Estradiol regulates insulin signaling and inflammation in adipose tissue.
ABSTRACT: Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation at white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to metabolic defects. Sex steroid hormone estrogen may be protective against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance. This has been tested by many previous studies utilizing rodent models of ovariectomy (OVX) and/or treatment of estradiol (E2), the major biologically active form of estrogen. Body weight and adiposity are increased by OVX and reduced following E2 treatment, however. Thus, the protective roles of E2 may be secondary effects to the changes in body weight and adiposity. We hypothesize that E2 directly prevents inflammation and maintains insulin sensitivity in WAT independent of energy status using mice with similar body weights and adiposity.Four groups of female C57BL/6 mice were used, including sham-operated mice treated with vehicle for E2 and fed with either a low-fat diet (LFD; Sham-Veh-LFD) or a HFD (Sham-Veh-HFD), and HFD-fed OVX mice treated with either vehicle (OVX-Veh-HFD) or E2 (OVX-E2-HFD). Body weight and abdominal parametrial WAT mass, insulin signaling, and expression levels of genes related to low-grade inflammation in WAT were compared between these groups pair-fed with equal amounts of calories for a period of 4 days.Body weights and WAT mass were similar in all four groups. OVX-Veh-HFD mice had impaired insulin signaling associated with rapid activation of inflammation, whereas OVX-E2-HFD group maintained insulin sensitivity without showing inflammation in WAT.E2 directly contributed to the maintenance of insulin sensitivity during the early phase of development of metabolic dysfunction, possibly via preventing low-grade inflammation in WAT.
Project description:Consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, which contributes to key components of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic steatosis (HS). To determine the differential effects of exercise training (EX), low-fat diet (LFD), and their combination on WAT inflammation, Balb/cByJ male mice (n=34) were fed an HFD for 12 wks before they were randomized into one of four intervention groups: HFD-EX, LFD-EX, HFD-sedentary (SED), or LFD-SED. EX mice performed 12 wks of exercise training on a motorized treadmill (1h/d, 5d/wk, 12 m/min, 5% grade, approximately 65% VO(2) max), while SED mice remained sedentary in their home cages. WAT gene expression of adipokines was assessed using rt-PCR. IR was measured using HOMA-IR, and HS via hepatic triglyceride content. EX significantly reduced (53%) WAT gene expression of MCP-1, and LFD significantly reduced (50%) WAT gene expression of the macrophage specific marker, F4/80 as well as the adipocytokine IL-1 ra (25%). EX independently improved IR, while both EX and LFD improved HS. These findings suggest that both diet and exercise have unique beneficial effects on WAT inflammatory markers and the mechanism by which each treatment improves metabolic complications associated with chronic consumption of an HFD may be different.
Project description:Obesity-associated inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) is a causal factor of systemic insulin resistance; however, precisely how immune cells regulate WAT inflammation in relation to systemic insulin resistance remains to be elucidated. The present study examined a role for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) in hematopoietic cells in regulating WAT inflammation and systemic insulin sensitivity. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) for 12 weeks and examined for WAT inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (iPFK2) content, while additional HFD-fed mice were treated with rosiglitazone and examined for PFKFB3 mRNAs in WAT stromal vascular cells (SVC). Also, chimeric mice in which PFKFB3 was disrupted only in hematopoietic cells and control chimeric mice were also fed an HFD and examined for HFD-induced WAT inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. In vitro, adipocytes were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived macrophages and examined for adipocyte proinflammatory responses and insulin signaling. Compared with their respective levels in controls, WAT iPFK2 amount in HFD-fed mice and WAT SVC PFKFB3 mRNAs in rosiglitazone-treated mice were significantly increased. When the inflammatory responses were analyzed, peritoneal macrophages from PFKFB3-disrputed mice revealed increased proinflammatory activation and decreased anti-inflammatory activation compared with control macrophages. At the whole animal level, hematopoietic cell-specific PFKFB3 disruption enhanced the effects of HFD feeding on promoting WAT inflammation, impairing WAT insulin signaling, and increasing systemic insulin resistance. In vitro, adipocytes co-cultured with PFKFB3-disrupted macrophages revealed increased proinflammatory responses and decreased insulin signaling compared with adipocytes co-cultured with control macrophages. These results suggest that PFKFB3 disruption in hematopoietic cells only exacerbates HFD-induced WAT inflammation and systemic insulin resistance.
