Chemically defined diet alters the protective properties of fructo-oligosaccharides and isomalto-oligosaccharides in HLA-B27 transgenic rats.
ABSTRACT: Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) were shown to reduce inflammation in experimental colitis, but it remains unclear whether microbiota changes mediate their colitis-modulating effects. This study assessed intestinal microbiota and intestinal inflammation after feeding chemically defined AIN-76A or rat chow diets, with or without supplementation with 8 g/kg body weight of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO). The study used HLA-B27 transgenic rats, a validated model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in a factorial design with 6 treatment groups. Intestinal inflammation and intestinal microbiota were analysed after 12 weeks of treatment. FOS and IMO reduced colitis in animals fed rat chow, but exhibited no anti-inflammatory effect when added to AIN-76A diets. Both NDO induced specific but divergent microbiota changes. Bifidobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were stimulated by FOS, whereas copy numbers of Clostridium cluster IV were decreased. In addition, higher concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were observed in cecal contents of rats on rat chow compared to the chemically defined diet. AIN-76A increased the relative proportions of propionate, iso-butyrate, valerate and iso-valerate irrespective of the oligosaccharide treatment. The SCFA composition, particularly the relative concentration of iso-butyrate, valerate and iso-valerate, was associated (P ? 0.004 and r ? 0.4) with increased colitis and IL-1 ? concentration of the cecal mucosa. This study demonstrated that the protective effects of fibres on colitis development depend on the diet. Although diets modified specific cecal microbiota, our study indicates that these changes were not associated with colitis reduction. Intestinal inflammation was positively correlated to protein fermentation and negatively correlated with carbohydrate fermentation in the large intestine.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Isomaltosyloligosaccharides (IMO) and dextran (Dex) are hardly digestible in the small intestine and thus influence the luminal environment and affect the maintenance of health. There is wide variation in the degree of polymerization (DP) in Dex and IMO (short-sized IMO, S-IMO; long-sized IMO, L-IMO), and the physiological influence of these compounds may be dependent on their DP.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Five-week-old male Wistar rats were given a semi-purified diet with or without 30 g/kg diet of the S-IMO (DP?=?3.3), L-IMO (DP?=?8.4), or Dex (DP?=?1230) for two weeks. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was administered to the rats for one week to induce experimental colitis. We evaluated the clinical symptoms during the DSS treatment period by scoring the body weight loss, stool consistency, and rectal bleeding. The development of colitis induced by DSS was delayed in the rats fed S-IMO and Dex diets. The DSS treatment promoted an accumulation of neutrophils in the colonic mucosa in the rats fed the control, S-IMO, and L-IMO diets, as assessed by a measurement of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In contrast, no increase in MPO activity was observed in the Dex-diet-fed rats even with DSS treatment. Immune cell populations in peripheral blood were also modified by the DP of ingested saccharides. Dietary S-IMO increased the concentration of n-butyric acid in the cecal contents and the levels of glucagon-like peptide-2 in the colonic mucosa.<h4>Conclusion/significance</h4>Our study provided evidence that the physiological effects of ?-glucosaccharides on colitis depend on their DP, linkage type, and digestibility.
Project description:Previous studies examining the metabolic consequences of dietary iron deficiency have reported elevated serum glucose concentrations in iron-deficient animals. Importantly, the majority of these findings were observed using an earlier version of a laboratory animal diet (AIN-76A) in which the primary carbohydrate source was sucrose - a disaccharide known to negatively impact both glucose and lipid homeostasis. The AIN-76A diet formula was improved in 1993 (AIN-93) to optimize animal nutrition with a major change being the substitution of cornstarch for sucrose. Therefore, we sought to examine the effects of iron deficiency on steady-state glucose homeostasis and the hepatic expression of glucose- and lipid-related genes in rats fed an iron-deficient diet based on either an AIN-76A or AIN-93 diet.The study design consisted of 6 treatment groups: control (C; 40 mg Fe/kg diet), iron deficient (ID; ? 3 mg Fe/kg diet), or pair-fed (PF; 40 mg Fe/kg) fed either an AIN-76A or AIN-93 diet for 21 d. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured in whole blood. Serum insulin and cortisol were measure by ELISA. Serum glucose and triacylglycerols were measured by standard colorimetric enzyme assays. Alterations in hepatic gene expression were determined by real-time qPCR.Hemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly reduced in both ID groups compared to the C and PF groups. Similarly, animals in the both ID groups exhibited elevated steady-state levels of blood glucose and insulin, and significantly decreased levels of circulating cortisol compared to their respective PF controls. Serum triacyglycerols were only increased in ID animals consuming the AIN-76A diet. Hepatic gene expression analyses revealed a ~4- and 3-fold increase in the expression of glucokinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 mRNA, respectively, in the ID group on either diet compared to their respective PF counterparts. In contrast, the expression of lipogenic genes was significantly elevated in the AIN-76 ID group, while expression of these genes was unaffected by iron status in the AIN-93 ID group.These results indicate that an impaired iron status is sufficient to alter glucose homeostasis, though alterations in lipid metabolism associated with ID are only observed in animals receiving the AIN-76A diet.
