An interaction between a FNDC5 variant and obesity modulates glucose metabolism in a Chinese Han population.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of common variants of FNDC5 on type 2 diabetes and clinical traits related to glucose metabolism in a large Chinese population sample. METHODS: Three tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms within the region of the FNDC5 gene were selected and genotyped in 6822 participants. Detailed clinical investigations and biochemistry measurements were carried out in all of the participants. Subjects without diabetes were classified into normal weight and overweight/obese subgroups according to body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: None of the SNPs were associated with either the risk of type 2 diabetes in all of the participants or with any of the clinical quantitative traits in the controls with normal glucose regulation. Subgroup analysis showed that in controls with normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), the rs16835198 major allele G was significantly associated with fasting insulin levels, and that each additional copy of the allele resulted in a 0.0178 mU/L increment of the values (p = 0.046). Moreover, after adjusting for confounding variables, there were trends towards correlation of rs16835198 with HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.057) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (p = 0.083). In overweight/obese subjects (BMI ? 25 Kg/m(2)), we noted rs16835198 showed trends towards association with fasting insulin (p = 0.057) and HOMA-IR levels (p = 0.091), both of which declined with additional copies of the major allele G. Moreover, rs16835198 was significantly associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 0.013), and HOMA-? cell function (p = 0.028) in the overweight/obese subjects. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between BMI-rs16835198 and fasting insulin levels in the control group (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the effect of the common FNDC5 SNP rs16835198 on fasting insulin was significantly modified by BMI in the Chinese Han population.
Project description:Hyperinsulinaemia is the earliest subclinical metabolic abnormality, which precedes insulin resistance in obese children. An investigation was conducted on the potential predictors of fasting insulin and insulin resistance among overweight/obese adolescents in a developing Asian country. A total of 173 overweight/obese (BMI?>?85th percentile) multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents aged 13 were recruited from 23 randomly selected schools in this cross-sectional study. Waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF%), physical fitness score (PFS), fasting glucose and fasting insulin were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adjusted stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to predict fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Covariates included pubertal stage, socioeconomic status, nutritional and physical activity scores. One-third of our adolescents were insulin resistant, with girls having significantly higher fasting insulin and HOMA-IR than boys. Gender, pubertal stage, BMI, WC and BF% had significant, positive moderate correlations with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR while PFS was inversely correlated (p?<?0.05). Fasting insulin was primarily predicted by gender-girls (Beta?=?0.305, p?<?0.0001), higher BMI (Beta?=?-0.254, p?=?0.02) and greater WC (Beta?=?0.242, p?=?0.03). This study demonstrated that gender, BMI and WC are simple predictors of fasting insulin and insulin resistance in overweight/obese adolescents.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a growing epidemic worldwide, and it is associated with metabolic complications, such as insulin resistance. Recently, a genetic variation (rs7607980) in the COBLL1 gene has been associated with lower insulin resistance in adults. The aim of the study was to investigate if the association between COBLL1 rs7607980 genetic variant and lower insulin resistance was present early in life. METHODS: This sequence variant was genotyped in 878 overweight and obese children (mean age: 10 years) from Sardinia, Italy, from the outpatient clinic of the Pediatric Endocrine Unit, at the Regional Hospital for Microcitaemia in Cagliari. Insulin resistance was assessed by measurement of fasting circulating insulin levels before and after an oral glucose tolerance test and by HOMA-IR. RESULTS: The COBLL1 rs7607980 C allele was associated with lower fasting insulin and HOMA-IR levels (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.035, respectively) in overweight and obese children. Importantly, lower insulin levels were also observed 2 h after oral glucose tolerance test in C allele carriers (p?