Project description:Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions has not been performed so far. Here, male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice, harboring an intact nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase gene, were fed a purified 40 energy% HFD for 14 weeks to induce obesity. Afterward, mice were divided into three dietary groups: HFD (maintained on HFD), LFD (changed to LFD with identical ingredients), and HFD-CR (restricted to 70 % of the HFD). The effects of the interventions were examined after 5 weeks. Beneficial effects were seen for both HFD-CR and LFD (compared to HFD) regarding physiological parameters (body weight and fat mass) and metabolic parameters, including circulating insulin and leptin levels. Macrophage infiltration in WAT was reduced by both interventions, although more effectively by HFD-CR. Strikingly, molecular parameters in WAT differed between HFD-CR and LFD, with increased activation of mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism in HFD-CR mice. Our results confirm that restriction of the amount of dietary intake and reduction in the dietary energy content are both effective in inducing weight loss. The larger decrease in WAT inflammation and increase in mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism may be due to a larger degree of energy restriction in HFD-CR, but could also be due to superior effectiveness of dietary restriction in weight loss strategies.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:In adult female rodents, ovarian estradiol (E2) regulates body weight, adiposity, energy balance, physical activity, glucose-insulin homeodynamics, and lipid metabolism, while protecting against diet-induced obesity. The same E2 actions are presumed to occur in primates, but confirmatory studies have been lacking. METHODS:We investigated the consequences of ovariectomy (OVX) and E2 replacement in female marmoset monkeys on major metabolic and morphometric endpoints. Sexual behavior and uterine diameters were assessed as positive controls for E2 treatment efficacy. Metabolic parameters were measured 1?mo prior to OVX, and 3 and 6?mo thereafter. During OVX, animals received empty or E2-containing silastic s.c. implants. To test the interaction between E2 and diet, both treatment groups were assigned to either a higher fat diet (HFD) or a low-fat diet (LFD). RESULTS:As anticipated, OVX animals exhibited diminished frequency (p?=?0.04) of sexually receptive behavior and increased rejection behavior (p?=?0.04) toward their male partners compared with E2-treated OVX females. OVX also decreased (p?=?0.01) uterine diameter. There were no treatment effects on total caloric intake. There were no significant effects of OVX, E2 treatment, or diet on body weight, body composition, energy expenditure, physical activity, fasting glucose, or glucose tolerance. Regardless of E2 treatment, serum triglycerides were higher (p?=?0.05) in HFD than LFD females. Postmortem qPCR analysis of hypothalamic tissues revealed higher mRNA expression (p?<?0.001) for PGR in E2-treated monkeys versus OVX controls regardless of diet, but no differences between groups in other selected metabolic genes. In contrast, regardless of E2 treatment, there was a decreased mRNA expression of PGC1? (PPARGC1A), HTR1A, and HTR5A in HFD compared with LFD females. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings, overall, document a greatly diminished role for ovarian E2 in the metabolic physiology of a female primate, and encourage consideration that primates, including humans, evolved metabolic control systems regulated by extra-ovarian E2 or are generally less subject to E2 regulation.
Project description:Loss of ovarian 17β-estradiol (E2) in postmenopause is associated with gut dysbiosis, inflammation, and increased risk of cardiometabolic disease and osteoporosis. The risk-benefit profile of hormone replacement therapy is not favorable in postmenopausal women therefore better treatment options are needed. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid extracted from hemp, has shown pharmacological activities suggesting it has therapeutic value for postmenopause, which can be modeled in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. We evaluated the efficacy of cannabidiol (25 mg/kg) administered perorally to OVX and sham surgery mice for 18 weeks. Compared to VEH-treated OVX mice, CBD-treated OVX mice had improved oral glucose tolerance, increased energy expenditure, improved whole body areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content as well as increased femoral bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and volumetric bone mineral density. Compared to VEH-treated OVX mice, CBD-treated OVX mice had increased relative abundance of fecal <i>Lactobacillus</i> species and several gene expression changes in the intestine and femur consistent with reduced inflammation and less bone resorption. These data provide preclinical evidence supporting further investigation of CBD as a therapeutic for postmenopause-related disorders.
