Imaging of kiss-and-run exocytosis of surface receptors in neuronal cultures.
ABSTRACT: Transmembrane proteins are continuously shuttled from the endosomal compartment to the neuronal plasma membrane by highly regulated and complex trafficking steps. These events are involved in many homeostatic and physiological processes such as neuronal growth, signaling, learning and memory among others. We have previously shown that endosomal exocytosis of the B2 adrenergic receptor (B2AR) and the GluR1-containing AMPA receptor to the neuronal plasma membrane is mediated by two different types of vesicular fusion. A rapid type of exocytosis in which receptors are delivered to the plasma membrane in a single kinetic step, and a persistent mode in which receptors remain clustered at the insertion site for a variable period of time before delivery to the cell surface. Here, by comparing the exocytosis of multiple receptors in dissociated hippocampal and striatal cultures, we show that persistent events are a general mechanism of vesicular delivery. Persistent events were only observed after 10 days in vitro, and their frequency increased with use of the calcium ionophore A23187 and with depolarization induced by KCl. Finally, we determined that vesicles producing persistent events remain at the plasma membrane, closing and reopening their fusion pore for a consecutive release of cargo in a mechanism reminiscent of synaptic kiss-and-run. These results indicate that the delivery of transmembrane receptors to the cell surface can be dynamically regulated by kiss-and-run exocytosis.
Project description:In secretory cells, several exocytosis-coupled forms of endocytosis have been proposed including clathrin-mediated endocytosis, kiss-and-run endocytosis, cavicapture, and bulk endocytosis. These forms of endocytosis can be induced under different conditions, but their detailed molecular mechanisms and functions are largely unknown. We studied exocytosis and endocytosis in mast cells with both perforated-patch and whole-cell configurations of the patch clamp technique using cell capacitance measurements in combination with amperometric serotonin detection. We found that intact mast cells exhibit an early endocytosis that follows exocytosis induced by compound 48/80. Direct observation of individual exocytic and endocytic events showed a higher percentage of capacitance flickers (27.3%) and off-steps (11.4%) in intact mast cells than in dialyzed cells (5.4% and 2.9%, respectively). Moreover, we observed a type of endocytosis of large pieces of membrane that were likely formed by cumulative fusion of several secretory granules with the cell membrane. We also identified "large-capacitance flickers" that occur after large endocytosis events. Pore conductance analysis indicated that these transient events may represent "compound cavicapture," most likely due to the flickering of a dilated fusion pore. Using fluorescence imaging of individual exocytic and endocytic events we observed that granules can fuse to granules already fused with the plasma membrane, and then the membranes and dense cores of fused granules are internalized. Altogether, our results suggest that stimulated exocytosis in intact mast cells is followed by several forms of compensatory endocytosis, including kiss-and-run endocytosis and a mechanism for efficient retrieval of the compound membrane of several secretory granules through a single membrane fission event.
Project description:The details of exocytosis, the vital cell process of neuronal communication, are still under debate with two generally accepted scenarios. The first mode of release involves secretory vesicles distending into the cell membrane to release the complete vesicle contents. The second involves partial release of the vesicle content through an intermittent fusion pore, or an opened or partially distended fusion pore. Here we show that both full and partial release can be mimicked with a single large-scale cell model for exocytosis composed of material from blebbing cell plasma membrane. The apparent switching mechanism for determining the mode of release is demonstrated to be related to membrane tension that can be differentially induced during artificial exocytosis. These results suggest that the partial distension mode might correspond to an extended kiss-and-run mechanism of release from secretory cells, which has been proposed as a major pathway of exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells.