Project description:A plethora of evidence highlights that the dysbiosis of gut microbiota is a critical factor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that quinoa possesses potential prebiotic effects. The present study aims to examine the potential in using quinoa to ameliorate the dysbiosis and colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). A total of 40 C57BL/6 mice were fed either an AIN-93M diet or a quinoa-based diet, separately. Colitis was induced for 10 animals/dietary group with a 5-days exposure to 2.5% DSS. The clinical symptoms were monitored every other day, and the gut microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results indicated that consumption of quinoa lessened clinical symptoms as indicated by the reduced disease activity index and the degree of histological damage (P?<?0.05). As expected, the DSS treatment induced significant dysbiosis of gut microbiota in mice on an AIN-93M diet. However, compared to mice fed the AIN-93M diet, the consumption of quinoa alleviated the DSS-induced dysbiosis remarkably, as indicated by increased species richness and diversity, decreased abnormal expansion of phylum Proteobacteria, and decreased overgrowth of genera Escherichia/Shigella and Peptoclostridium (P?<?0.05). The relative abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were less altered in mice fed with quinoa comparing to those mice fed the AIN-93M diet. In summary, the consumption of quinoa suppressed the dysbiosis of gut microbiota and alleviated clinical symptoms induced by DSS, indicating the potential to utilize quinoa as a dietary approach to improve intestinal health.
Project description:Emerging evidence highlights the role of gut microbiota in regulating the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease. Here, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based metabolomics to investigate the gut microbiome and metabolomes of cecal contents in the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) rats. As expected, considerable gut microbiota alterations were observed in the AMI rats compared with the control rats, paralleling with intestinal inflammation and apoptosis. At phylum level, the abundance of Firmicutes was significantly decreased, whereas the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Spirochaetae was strikingly enriched in the AMI group. At genus level, the significant alteration of genera Treponema 2, Rikenellaceae RC9 gut group, Prevotellaceae UCG-003, and Bacteroides may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMI. These altered microbiota might influence the intestinal permeability and subsequently impair intestinal barrier and stimulate gut inflammation. Consistently, significantly metabolic differences of cecal contents between the AMI and control groups were revealed, and threonic acid, L-urobilin and L-urobilinogen were considered the most associated cecal metabolites with AMI. These strikingly altered metabolites were mainly related to energy metabolism and oxidative stress which could lead to apoptosis and further affect gut barrier. Ultimately, we revealed the potential link of these altered gut microbiota/metabolomes and intestinal inflammatory factors and apoptotic proteins and further confirmed their intimate connections with intestinal inflammation and gut barrier. Our findings depict uncovered potential relationship among the gut microbiome, cecal metabolomes and AMI.
