A developmental cell-type switch in cortical interneurons leads to a selective defect in cortical oscillations.
ABSTRACT: The cellular diversity of interneurons in the neocortex is thought to reflect subtype-specific roles of cortical inhibition. Here we ask whether perturbations to two subtypes--parvalbumin-positive (PV+) and somatostatin-positive (SST+) interneurons--can be compensated for with respect to their contributions to cortical development. We use a genetic cell fate switch to delete both PV+ and SST+ interneurons selectively in cortical layers 2-4 without numerically changing the total interneuron population. This manipulation is compensated for at the level of synaptic currents and receptive fields (RFs) in the somatosensory cortex. By contrast, we identify a deficit in inhibitory synchronization in vitro and a large reduction in cortical gamma oscillations in vivo. This reveals that, while the roles of inhibition in establishing cortical inhibitory/excitatory balance and RFs can be subserved by multiple interneuron subtypes, gamma oscillations depend on cellular properties that cannot be compensated for--likely, the fast signalling properties of PV+ interneurons.
Project description:Accumulation of amyloid ? oligomers (A?O) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) impairs hippocampal theta and gamma oscillations. These oscillations are important in memory functions and depend on distinct subtypes of hippocampal interneurons such as somatostatin-positive (SST) and parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons. Here, we investigated whether A?O causes dysfunctions in SST and PV interneurons by optogenetically manipulating them during theta and gamma oscillations in vivo in A?O-injected SST-Cre or PV-Cre mice. Hippocampal in vivo multi-electrode recordings revealed that optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-expressing SST and PV interneurons in A?O-injected mice selectively restored A?O-induced reduction of the peak power of theta and gamma oscillations, respectively, and resynchronized CA1 pyramidal cell (PC) spikes. Moreover, SST and PV interneuron spike phases were resynchronized relative to theta and gamma oscillations, respectively. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in CA1 PC in ex vivo hippocampal slices from A?O-injected mice revealed that optogenetic activation of SST and PV interneurons enhanced spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) selectively at theta and gamma frequencies, respectively. Furthermore, analyses of the stimulus-response curve, paired-pulse ratio, and short-term plasticity of SST and PV interneuron-evoked IPSCs ex vivo showed that A?O increased the initial GABA release probability to depress SST/PV interneuron's inhibitory input to CA1 PC selectively at theta and gamma frequencies, respectively. Our results reveal frequency-specific and interneuron subtype-specific presynaptic dysfunctions of SST and PV interneurons' input to CA1 PC as the synaptic mechanisms underlying A?O-induced impairments of hippocampal network oscillations and identify them as potential therapeutic targets for restoring hippocampal network oscillations in early AD.
Project description:Recent studies indicate that the location of neurogenesis within the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) critically influences the fate determination of cortical interneuron subgroups, with parvalbumin (Pv) interneurons originating from subventricular zone divisions and somatostatin (Sst) interneurons primarily arising from apical divisions. The aPKC-CBP and Notch signaling pathways regulate the transition from apical to basal progenitor and their differentiation into post-mitotic neurons. We find that aPKC inhibition enhances intermediate neurogenesis from stem cell-derived MGE progenitors, resulting in a markedly increased ratio of Pv- to Sst-expressing interneurons. Conversely, inhibition of Notch signaling enriches for Sst subtypes at the expense of Pv fates. These findings confirm that the mode of neurogenesis influences the fate of MGE-derived interneurons and provide a means of further enrichment for the generation of specific interneuron subgroups from pluripotent stem cells.
Project description:GABAergic interneurons have many important functions in cortical circuitry, a reflection of their cell diversity. The developmental origins of this diversity are poorly understood. Here, we identify rostral-caudal regionality in Wnt exposure within the interneuron progenitor zone delineating the specification of the two main interneuron subclasses. Caudally situated medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) progenitors receive high levels of Wnt signaling and give rise to somatostatin (SST)-expressing cortical interneurons. By contrast, parvalbumin (PV)-expressing basket cells originate mostly from the rostral MGE, where Wnt signaling is attenuated. Interestingly, rather than canonical signaling through ?-catenin, signaling via the non-canonical Wnt receptor Ryk regulates interneuron cell-fate specification in vivo and in vitro. Indeed, gain of function of Ryk intracellular domain signaling regulates SST and PV fate in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that Ryk signaling acts in a graded fashion. These data reveal an important role for non-canonical Wnt-Ryk signaling in establishing the correct ratios of cortical interneuron subtypes.
Project description:Immature neurons generated by the subpallial MGE tangentially migrate to the cortex where they become parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) and somatostatin (SST+) interneurons. Here, we show that the Sp9 transcription factor controls the development of MGE-derived cortical interneurons. SP9 is expressed in the MGE subventricular zone and in MGE-derived migrating interneurons. Sp9 null and conditional mutant mice have approximately 50% reduction of MGE-derived cortical interneurons, an ectopic aggregation of MGE-derived neurons in the embryonic ventral telencephalon, and an increased ratio of SST+/PV+ cortical interneurons. RNA-Seq and SP9 ChIP-Seq reveal that SP9 regulates MGE-derived cortical interneuron development through controlling the expression of key transcription factors Arx, Lhx6, Lhx8, Nkx2-1, and Zeb2 involved in interneuron development, as well as genes implicated in regulating interneuron migration Ackr3, Epha3, and St18. Thus, Sp9 has a central transcriptional role in MGE-derived cortical interneuron development.