=?0.009). CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows for the first time, the association between COBLL1 rs7607980 C allele, lower serum insulin levels and lower insulin resistance in overweight and obese children.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Weight gain is associated with deterioration in metabolic health, whereas weight loss improves insulin sensitivity. This study assesses the impact of long-term, successfully maintained weight loss and weight-loss relapse on measures of insulin sensitivity and identifies factors that explain variability in insulin sensitivity.<h4>Methods</h4>Women (20-45 years) were recruited into four groups: reduced-overweight/obese (RED, n=15); body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (stable low-weight, n=19), BMI?27?kg?m<sup>-2</sup>; relapsed-overweight/obese subjects (REL, n=11); and BMI-matched controls (obese stable weight, n=11), BMI?27?kg?m<sup>-2</sup>. A 75?g oral glucose tolerance test determined fasting and 2?h plasma glucose and insulin. Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI<sub>(0,120)</sub>) assessed insulin sensitivity. Anthropometric measurements, fasting resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured. Questionnaires and dietary intake were recorded, and physical activity was measured using accelerometers.<h4>Results</h4>RED were more insulin sensitive, characterised by lower fasting (P=0.001) and 2?h insulin (P=0.003) levels compared with all other groups. There were no significant differences in dietary intake, sedentary, light and moderate activity, RMR or RQ in the RED compared with the other three groups. % Body weight (BW) lost (P<0.001), % BW regained (P<0.05), body fat %, light activity (P<0.05, only log HOMA), vigorous activity (P<0.05) and RQ (P<0.01) predicted 61.4% and 59.7% of variability in log HOMA and log ISI<sub>(0,120)</sub>, respectively, in multiple linear regression models.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study showed sustained enhanced insulin sensitivity in successful weight loss maintainers compared with BMI-matched controls with no weight loss history. Weight-loss-relapsed individuals were indistinguishable from controls. Weight loss itself was the strongest predictor of improved insulin sensitivity, whereas weight regain significantly predicted reduced insulin sensitivity. Weight-loss maintenance programs are essential to retaining metabolic benefits acquired through weight loss. Being physically active, reducing sedentary behaviour and, in particular, including small amounts of vigorous physical activity significantly predicted improved insulin sensitivity.
Project description:Studies using surrogate estimates show high prevalence of insulin resistance in hepatitis C infection. This study prospectively evaluated the correlation between surrogate and directly measured estimates of insulin resistance and the impact of obesity and ethnicity on this relationship. Eighty-six nondiabetic, noncirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus (age = 48 +/- 7 years, 74% male, 44% white, 22% African American, 26% Latino, 70% genotype 1) were categorized into normal-weight (body mass index [BMI] < 25, n = 30), overweight (BMI = 25-29.9, n = 38), and obese (BMI > or = 30, n = 18). Insulin-mediated glucose uptake was measured by steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during a 240-minute insulin suppression test. Surrogate estimates included: fasting glucose and insulin, glucose/insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), insulin (I-AUC) and glucose (G-AUC) area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test, and the Belfiore and Stumvoll indexes. All surrogate estimates correlated with SSPG, but the magnitude of correlation varied (r = 0.30-0.64). The correlation coefficients were highest in the obese. I-AUC had the highest correlation among all ethnic and weight groups (r = 0.57-0.77). HOMA-IR accounted for only 15% of variability in SSPG in the normal weight group. The common HOMA-IR cutoff of < or =3 to define insulin resistance had high misclassification rates especially in the overweight group independent of ethnicity. HOMA-IR > 4 had the lowest misclassification rate (75% sensitivity, 88% specificity). Repeat HOMA-IR measurements had higher within-person variation in the obese (standard deviation = 0.77 higher than normal-weight, 95% confidence interval = 0.25-1.30, P = 0.005).Because of limitations of surrogate estimates, caution should be used in interpreting data evaluating insulin resistance especially in nonobese, nondiabetic patients with HCV.
