Recombinant production and characterization of full-length and truncated β-1,3-glucanase PglA from Paenibacillus sp. S09.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: β-1,3-Glucanases catalyze the hydrolysis of glucan polymers containing β-1,3-linkages. These enzymes are of great biotechnological, agricultural and industrial interest. The applications of β-1,3-glucanases is well established in fungal disease biocontrol, yeast extract production and wine extract clarification. Thus, the identification and characterization of novel β-1,3-glucanases with high catalytic efficiency and stability is of particular interest. RESULTS: A β-1,3-glucanase gene designated PglA was cloned from a newly isolated strain Paenibacillus sp. S09. The gene PglA contained a 2631-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 876 amino acids which shows 76% identity with the β-1,3-glucanase (BglH) from Bacillus circulans IAM1165. The encoded protein PglA is composed of a signal peptide, an N-terminal leader region, a glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) catalytic domain and a C-terminal immunoglobulin like (Ig-like) domain. The Escherichia coli expression system of PglA and five truncated derivatives containing one or two modules was constructed to investigate the role of catalytic and non-catalytic modules. The pH for optimal activity of the enzymes was slightly affected (pH 5.5-6.5) by the presence of different modules. However, the temperature for optimal activity was strongly influenced by the C-terminal domain and ranged from 50 to 60°C. Deletion of C-terminal domain resulted in obviously enhancing enzymatic thermostability. Specific activity assay indicated that PglA specifically hydrolyzes β-1,3-glucan. Insoluble β-1,3-glucan binding and hydrolysis were boosted by the presence of N-and C-terminal domains. Kinetic analysis showed that the presence of N-and C-terminus enhances the substrate affinity and catalytic efficiency of the catalytic domain toward laminarin. Carbohydrate-binding assay directly confirmed the binding capabilities of the N-and C-terminal domains. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new insight into the impacts of non-catalytic modules on enzymatic properties of β-1,3-glucanase. Activity comparison of full-length PglA and truncated forms revealed the negative effect of C-terminal region on thermal stability of the enzyme. Both the N-and C-terminal domains exerted strong binding activity toward insoluble β-1,3-glucan, and could be classified into CBM families.
Project description:Cellulosimicrobium cellulans (also known with the synonyms Cellulomonas cellulans, Oerskovia xanthineolytica, and Arthrobacter luteus) is an actinomycete that excretes yeast cell wall lytic enzyme complexes containing endo-beta-1,3-glucanases [EC 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52] as key constituents. Three genes encoding endo-beta-1,3-glucanases from two C. cellulans strains have been cloned and characterised over the past years. The betaglII and betaglIIA genes from strain DSM 10297 (also known as O. xanthineolytica LL G109) encoded proteins of 40.8 and 28.6 kDa, respectively, whereas the beta-1,3-glucanase gene from strain ATCC 21606 (also known as A. luteus 73-14) encoded a 54.5 kDa protein. Alignment of their deduced amino acid sequences reveal that betaglII and betaglIIA have catalytic domains assigned to family 16 of glycosyl hydrolases, whereas the catalytic domain from the 54.5 kDa glucanase belongs to family 64. Notably, both betaglII and the 54.5 kDa beta-1,3-glucanase are multidomain proteins, having a lectin-like C-terminal domain that has been assigned to family 13 of carbohydrate binding modules, and that confers to beta-1,3-glucanases the ability to lyse viable yeast cells. Furthermore, betaglII may also undergo posttranslational proteolytic processing of its C-terminal domain, resulting in a truncated enzyme retaining its glucanase activity but with very low yeast-lytic activity. In this review, the diversity in terms of structural and functional characteristics of the C. cellulans beta-1,3-glucanases has been compiled and compared.