Project description:Development of cortical interneurons continues until the end of human pregnancy. Premature birth deprives the newborns from the supply of maternal estrogen and a secure intrauterine environment. Indeed, preterm infants suffer from neurobehavioral disorders. This can result from both preterm birth and associated postnatal complications, which might disrupt recruitment and maturation of cortical interneurons. We hypothesized that interneuron subtypes, including parvalbumin-positive (PV+), somatostatin-positive (SST+), calretinin-positive (CalR+), and neuropeptide Y-positive (NPY+) interneurons, were recruited in the upper and lower cortical layers in a distinct manner with advancing gestational age. In addition, preterm birth would disrupt the heterogeneity of cortical interneurons, which might be reversed by estrogen treatment. These hypotheses were tested by analyzing autopsy samples from premature infants and evaluating the effect of estrogen supplementation in prematurely delivered rabbits. The PV+ and CalR+ neurons were abundant, whereas SST+ and NPY+ neurons were few in cortical layers of preterm human infants. Premature birth of infants reduced the density of PV+ or GAD67+ neurons and increased SST+ interneurons in the upper cortical layers. Importantly, 17 ?-estradiol treatment in preterm rabbits increased the number of PV+ neurons in the upper cortical layers relative to controls at postnatal day 14 (P14) and P21 and transiently reduced SST population at P14. Moreover, protein and mRNA levels of Arx, a key regulator of cortical interneuron maturation and migration, were higher in estrogen-treated rabbits relative to controls. Therefore, deficits in PV+ and excess of SST+ neurons in premature newborns are ameliorated by estrogen replacement, which can be attributed to elevated Arx levels. Estrogen replacement might enhance neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely preterm infants.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Premature birth often leads to neurodevelopmental delays and behavioral disorders, which may be ascribed to disturbances in the development and maturation of cortical interneurons. Here, we show that preterm birth in humans is associated with reduced population of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) neurons and an excess of somatostatin-expressing interneurons in the cerebral cortex. More importantly, 17 ?-estradiol treatment increased the number of PV+ neurons in preterm-born rabbits, which appears to be mediated by an elevation in the expression of Arx transcription factor. Hence the present study highlights prematurity-induced reduction in PV+ neurons in human infants and reversal in their population by estrogen replacement in preterm rabbits. Because preterm birth drops plasma estrogen level 100-fold, estrogen replacement in extremely preterm infants might improve their developmental outcome and minimize neurobehavioral disorders.
Project description:Inhibitory interneurons in the cerebral cortex contain specific proteins or peptides characteristic for a certain interneuron subtype. In mice, three biochemical markers constitute non-overlapping interneuron populations, which account for 80-90% of all inhibitory cells. These interneurons express parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SST), or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). SST is not only a marker of a specific interneuron subtype, but also an important neuropeptide that participates in numerous biochemical and signalling pathways in the brain via somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-5). In the nervous system, SST acts as a neuromodulator and neurotransmitter affecting, among others, memory, learning, and mood. In the sensory cortex, the co-localisation of GABA and SST is found in approximately 30% of interneurons. Considering the importance of interactions between inhibitory interneurons in cortical plasticity and the possible GABA and SST co-release, it seems important to investigate the localisation of different SSTRs on cortical interneurons. Here, we examined the distribution of SSTR1-5 on barrel cortex interneurons containing PV, SST, or VIP. Immunofluorescent staining using specific antibodies was performed on brain sections from transgenic mice that expressed red fluorescence in one specific interneuron subtype (PV-Ai14, SST-Ai14, and VIP-Ai14 mice). SSTRs expression on PV, SST, and VIP interneurons varied among the cortical layers and we found two patterns of SSTRs distribution in L4 of barrel cortex. We also demonstrated that, in contrast to other interneurons, PV cells did not express SSTR2, but expressed other SSTRs. SST interneurons, which were not found to make chemical synapses among themselves, expressed all five SSTR subtypes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Abnormal accumulation of amyloid ?1-42 oligomers (A?O1-42), a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, impairs hippocampal theta-nested gamma oscillations and long-term potentiation (LTP) that are believed to underlie learning and memory. Parvalbumin-positive (PV) and somatostatin-positive (SST) interneurons are critically involved in theta-nested gamma oscillogenesis and LTP induction. However, how A?O1-42 affects PV and SST interneuron circuits is unclear. Through optogenetic manipulation of PV and SST interneurons and computational modeling of the hippocampal neural circuits, we dissected the contributions of PV and SST interneuron circuit dysfunctions on A?O1-42-induced impairments of hippocampal theta-nested gamma oscillations and oscillation-induced LTP. RESULTS:Targeted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and optogenetic manipulations of PV and SST interneurons during in vivo-like, optogenetically induced theta-nested gamma oscillations in vitro revealed that A?O1-42 causes synapse-specific dysfunction in PV and SST interneurons. A?O1-42 selectively disrupted CA1 pyramidal cells (PC)-to-PV interneuron and PV-to-PC synapses to impair theta-nested