Project description:Estrogen replacement therapy reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women; however, the mechanism is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of estrogen replacement therapy in an experimental model of menopause. At 8 weeks of age, female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham (SHAM) operated, and OVX mice were treated with vehicle (OVX) or estradiol (E2) (OVX+E2). After 4 weeks of high-fat diet feeding, OVX mice had increased body weight and fat mass compared with SHAM and OVX+E2 mice. OVX mice displayed reduced whole-body energy expenditure, as well as impaired glucose tolerance and whole-body insulin resistance. Differences in whole-body insulin sensitivity in OVX compared with SHAM mice were accounted for by impaired muscle insulin sensitivity, whereas both hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity were impaired in OVX compared with OVX+E2 mice. Muscle diacylglycerol (DAG), content in OVX mice was increased relative to SHAM and OVX+E2 mice. In contrast, E2 treatment prevented the increase in hepatic DAG content observed in both SHAM and OVX mice. Increases in tissue DAG content were associated with increased protein kinase Cε activation in liver of SHAM and OVX mice compared with OVX+E2 and protein kinase Cθ activation in skeletal muscle of OVX mice compared with SHAM and OVX+E2. Taken together, these data demonstrate that E2 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis, increasing O(2) consumption and energy expenditure in OVX mice, and in turn preventing diet-induced ectopic lipid (DAG) deposition and hepatic and muscle insulin resistance.
Project description:Mechanisms underlying changes in HDL composition caused by obesity are poorly defined, partly because mice lack expression of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which shuttles triglyceride and cholesteryl ester between lipoproteins. Because menopause is associated with weight gain, altered glucose metabolism, and changes in HDL, we tested the effect of feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) and ovariectomy (OVX) on glucose metabolism and HDL composition in CETP transgenic mice. After OVX, female CETP-expressing mice had accelerated weight gain with HFD-feeding and impaired glucose tolerance by hyperglycemic clamp techniques, compared with OVX mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD). Sham-operated mice (SHAM) did not show HFD-induced weight gain and had less glucose intolerance than OVX mice. Using shotgun HDL proteomics, HFD-feeding in OVX mice had a large effect on HDL composition, including increased levels of apoA2, apoA4, apoC2, and apoC3, proteins involved in TG metabolism. These changes were associated with decreased hepatic expression of SR-B1, ABCA1, and LDL receptor, proteins involved in modulating the lipid content of HDL. In SHAM mice, there were minimal changes in HDL composition with HFD feeding. These studies suggest that the absence of ovarian hormones negatively influences the response to high-fat feeding in terms of glucose tolerance and HDL composition. CETP-expressing mice may represent a useful model to define how metabolic changes affect HDL composition and function.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Clinical studies suggest that short-term insulin treatment in new-onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM) can promote prolonged glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to establish an animal model to examine such a "legacy" effect of early insulin therapy (EIT) in long-term glycemic control in new-onset T2DM. The objective of the study was to investigate the role of diet following onset of diabetes in the favorable outcomes of EIT.<h4>Methodology</h4>As such, C57BL6/J male mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 21 weeks to induce diabetes and then received 4 weeks of daily insulin glargine or sham subcutaneous injections. Subsequently, mice were either kept on the HFD or switched to a low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 additional weeks.<h4>Principal findings</h4>Mice fed a HFD gained significant fat mass and displayed increased leptin levels, increasing insulin resistance (poor HOMA-IR) and worse glucose tolerance test (GTT) performance in comparison to mice fed a LFD, as expected. Insulin-treated diabetic mice but maintained on the HFD demonstrated even greater weight gain and insulin resistance compared to sham-treated mice. However, insulin-treated mice switched to the LFD exhibited a better HOMA-IR compared to those mice left on a HFD. Further, between the insulin-treated and sham control mice, in spite of similar HOMA-IR values, the insulin-treated mice switched to a LFD following insulin therapy did demonstrate significantly better HOMA-B% values than sham control and insulin-treated HFD mice.