Project description:Lysobacter enzymogenes strain N4-7 produces multiple biochemically distinct extracellular beta-1,3-glucanase activities. The gluA, gluB, and gluC genes, encoding enzymes with beta-1,3-glucanase activity, were identified by a reverse-genetics approach following internal amino acid sequence determination of beta-1,3-glucanase-active proteins partially purified from culture filtrates of strain N4-7. Analysis of gluA and gluC gene products indicates that they are members of family 16 glycoside hydrolases that have significant sequence identity to each other throughout the catalytic domain but that differ structurally by the presence of a family 6 carbohydrate-binding domain within the gluC product. Analysis of the gluB gene product indicates that it is a member of family 64 glycoside hydrolases. Expression of each gene in Escherichia coli resulted in the production of proteins with beta-1,3-glucanase activity. Biochemical analyses of the recombinant enzymes indicate that GluA and GluC exhibit maximal activity at pH 4.5 and 45 degrees C and that GluB is most active between pH 4.5 and 5.0 at 41 degrees C. Activity of recombinant proteins against various beta-1,3 glucan substrates indicates that GluA and GluC are most active against linear beta-1,3 glucans, while GluB is most active against the insoluble beta-1,3 glucan substrate zymosan A. These data suggest that the contribution of beta-1,3-glucanases to the biocontrol activity of L. enzymogenes may be due to complementary activities of these enzymes in the hydrolysis of beta-1,3 glucans from fungal cell walls.
Project description:The beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein (betaGRP)/Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein 3 (GNBP3) is a crucial pattern-recognition receptor that specifically binds beta-1,3-glucan, a component of fungal cell walls. It evokes innate immunity against fungi through activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) cascade and Toll pathway in invertebrates. The betaGRP consists of an N-terminal beta-1,3-glucan-recognition domain and a C-terminal glucanase-like domain, with the former reported to be responsible for the proPO cascade activation. This report shows the solution structure of the N-terminal beta-1,3-glucan recognition domain of silkworm betaGRP. Although the N-terminal domain of betaGRP has a beta-sandwich fold, often seen in carbohydrate-binding modules, both NMR titration experiments and mutational analysis showed that betaGRP has a binding mechanism which is distinct from those observed in previously reported carbohydarate-binding domains. Our results suggest that betaGRP is a beta-1,3-glucan-recognition protein that specifically recognizes a triple-helical structure of beta-1,3-glucan.
Project description:The nucleotide sequence of the betaglIIA gene, encoding the extracellular beta-1,3-glucanase IIA (betaglIIA) of the yeast-lytic actinomycete Oerskovia xanthineolytica LL G109, was determined. Sequence comparison shows that the betaglIIA enzyme has over 80% identity to the betaglII isoenzyme, an endo-beta-1,3-glucanase having low yeast-lytic activity secreted by the same bacterium. The betaglIIA enzyme lacks a glucan- or mannan-binding domain, such as those observed in beta-1,3-glucanases and proteases having high yeast/fungus-lytic activity. It can be included in the glycosyl hydrolase family 16. Gene fusion expression in Bacillus subtilis DN1885 followed by preliminary characterization of the recombinant gene product indicates that betaglIIA has a pI of 3.8 to 4.0 and is active on both laminarin and curdlan, having an acid optimum pH activity (ca. 4.0).
Project description:Aedes aegypti larvae ingest several kinds of microorganisms. In spite of studies regarding mosquito digestion, little is known about the nutritional utilization of ingested cells by larvae. We investigated the effects of using yeasts as the sole nutrient source for A. aegypti larvae. We also assessed the role of beta-1,3-glucanases in digestion of live yeast cells. Beta-1,3-glucanases are enzymes which hydrolyze the cell wall beta-1,3-glucan polyssacharide. Larvae were fed with cat food (controls), live or autoclaved Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and larval weight, time for pupation and adult emergence, larval and pupal mortality were measured. The presence of S. cerevisiae cells inside the larval gut was demonstrated by light microscopy. Beta-1,3-glucanase was measured in dissected larval samples. Viability assays were performed with live yeast cells and larval gut homogenates, with or without addition of competing beta-1,3-glucan. A. aegypti larvae fed with yeast cells were heavier at the 4th instar and showed complete development with normal mortality rates. Yeast cells were efficiently ingested by larvae and quickly killed (10% death in 2 h, 100% in 48 h). Larvae showed beta-1,3-glucanase in head, gut and rest of body. Gut beta-1,3-glucanase was not derived from ingested yeast cells. Gut and rest of body activity was not affected by the yeast diet, but head homogenates showed a lower activity in animals fed with autoclaved S. cerevisiae cells. The enzymatic lysis of live S. cerevisiae cells was demonstrated using gut homogenates, and this activity was abolished when excess beta-1,3-glucan was added to assays. These results show that live yeast cells are efficiently ingested and hydrolyzed by A. aegypti larvae, which are able to fully-develop on a diet based exclusively on these organisms. Beta-1,3-glucanase seems to be essential for yeast lytic activity of A. aegypti larvae, which possess significant amounts of these enzyme in all parts investigated.