Project description:Irisin is a recently identified myokine that plays an important role in preventing obesity and insulin resistance. We investigated whether the common FNDC5 (irisin precursor) gene variants influence susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and verified the impact of FNDC5 gene variants on serum irisin levels, glucose and lipid metabolism in a Saudi population.Genomic DNA from 814 (394 T2DM and 414 controls) subjects were genotyped for the five common SNPs (rs3480A/G, rs1746661G/T, rs1298190A/G, rs726344A/G and rs1570569G/T) of the FNDC5 gene using the TaqMan genotyping assay. Biochemical parameters and hematic concentrations of irisin and insulin as well as anthropometric indices were collected.Serum irisin levels were higher in T2DM patients compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Analyses of FNDC5 SNPs showed that: 1) The rs3480 GG associates with decreased risk of obesity (p = 0.005; odds ratio: 0.48) and lower body mass index (BMI) values (p = 0.03). In addition, GGAAG was identified as the protective haplotype against risk of obesity (p = 0.001; odds ratio: 0.23). 2) The rs1746661 G allele associates with higher triglyceride (TG) levels (p = 0.019). 3) The rs157069 TT genotype associates with higher fasting insulin (p = 0.029) and HOMA-IR (p = 0.002) as well as with lower circulating irisin levels (p = 0.016).SNPs in FNDC5 gene correlates with obesity and glucose-lipid metabolism possibly because they modulate the serum levels of irisin.
Project description:Nesfatin-1, a recently discovered anorexigenic neuropeptide, seems to play an important role in hypothalamic pathways regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of serum nesfatin-1 level with metabolic and anthropometric parameters in children and adolescents.This study prospectively included 78 Korean children and adolescents (42?obese/overweight group and 36 healthy control group). Fasting serum nesfatin-1 was quantitatively assayed by ELISA. Lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured as metabolic parameters.Serum nesfatin-1 levels were significantly lower in obese/overweight group than in control group (median 1.4 vs 2.0?ng/mL; P?=?.003). Pubertal subjects have the lower serum nesfatin-1 level than pre-pubertal subjects (median 1.5 vs 2.6?ng/mL; P?=?.02). Nesfatin-1 levels negatively correlated with chronological age (r?=?-0.37; P?=?.001), BMI (r?=?-0.33; P?=?.003), and BMI SDS (r?=?-0.26; P?=?.02).In conclusion, our results suggest that serum nesfatin-1 negatively correlated with BMI in children and adolescents. It suggests that nesfatin-1 might have an important role in regulation of food intake in obese children and adolescents.
Project description:Irisin might play an important role in reducing the risk of obesity, insulin resistance, or several related diseases, and high irisin levels may contribute to successful aging. Thus, the irisin precursor (FNDC5) gene is a candidate to influence exceptional longevity (EL), i.e., being a centenarian. It has been recently shown that two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FNDC5 gene, rs16835198 and rs726344, are associated with in vivo insulin sensitivity in adults. We determined luciferase gene reporter activity in the two above-mentioned SNPs and studied genotype distributions among centenarians (n?=?175, 144 women) and healthy controls (n?=?347, 142 women) from Spain. We also studied an Italian [79 healthy centenarians (40 women) and 316 healthy controls (156 women)] and a Japanese cohort [742 centenarians (623 women) and 499 healthy controls (356 women)]. The rs726344 SNP had functional significance, as shown by differences in luciferase activity between the constructs of this SNP (all P???0.05), with the variant A-allele having higher luciferase activity compared with the G-allele (P?=?0.04). For the rs16835198 SNP, the variant T-allele tended to show higher luciferase activity compared with the G-allele (P?=?0.07). However, we found no differences between genotype/allele frequencies of the two SNPs in centenarians versus controls in any cohort, and no significant association (using logistic regression adjusted by sex) between the two SNPs and EL. Further research is needed with different cohorts as well as with additional variants in the FNDC5 gene or in other genes involved in irisin signaling.