Project description:Neurotransmitter release is achieved through the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the neuronal plasma membrane (exocytosis). Vesicles are then retrieved from the plasma membrane (endocytosis). It was hypothesized more than 3 decades ago that endosomes participate in vesicle recycling, constituting a slow endocytosis pathway required especially after prolonged stimulation. This recycling model predicts that newly endocytosed vesicles fuse with an endosome, which sorts (organizes) the molecules and buds exocytosis-competent vesicles. We analyzed here the endosome function using hippocampal neurons, isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes), and PC12 cells by stimulated emission depletion microscopy, photooxidation EM, and several conventional microscopy assays. Surprisingly, we found that endosomal sorting is a rapid pathway, which appeared to be involved in the recycling of the initial vesicles to be released on stimulation, the readily releasable pool. In agreement with the endosomal model, the vesicle composition changed after endocytosis, with the newly formed vesicles being enriched in plasma membrane proteins. Vesicle proteins were organized in clusters both in the plasma membrane (on exocytosis) and in the endosome. In the latter compartment, they segregated from plasma membrane components in a process that is likely important for sorting/budding of newly developed vesicles from the endosome.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes is caused by defects in both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Glucose triggers insulin secretion by causing exocytosis of insulin granules from pancreatic ?-cells. High circulating cholesterol levels and a diminished capacity of serum to remove cholesterol from ?-cells are observed in diabetic individuals. Both of these effects can lead to cholesterol accumulation in ?-cells and contribute to ?-cell dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cholesterol accumulation impairs ?-cell function remain largely unknown. Here, we used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to address, at the single-granule level, the role of cholesterol in regulating fusion pore dynamics during insulin exocytosis. We focused particularly on the effects of cholesterol overload, which is relevant to type 2 diabetes. We show that excess cholesterol reduced the number of glucose-stimulated fusion events, and modulated the proportion of full fusion and kiss-and-run fusion events. Analysis of single exocytic events revealed distinct fusion kinetics, with more clustered and compound exocytosis observed in cholesterol-overloaded ?-cells. We provide evidence for the involvement of the GTPase dynamin, which is regulated in part by cholesterol-induced phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate enrichment in the plasma membrane, in the switch between full fusion and kiss-and-run fusion. Characterization of insulin exocytosis offers insights into the role that elevated cholesterol may play in the development of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Transmitters such as glutamate and ATP are released from brain astrocytes. Several pathways for their release have been proposed, including exocytosis. In the present study we sought to measure exocytosis from astrocytes with single vesicle imaging methods using synaptopHlourin (SpH) as an optical reporter. We imaged single SpH-laden vesicles with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. We observed spontaneous, as well as evoked, single-vesicle exocytosis events. Analysis of the kinetics and spatial spread associated with these events indicated two discernible forms of single vesicle exocytosis. One form, constituting approximately 40% of the spontaneous events, was akin to kiss-and-run vesicle fusion and captured a mobile proton buffer from the extracellular medium. The other form seems to represent full vesicle fusion, constitutes approximately 60% of the spontaneous events, and is associated with complete mixing of the vesicle and plasma membranes. Activation of calcium-mobilizing receptors on the astrocyte surface selected between the different forms of exocytosis. These data provide evidence for two forms of simultaneously occurring single-vesicle exocytosis events in astrocytes, and also suggest that SpH imaging and TIRF microscopy is useful to study the mechanisms of astrocyte transmitter release.
Project description:Kiss-and-run exocytosis, consisting of reversible fusion between the vesicle membrane and the plasma membrane, is considered to lead to full fusion after stimulation of vesicles containing classical transmitters. However, whether this is also the case in the fusion of peptidergic vesicles is unknown. Previously, we have observed that spontaneous neuropeptide discharge from a single vesicle is slower than stimulated release, because of the kinetic constraints of fusion pore opening. To explore whether slow spontaneous release also reflects a relatively narrow fusion pore, we analyzed the permeation of FM 4-64 dye and HEPES molecules through spontaneously forming fusion pores in lactotroph vesicles expressing synaptopHluorin, a pH-dependent fluorescent fusion marker. Confocal imaging showed that half of the spontaneous exocytotic events exhibited fusion pore openings associated with a change in synaptopHluorin fluorescence but were impermeable to FM 4-64 and HEPES. Together with membrane capacitance measurements, these findings indicate an open fusion pore diameter <0.5 nm, much smaller than the neuropeptides. In stimulated cells, >70% of exocytotic events exhibited a larger, FM 4-64-permeable pore (>1 nm). Interestingly, capacitance measurements showed that the majority of exocytotic events in spontaneous and stimulated conditions were transient. Stimulation increased the frequency of transient events and the fusion pore dwell time but decreased the fraction of events with lowest measurable fusion pore. Kiss-and-run is the predominant mode of exocytosis in resting and in stimulated peptidergic vesicles. Stimulation prolongs the effective opening of the fusion pore and expands its primary subnanometer diameter to enable hormone secretion without full fusion.