Project description:Beta-1,3-glucanases (EC 184.108.40.206), commonly known as pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, play an important role not only in plant defense against fungal pathogens but also in plant physiological and developmental processes. However, only a limited number of sugarcane beta-1,3-glucanase genes have been isolated. In the present study, we identified and characterized a new beta-1,3-glucanase gene ScGluD2 (GenBank Acc No. KF664181) from sugarcane. An X8 domain was present at the C terminal region of ScGluD2, suggesting beta-1,3-glucan-binding function. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the predicted ScGluD2 protein was classified into subfamily D beta-1,3-glucanase. Localization of the ScGluD2 protein in the plasma membrane was determined by tagging it with green fluorescent protein. The expression of ScGluD2 was more up-regulated in sugarcane smut-resistant cultivars in the early stage (1 or 3 days) than in the susceptible ones after being challenged by the smut pathogen, revealing that ScGluD2 may be involved in defense against the invasion of Sporisorium scitamineum. Transient overexpression of ScGluD2 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves induced a defense response and exhibited antimicrobial action on the tobacco pathogens Pseudomonas solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, further demonstrating that ScGluD2 was related to the resistance to plant pathogens. However, the transcripts of ScGluD2 partially increased (12 h) under NaCl stress, and were steadily up-regulated from 6 to 24 h upon ABA, H2O2, and CdCl2 treatments, suggesting that ABA may be a signal molecule regulating oxidative stress and play a role in the salt and heavy metal stress-induced stimulation of ScGluD2 transcripts. Taken together, ScGluD2, a novel member of subfamily D beta-1,3-glucanase, was a stress-related gene of sugarcane involved in plant defense against smut pathogen attack and salt and heavy metal stresses.
Project description:Endo-?-1,3-glucanases are widespread enzymes with glycosyl hydrolitic activity involved in carbohydrate remodelling during the germination and pollen tube growth. Although members of this protein family with allergenic activity have been reported, their effective contribution to allergy is little known. In this work, we identified Fra e 9 as a novel allergenic ?-1,3-glucanase from ash pollen. We produced the catalytic and carbohydrate-binding domains as two independent recombinant proteins and characterized them from structural, biochemical and immunological point of view in comparison to their counterparts from olive pollen. We showed that despite having significant differences in biochemical activity Fra e 9 and Ole e 9 display similar IgE-binding capacity, suggesting that ?-1,3-glucanases represent an heterogeneous family that could display intrinsic allergenic capacity. Specific cDNA encoding Fra e 9 was cloned and sequenced. The full-length cDNA encoded a polypeptide chain of 461 amino acids containing a signal peptide of 29 residues, leading to a mature protein of 47760.2 Da and a pI of 8.66. An N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module are the components of this enzyme. Despite the phylogenetic proximity to the olive pollen ?-1,3-glucanase, Ole e 9, there is only a 39% identity between both sequences. The N- and C-terminal domains have been produced as independent recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, respectively. Although a low or null enzymatic activity has been associated to long ?-1,3-glucanases, the recombinant N-terminal domain has 200-fold higher hydrolytic activity on laminarin than reported for Ole e 9. The C-terminal domain of Fra e 9, a cysteine-rich compact structure, is able to bind laminarin. Both molecules retain comparable IgE-binding capacity when assayed with allergic sera. In summary, the structural and functional comparison between these two closely phylogenetic related enzymes provides novel insights into the complexity of ?-1,3-glucanases, representing a heterogeneous protein family with intrinsic allergenic capacity.