Project description:Isoflavones, presenting in leguminous plants and the normal chow diet, are known to alter intestinal microbiota, yet their deficiency has not been widely studied for its effect on constipation in biochemical state of rats. Our previous study discovered the differences in pharmacokinetic traits of isoflavones from Semen sojae praeparatum fed with normal chow diet (ISO) and non-isoflavones diet (NISO). To gain insight into the key role of intestinal microbiota in constipation and metabolic differences caused by isoflavones deficiency, we observed a significant decrease in fecal pellet numbers, fecal water content, intestinal transit rate together with the serum concentrations of substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in NISO group, compared with those in the ISO group. Following 16S rRNA compositional sequencing, results excluded the changes in intestinal microbiota over time and highlighted that a total of 5 phyla and 21 genera changed significantly, among which Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Blautia, Prevotella, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were closely related to constipation. In addition, Lactobacillus, produceing ?-glucosidase which contribute to biotransform glycosides into aglycons and exert the bioactivities consequently, was decreased after non-isoflavones diet intake. Meanwhile, predicted metagenomics indicated that the pathway of glycan biosynthesis and metabolism was markedly down-regulated after non-isoflavones diet intake. Taken together, the findings suggested that the changes in the dietary components could alter the biochemical state of rats, which may be triggered by the abnormal modifications facilitated by ?-glucosidase-producing bacteria. Our study shed a new strategy to explore the relationship among disease phenotypes (D), intestinal microbiota (I), enzymes (E) and traits of metabolism (T) named as "DIET," which can provide a reference for further study of the mechanism in regulation of intestinal bacteria-mediated diet on diseases.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Rifaximin has clinical benefits in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) but the mechanism of action is unclear. The antibiotic-dependent and -independent effects of rifaximin need to be elucidated in the setting of MHE-associated microbiota. To assess the action of rifaximin on intestinal barrier, inflammatory milieu and ammonia generation independent of microbiota using rifaximin.<h4>Methods</h4>Four germ-free (GF) mice groups were used (1) GF, (2) GF+rifaximin, (3) Humanized with stools from an MHE patient, and (4) Humanized+rifaximin. Mice were followed for 30 days while rifaximin was administered in chow at 100?mg/kg from days 16-30. We tested for ammonia generation (small-intestinal glutaminase, serum ammonia, and cecal glutamine/amino-acid moieties), systemic inflammation (serum IL-1?, IL-6), intestinal barrier (FITC-dextran, large-/small-intestinal expression of IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1, e-cadherin and zonulin) along with microbiota composition (colonic and fecal multi-tagged sequencing) and function (endotoxemia, fecal bile acid deconjugation and de-hydroxylation).<h4>Results</h4>All mice survived until day 30. In the GF setting, rifaximin decreased intestinal ammonia generation (lower serum ammonia, increased small-intestinal glutaminase, and cecal glutamine content) without changing inflammation or intestinal barrier function. Humanized microbiota increased systemic/intestinal inflammation and endotoxemia without hyperammonemia. Rifaximin therapy significantly ameliorated these inflammatory cytokines. Rifaximin also favorably impacted microbiota function (reduced endotoxin and decreased deconjugation and formation of potentially toxic secondary bile acids), but not microbial composition in humanized mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Rifaximin beneficially alters intestinal ammonia generation by regulating intestinal glutaminase expression independent of gut microbiota. MHE-associated fecal colonization results in intestinal and systemic inflammation in GF mice, which is also ameliorated with rifaximin.
Project description:A Western diet comprising high fat, high carbohydrate, and low fiber content has been suggested to contribute to an increased prevalence of colitis. To clarify the effect of dietary cellulose (an insoluble fiber) on gut homeostasis, for 3 months mice were fed a high-cellulose diet (HCD) or a low-cellulose diet (LCD) based on the AIN-93G formulation. Histologic evaluation showed crypt atrophy and goblet cell depletion in the colons of LCD-fed mice. RNA-sequencing analysis showed a higher expression of genes associated with immune system processes, especially those of chemokines and their receptors, in the colon tissues of LCD-fed mice than in those of HCD-fed mice. The HCD was protective against dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice, while LCD exacerbated gut inflammation; however, the depletion of gut microbiota by antibiotic treatment diminished both beneficial and non-beneficial effects of the HCD and LCD on colitis, respectively. A comparative analysis of the cecal contents of mice fed the HCD or the LCD showed that the LCD did not influence the diversity of gut microbiota, but it resulted in a higher and lower abundance of Oscillibacter and Akkermansia organisms, respectively. Additionally, linoleic acid, nicotinate, and nicotinamide pathways were most affected by cellulose intake, while the levels of short-chain fatty acids were comparable in HCD- and LCD-fed mice. Finally, oral administration of Akkermansia muciniphila to LCD-fed mice elevated crypt length, increased goblet cells, and ameliorated colitis. These results suggest that dietary cellulose plays a beneficial role in maintaining gut homeostasis through the alteration of gut microbiota and metabolites.