Project description:During exocytosis, the lumen of secretory vesicles connects with the extracellular space. In some vesicles, this connection closes again, causing the vesicle to be recaptured mostly intact. The degree to which the bilayers of such vesicles mix with the plasma membrane is unknown. Work supporting the kiss-and-run model of transient exocytosis implies that synaptic vesicles allow neither lipid nor protein to escape into the plasma membrane, suggesting that the two bilayers never merge. Here, we test whether neuroendocrine granules behave similarly. Using two-color evanescent field microscopy, we imaged the lipid probe FM4-64 and fluorescent proteins in single dense core granules. During exocytosis, granules lost FM4-64 into the plasma membrane in small fractions of a second. Although FM4-64 was lost, granules retained the membrane protein, GFP-phogrin. By using GFP-phogrin as a probe for resealing, it was found that even granules that reseal lose FM4-64. We conclude that the lipid bilayers of the granule and the plasma membrane become continuous even when exocytosis is transient.
Project description:Lysosomes play a central role in the degradation of proteins and other macromolecules. The mechanisms by which receptors are transferred to lysosomes for constitutive degradation are poorly understood. We have analyzed the processes that lead to the lysosomal delivery of the Fc receptor, FcRn. These studies provide support for a novel pathway for receptor delivery. Specifically, unlike other receptors that enter intraluminal vesicles in late endosomes, FcRn is transferred from the limiting membrane of such endosomes to lysosomes, and is rapidly internalized into the lysosomal lumen. By contrast, LAMP-1 persists on the limiting membrane. Receptor transfer is mediated by tubular extensions from late endosomes to lysosomes, or by interactions of the two participating organelles in kiss-and-linger-like processes, whereas full fusion is rarely observed. The persistence of FcRn on the late endosomal limiting membrane, together with selective transfer to lysosomes, allows this receptor to undergo recycling or degradation. Consequently, late endosomes have functional plasticity, consistent with the presence of the Rab5 GTPase in discrete domains on these compartments.
Project description:Neurotransmission requires Ca(2+)-dependent release of secretory products through fusion pores that open and reclose (partial membrane distention) or open irreversibly (complete membrane distention). It has been challenging to distinguish between these release modes; however, in the work presented here, we were able to deduce different modes of depolarization-evoked exocytosis in neuroendocrine chromaffin and PC12 cells solely by analyzing amperometric recordings. After we determined the quantal size (Q), event half-width (t(50)), event amplitude (I(peak)), and event decay time constant (?(decay)), we fitted scatter plots of log-transformed data with a mixture of one- and two-dimensional Gaussian distributions. Our analysis revealed three distinct and differently shaped clusters of secretory events, likely corresponding to different modes of exocytosis. Complete membrane distention, through fusion pores of widely varying conductances, accounted for 70% of the total amount of released catecholamine. Two different kinds of partial membrane distention (kiss-and-run and kiss-and-stay exocytosis), characterized by mode-specific fusion pores with unitary conductances, accounted for 20% and 10%, respectively. These results show that our novel one- and two-dimensional analysis of amperometric data reveals new release properties and enables one to distinguish at least three different modes of exocytosis solely by analyzing amperometric recordings.
Project description:Adaptive and innate immunity utilize the perforin-killing pathway to eliminate virus-infected or cancer cells. Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells mediate this process by releasing toxic proteins at the contact area with target cells known as immunological synapse (IS). Formation of a stable IS and exocytosis of toxic proteins requires persistent fusion of Rab11a recycling endosomes with the plasma membrane (PM) that may assure the delivery of key effector proteins. Despite the importance of the recycling endosomal compartment, the membrane fusion proteins that control this process at the IS remain elusive. Here, by performing knockdown experiments we found that syntaxin 4 (STX4) is necessary for cytotoxic activity and CD107a degranulation against target cells in a similar fashion to syntaxin 11, which is involved in lytic granule (LG) exocytosis and immunodeficiency when it is mutated. Using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy we identified that STX4 mediates fusion of EGFP-Rab11a vesicles at the IS. Immunoprecipitation experiments in lysates of activated CTLs indicate that endogenous STX4 may drive this fusion step by interacting with cognate proteins: Munc18-3/SNAP23/VAMP7 and/or VAMP8. These results reveal the role of STX4 in mediating fusion of Rab11a endosomes upstream of lytic granules (LGs) exocytosis and further demonstrate the importance of this pathway in controlling CTL-mediated cytotoxicity.