3) and nature of tRNA and was enhanced by eEF2. The mobility of posttermination ribosomes suggests that some reinitiation events could involve 80S ribosomes rather than 40S subunits.