Project description:Foods naturally high in dietary fiber are generally considered to protect against development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the intrinsic effect of dietary fiber on intestinal carcinogenesis is unclear. We used azoxymethane (AOM) treated A/J Min/+ mice, which developed a significantly higher tumor load in the colon than in the small intestine, to compare the effects of dietary inulin (IN), cellulose (CE) or brewers spent grain (BSG) on intestinal tumorigenesis and cecal microbiota. Each fiber was tested at two dose levels, 5% and 15% (w/w) content of the AIN-93M diet. The microbiota was investigated by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (V4). We found that mice fed IN had approximately 50% lower colonic tumor load than mice fed CE or BSG (p<0.001). Surprisingly, all three types of fiber caused a dose dependent increase of colonic tumor load (p<0.001). The small intestinal tumor load was not affected by the dietary fiber interventions. Mice fed IN had a lower bacterial diversity than mice fed CE or BSG. The Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly (p = 0.003) different between the three fiber diets with a higher mean value in IN fed mice compared with BSG and CE. We also found a relation between microbiota and the colonic tumor load, where many of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) related to low tumor load were significantly enriched in mice fed IN. Among the OTUs related to low tumor load were bacteria affiliated with the Bacteroides genus. These results suggest that type of dietary fiber may play a role in the development of CRC, and that the suppressive effect of IN on colonic tumorigenesis is associated with profound changes in the cecal microbiota profile.
Project description:Antibiotic-induced changes in the intestinal microbiota predispose mammalian hosts to infection with antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive intestinal pathogen that causes colitis and diarrhea in patients following antibiotic treatment. Clindamycin predisposes patients to C. difficile colitis. Here, we have used Roche-454 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to longitudinally characterize the intestinal microbiota of mice following clindamycin treatment in the presence or absence of C. difficile infection. We show that a single dose of clindamycin markedly reduces the diversity of the intestinal microbiota for at least 28 days, with an enduring loss of ca. 90% of normal microbial taxa from the cecum. Loss of microbial complexity results in dramatic sequential expansion and contraction of a subset of bacterial taxa that are minor contributors to the microbial consortium prior to antibiotic treatment. Inoculation of clindamycin-treated mice with C. difficile (VPI 10463) spores results in rapid development of diarrhea and colitis, with a 4- to 5-day period of profound weight loss and an associated 40 to 50% mortality rate. Recovering mice resolve diarrhea and regain weight but remain highly infected with toxin-producing vegetative C. difficile bacteria and, in comparison to the acute stage of infection, have persistent, albeit ameliorated cecal and colonic inflammation. The microbiota of "recovered" mice remains highly restricted, and mice remain susceptible to C. difficile infection at least 10 days following clindamycin, suggesting that resolution of diarrhea and weight gain may result from the activation of mucosal immune defenses.
Project description:Intestinal health requires the coexistence of eukaryotic self with the gut microbiota and dysregulated host-microbial interactions can result in intestinal inflammation. Here, we show that colitis improved in T-bet(-/-)Rag2(-/-) mice that consumed a fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DN-173 010 strain. A decrease in cecal pH and alterations in short chain fatty acid profiles occurred with consumption, and there were concomitant increases in the abundance of select lactate-consuming and butyrate-producing bacteria. These metabolic shifts created a nonpermissive environment for the Enterobacteriaceae recently identified as colitogenic in a T-bet(-/-)Rag2(-/-) ulcerative colitis mouse model. In addition, 16S rRNA-based analysis of the T-bet(-/-)Rag2(-/-) fecal microbiota suggest that the structure of the endogenous gut microbiota played a key role in shaping the host response to the bacterial strains studied herein. We have identified features of the gut microbiota, at the membership and functional level, associated with response to this B. lactis-containing fermented milk product, and therefore this model provides a framework for evaluating and optimizing probiotic-based functional foods.