Project description:In the present study, we characterized the gene (Cyanobase accession number slr0897) designated Ssglc encoding a beta-1,4-glucanase-like protein (SsGlc) from Synechocystis PCC6803. The deduced amino acid sequence for Ssglc showed a high degree of similarity to sequences of GH (glycoside hydrolase) family 9 beta-1,4-glucanases (cellulases) from various sources. Surprisingly, the recombinant protein obtained from the Escherichia coli expression system was able to hydrolyse barley beta-glucan and lichenan (beta-1,3-1,4-glucan), but not cellulose (beta-1,4-glucan), curdlan (beta-1,3-glucan), or laminarin (beta-1,3-1,6-glucan). A 1H-NMR analysis of the enzymatic products revealed that the enzyme hydrolyses the beta-1,4-glycosidic linkage of barley beta-glucan through an inverting mechanism. The data indicated that SsGlc was a novel type of GH9 glucanase which could specifically hydrolyse the beta-1,3-1,4-linkage of glucan. The growth of mutant Synechocystis cells in which the Ssglc gene was disrupted by a kanamycin-resistance cartridge gene was almost the same as that of the wild-type cells under continuous light (40 micromol of photons/m2 per s), a 12 h light (40 micromol of photons/m2 per s)/12 h dark cycle, cold stress (4 degrees C), and high light stress (200 micromol of photons/m2 per s). However, under salt stress (300-450 mM NaCl), growth of the Ssglc-disrupted mutant cells was significantly inhibited as compared with that of the wild-type cells. The Ssglc-disrupted mutant cells showed a decreased rate of O2 consumption and NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution as compared with the wild-type cells under salt stress. Under osmotic stress (100-400 mM sorbitol), there was no difference in growth between the wild-type and the Ssglc-disrupted mutant cells. These results suggest that SsGlc functions in salt stress tolerance in Synechocystis PCC6803.
Project description:Fungal cell walls contain ?-glucan polysaccharides that stimulate immune responses when recognized by host immune cells. The fungal pathogen <i>Histoplasma capsulatum</i> minimizes detection of ?-glucan by host cells through at least two mechanisms: concealment of ?-glucans beneath ?-glucans and enzymatic removal of any exposed ?-glucan polysaccharides by the secreted glucanase Eng1. <i>Histoplasma</i> yeasts also secrete the putative glucanase Exg8, which may serve a similar role as Eng1 in removing exposed ?-glucans from the yeast cell surface. Here, we characterize the enzymatic specificity of the Eng1 and Exg8 proteins and show that Exg8 is an exo-?1,3-glucanase and Eng1 is an endo-?1,3-glucanase. Together, Eng1 and Exg8 account for nearly all of the total secreted glucanase activity of <i>Histoplasma</i> yeasts. Both Eng1 and Exg8 proteins are secreted through a conventional secretion signal and are modified post-translationally by <i>O</i>-linked glycosylation. Both glucanases have near maximal activity at temperature and pH conditions experienced during infection of host cells, supporting roles in <i>Histoplasma</i> pathogenesis. Exg8 has a higher specific activity than Eng1 for ?1,3-glucans; yet despite this, Exg8 does not reduce detection of yeasts by the host ?-glucan receptor Dectin-1. Exg8 is largely dispensable for virulence <i>in vivo</i>, in contrast to Eng1. These results show that <i>Histoplasma</i> yeasts secrete two ?1,3-glucanases and that Eng1 endoglucanase activity is the predominant factor responsible for removal of exposed cell wall ?-glucans to minimize host detection of <i>Histoplasma</i> yeasts.
Project description:A novel ?-(1,3)-glucanase gene designated lamC, cloned from Corallococcus sp. strain EGB, contains a fascin-like module and a glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) catalytic module. LamC displays broad hydrolytic activity toward various polysaccharides. Analysis of the hydrolytic products revealed that LamC is an exo-acting enzyme on ?-(1,3)(1,3)- and ?-(1,6)-linked glucan substrates and an endo-acting enzyme on ?-(1,4)-linked glucan and xylan substrates. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved catalytic Glu residues (E304A and E309A) demonstrated that these activities were derived from the same active site. Excision of the fascin-like module resulted in decreased activity toward ?-(1,3)(1,3)-linked glucans. The carbohydrate-binding assay showed that the fascin-like module was a novel ?-(1,3)-linked glucan-binding module. The functional characterization of the fascin-like module and catalytic module will help us better understand these enzymes and modules.IMPORTANCE In this report of a bacterial ?-(1,3)(1,3)-glucanase containing a fascin-like module, we reveal the ?-(1,3)(1,3)-glucan-binding function of the fascin-like module present in the N terminus of LamC. LamC displays exo-?-(1,3)/(1,6)-glucanase and endo-?-(1,4)-glucanase/xylanase activities with a single catalytic domain. Thus, LamC was identified as a novel member of the GH16 family.