gamma oscillogenesis. In contrast, while having no effect on PC-to-SST or SST-to-PC synapses, A?O1-42 selectively disrupted SST interneuron-mediated disinhibition to CA1 PC to impair theta-nested gamma oscillation-induced spike timing-dependent LTP (tLTP). Such A?O1-42-induced impairments of gamma oscillogenesis and oscillation-induced tLTP were fully restored by optogenetic activation of PV and SST interneurons, respectively, further supporting synapse-specific dysfunctions in PV and SST interneurons. Finally, computational modeling of hippocampal neural circuits including CA1 PC, PV, and SST interneurons confirmed the experimental observations and further revealed distinct functional roles of PV and SST interneurons in theta-nested gamma oscillations and tLTP induction. CONCLUSIONS:Our results reveal that A?O1-42 causes synapse-specific dysfunctions in PV and SST interneurons and that optogenetic modulations of these interneurons present potential therapeutic targets for restoring hippocampal network oscillations and synaptic plasticity impairments in Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:Distinct subtypes of inhibitory interneuron are known to shape diverse rhythmic activities in the cortex, but how they interact to orchestrate specific band activity remains largely unknown. By recording optogenetically tagged interneurons of specific subtypes in the primary visual cortex of behaving mice, we show that spiking of somatostatin (SOM)- and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons preferentially correlates with cortical beta and gamma band oscillations, respectively. Suppression of SOM cell spiking reduces the spontaneous low-frequency band (<30-Hz) oscillations and selectively reduces visually induced enhancement of beta oscillation. In comparison, suppressing PV cell activity elevates the synchronization of spontaneous activity across a broad frequency range and further precludes visually induced changes in beta and gamma oscillations. Rhythmic activation of SOM and PV cells in the local circuit entrains resonant activity in the narrow 5- to 30-Hz band and the wide 20- to 80-Hz band, respectively. Together, these findings reveal differential and cooperative roles of SOM and PV inhibitory neurons in orchestrating specific cortical oscillations.
Project description:Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived GABAergic cortical interneurons (cINs) consist of multiple subtypes that are involved in many cortical functions. They also have a remarkable capacity to migrate, survive and integrate into cortical circuitry after transplantation into postnatal cortex. These features have engendered considerable interest in generating distinct subgroups of interneurons from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) for the study of interneuron fate and function, and for the development of cell-based therapies. Although advances have been made, the capacity to generate highly enriched pools of subgroup fate-committed interneuron progenitors from PSCs has remained elusive. Previous studies have suggested that the two main MGE-derived interneuron subgroups--those expressing somatostatin (SST) and those expressing parvalbumin (PV)--are specified in the MGE from Nkx2.1-expressing progenitors at higher or lower levels of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, respectively. To further explore the role of Shh and other factors in cIN fate determination, we generated a reporter line such that Nkx2.1-expressing progenitors express mCherry and postmitotic Lhx6-expressing MGE-derived interneurons express GFP. Manipulations of Shh exposure and time in culture influenced the subgroup fates of ESC-derived interneurons. Exposure to higher Shh levels, and collecting GFP-expressing precursors at 12 days in culture, resulted in the strongest enrichment for SST interneurons over those expressing PV, whereas the strongest enrichment for PV interneurons was produced by lower Shh and by collecting mCherry-expressing cells after 17 days in culture. These findings confirm that fate determination of cIN subgroups is crucially influenced by Shh signaling, and provide a system for the further study of interneuron fate and function.
Project description:Inhibitory circuitry plays an integral role in cortical network activity. The development of transgenic mouse lines targeting unique interneuron classes has significantly advanced our understanding of the functional roles of specific inhibitory circuits in neocortical sensory processing. In contrast, considerably less is known about the circuitry and function of interneuron classes in piriform cortex, a paleocortex responsible for olfactory processing. In this study, we sought to utilize transgenic technology to investigate inhibition mediated by somatostatin (SST) interneurons onto pyramidal cells (PCs), parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, and other interneuron classes. As a first step, we characterized the anatomical distributions and intrinsic properties of SST and PV interneurons in four transgenic lines (SST-cre, GIN, PV-cre, and G42) that are commonly interbred to investigate inhibitory connectivity. Surprisingly, the distributions SST and PV cell subtypes targeted in the GIN and G42 lines were sparse in piriform cortex compared to neocortex. Moreover, two-thirds of interneurons recorded in the SST-cre line had electrophysiological properties similar to fast spiking (FS) interneurons rather than regular (RS) or low threshold spiking (LTS) phenotypes. Nonetheless, like neocortex, we find that SST-cells broadly inhibit a number of unidentified interneuron classes including putatively identified PV cells and surprisingly, other SST cells. We also confirm that SST-cells inhibit pyramidal cell dendrites and thus, influence dendritic integration of afferent and recurrent inputs to the piriform cortex. Altogether, our findings suggest that SST interneurons play an important role in regulating both excitation and the global inhibitory network during olfactory processing.