<h4>Conclusion/interpretation</h4>Early insulin treatment in HFD-induced T2DM in C57BL6/J mice was only beneficial in animals that were switched to a LFD after insulin treatment which may explain why a similar legacy effect in humans is achieved clinically in only a portion of cases studied, emphasizing a vital role for diet adherence in diabetes control.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of continuous pumping of teriparatide (TPTD) on bone metabolism in ovariectomized and normal mice and provide experimental evidence for the selection of animal models for studying the effects of TPTD and its related peptides on osteoclasts. METHODS:Twenty-four female C57BL mice (6-weeks old) were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation followed 7 days later by continuous pumping of TPTD or the solvent vehicle (VEH) via a micropump (SHAM-VEH, SHAM-TPTD, OVX-VEH, and OVX-TPTD groups; n=6). Two weeks later, the tibial and femoral bones were harvested for micro-CT scanning to measure the parameters of the tibia and the femoral cortical bone. Histopathological examinations of the tibial tissue were conducted using HE staining and TRAP staining and the number of osteoclasts and the growth plate thickness were determined. The serum Ca2 + levels of the mice were measured. The primary osteoblasts from the cranial bone were treated with estradiol (E2) and TPTD for 48 h, and the expressions of ?-catenin and RANKL protein in the cells were analyzed. RESULTS:The trabecular bone mass of OVX mice was significantly lower than that of sham-operated mice (P < 0.05). Continuous TPTD pumping significantly reduced tibial cancellous bone mass and femoral cortical bone area in the sham-operated mice, while in the castrated mice, TPTD pumping increased the cancellous bone mass without changing the cortical bone area. TRAP staining showed that cancellous osteoblasts in the tibia increased significantly in the castrated mice as compared with the sham-operated mice, and TPTD pumping significantly increased the number of cancellous osteoblasts in the sham-operated mice (P < 0.05). In the primary cultured osteoblasts, treatment with both E2 and TPTD obviously lowered the expression of ?-catenin and increased the expression of RANKL as compared with TPTD treatment alone. CONCLUSIONS:Continuous pumping of TPTD promotes bone resorption in normal mice but does not produce obvious bone resorption effect in the ovariectomized mice, suggesting that castrated mice are not suitable models for studying the effect of TPTD and the related peptides on the osteoclasts.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Obesity frequently associates with the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis. Chronic inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) seems to be an important driver of these manifestations.<h4>Objective</h4>This study investigated a combination of an extensively hydrolyzed casein (eHC), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (ARA), and Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG (LGG) (together referred to as nutritional ingredients, NI) on the development of obesity, metabolic risk factors, WAT inflammation, NAFLD and atherosclerosis in high-fat diet-fed LDLr-/-.Leiden mice, a model that mimics disease development in humans.<h4>Methods</h4>LDLr-/-.Leiden male mice (n = 15/group) received a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 Kcal%) for 21 weeks with or without the NI (23.7% eHC, 0.083% DHA, 0.166% ARA; all w/w and 1x109 CFU LGG gavage 3 times/week). HFD and HFD+NI diets were isocaloric. A low fat diet (LFD, 10 Kcal%) was used for reference. Body weight, food intake and metabolic risk factors were assessed over time. At week 21, tissues were analyzed for WAT inflammation (crown-like structures), NAFLD and atherosclerosis. Effects of the individual NI components were explored in a follow-up experiment (n = 7/group).<h4>Results</h4>When compared to HFD control, treatment with the NI strongly reduced body weight to levels of the LFD group, and significantly lowered (P<0.01) plasma insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin and serum amyloid A (P<0.01). NI also reduced WAT mass and inflammation. Strikingly, NI treatment significantly reduced macrovesicular steatosis, lobular inflammation and liver collagen (P<0.05), and attenuated atherosclerosis development (P<0.01). Of the individual components, the effects of eHC were most pronounced but could not explain the entire effects of the NI formulation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A combination of eHC, ARA, DHA and LGG attenuates obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (NAFLD, atherosclerosis) in LDLr-/-.Leiden mice. The observed reduction of inflammation in adipose tissue and in the liver provides a rationale for these comprehensive health effects.