Project description:A common variant rs236918 in the PCSK7 gene has the strongest association with iron homeostasis and is related to insulin resistance. Dietary carbohydrate (CHO) modulates the genetic effect on insulin resistance. We examined whether 2-year weight-loss diets modify the effect of PCSK7 genetic variants on changes in fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance in a randomized, controlled trial.Data were analyzed in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial, which is a randomized, controlled 2-year weight-loss trial using diets that differed in macronutrient proportions. PCSK7 rs236918 was genotyped in 730 overweight or obese adults (80% whites) in this trial. We assessed the progression in fasting insulin and glucose levels, and insulin resistance by genotypes.During the 6-month weight-loss phase, the PCSK7 rs236918 G allele was significantly associated with greater decreases in fasting insulin levels in the high-dietary CHO group (P for interaction = 0.04), while the interaction for changes in HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P for interaction = 0.06) did not reach significant levels in white subjects. The G allele was significantly associated with a greater decrease in fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR in response to high dietary CHO levels (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). From 6 months to 2 years (weight-regain phase), the interactions became attenuated due to the regaining of weight (P for interactions = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively). In addition, we observed similar and even stronger results in the whole-study samples from the trial.Our data suggest that PCSK7 genotypes may interact with dietary CHO intake on changes in insulin sensitivity in the white Americans.
Project description:Obesity increases the risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in both adults and children. FABP4 is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family that is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and plays an important role in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to measure FABP4 plasma levels, assess FABP4 allelic variants, and explore potential associations with fasting glucose and insulin levels in young school-age children with and without obesity.A total of 309 consecutive children ages 5-7 years were recruited. Children were divided based on BMI z score into Obese (OB; BMI z score >1.65) and non-obese (NOB). Fasting plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, hsCRP, and FABP4 levels were measured. HOMA was used as correlate of insulin sensitivity. Four SNPs of the human FABP4 gene (rs1051231, rs2303519, rs16909233 and rs1054135), corresponding to several critical regions of the encoding FABP4 gene sequence were genotyped.Compared to NOB, circulating FABP4 levels were increased in OB, as were LDL, hsCRP and HOMA. FABP4 levels correlated with BMI, and also contributed to the variance of HOMA and hsCRP, but not serum lipids. The frequency of rs1054135 allelic variant was increased in OB, and was associated with increased FABP4 levels, while the presence of rs16909233 variant allele, although similar in OB and NOB, was associated with increased HOMA values.Childhood obesity is associated with higher FABP4 levels that may promote cardiometabolic risk. The presence of selective SNPs in the FABP4 gene may account for increased risk for insulin resistance or systemic inflammation in the context of obesity.
Project description:Objective. To identify the frequency of obesity and metabolic complications in child and adolescent users of risperidone. Potential associations with clinical parameters and SNPs of the HTR2C, DRD2, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, and CYP2D6 genes were analyzed. Methods. Samples from 120 risperidone users (8-20 years old) were collected and SNPs were analyzed, alongside assessment of chronological and bone ages, prescribed and weight-adjusted doses, use of other psychotropic drugs, waist circumference, BMI z-scores, blood pressure, HOMA-IR index, fasting levels of serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, transaminases, and leptin. Results. Thirty-two (26.7%) patients were overweight and 5 (4.2%) obese. Hypertension was recorded in 8 patients (6.7%), metabolic syndrome in 6 (5%), and increased waist circumference in 20 (16.7%). The HOMA-IR was high for 22 patients (18.3%), while total cholesterol and triglycerides were high in 20 (16.7%) and 41 (34.2%) patients, respectively. SNP associations were found for LEP, HTR2C, and CYP2D6 with BMI; CYP2D6 with blood pressure, ALT, and HOMA-IR; HTR2C and LEPR with leptin levels; MC4R and DRD2 with HOMA-IR; HTR2C with WC; and LEP with ALT. Conclusions. Although not higher than in the general pediatric population, a high frequency of patients was overweight/obese, with abnormalities in metabolic parameters and some pharmacogenetic associations.