Biodegradable Janus nanoparticles for local pulmonary delivery of hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules to the lungs.
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work is to synthesize, characterize, and test self-assembled anisotropic or Janus particles designed to load anticancer drugs for lung cancer treatment by inhalation. The particles were synthesized using binary mixtures of biodegradable and biocompatible materials. The particles did not demonstrate cyto- and genotoxic effects. Janus particles were internalized by cancer cells and accumulated both in the cytoplasm and nuclei. After inhalation delivery, nanoparticles accumulated preferentially in the lungs of mice and retained there for at least 24 h. Two drugs or other biologically active components with substantially different aqueous solubility can be simultaneously loaded in two-phases (polymer-lipid) of these nanoparticles. In the present proof-of-concept investigation, the particles were loaded with two anticancer drugs: doxorubicin and curcumin as model anticancer drugs with relatively high and low aqueous solubility, respectively. However, there are no obstacles for loading any hydrophobic or hydrophilic chemical agents. Nanoparticles with dual load were used for their local inhalation delivery directly to the lungs of mice with orthotopic model of human lung cancer. In vivo experiments showed that the selected nanoparticles with two anticancer drugs with different mechanisms of action prevented progression of lung tumors. It should be stressed that anticancer effects of the combined treatment with two anticancer drugs loaded in the same nanoparticle significantly exceeded the effect of either drug loaded in similar nanoparticles alone.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis (CF), a most deadly genetic disorder, is caused by mutations of CF transmembrane receptor (CFTR) - a chloride channel present at the surface of epithelial cells. In general, two steps have to be involved in treatment of the disease: correction of cellular defects and potentiation to further increase channel opening. Consequently, a combinatorial simultaneous treatment with two drugs with different mechanisms of action, lumacaftor and ivacaftor, has been recently proposed. While lumacaftor is used to correct p.Phe508del mutation (the loss of phenylalanine at position 508) and increase the amount of cell surface-localized CFTR protein, ivacaftor serves as a CFTR potentiator that increases the open probability of CFTR channels. Since the main organ that is affected by cystic fibrosis is the lung, the delivery of drugs directly to the lungs by inhalation has a potential to enhance the efficacy of the treatment of CF and limit adverse side effects upon healthy tissues and organs. Based on our extensive experience in inhalation delivering of drugs by different nanocarriers, we selected nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for the delivery both drugs directly to the lungs by inhalation and tested NLC loaded with drugs in vitro (normal and CF human bronchial epithelial cells) and in vivo (homozygote/homozygote bi-transgenic mice with CF). The results show that the designed NLCs demonstrated a high drug loading efficiency and were internalized in the cytoplasm of CF cells. It was found that NLC-loaded drugs were able to restore the expression and function of CFTR protein. As a result, the combination of lumacaftor and ivacaftor delivered by lipid nanoparticles directly into the lungs was highly effective in treating lung manifestations of cystic fibrosis.
Project description:This study described a valuable drug delivery system for poorly water-soluble anticancer naturalproduct, licochalcone A, isolated from Glycyrrhiza inflata, loaded on hollow gold nanoparticles by green method to improve solubility and dissolution and maintain its natural pharmacological property. Briefly, the formation of hollow gold nanoparticles involves three steps: preparing of silica nanospheres by Stober method, forming of a thick gold shell around the silica templates and etching of silica particles by HF solution. Hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNPs) and drug loaded hollow gold nanoparticles (L-HGNPs) displayed spherical structure and approximately 200nm in size observed by SEM, XRD, EDS and DSC analysis showed that HGNPs were gold hollow structure and crystalline form. The solubility in aqueous solution of licochalcone A was increased obviously to 488.9 ?g/ml, compared with free drugs of 136.1 ?g/ml. Another interesting finding is that near-infrared (NIR) irradiation increased the speed of solubility of licochalcone A in aqueous solutions, rather than quantity. In short, the method of nano-delivery system combined with poorly water-soluble drug to improve its solubility and dissolution is worth applying to other natural products in order to increase their opportunities in clinical applications.
Project description:Mucoadhesive particles (MAP) have been widely explored for pulmonary drug delivery because of their perceived benefits in improving particle residence in the lungs. However, retention of particles adhesively trapped in airway mucus may be limited by physiologic mucus clearance mechanisms. In contrast, particles that avoid mucoadhesion and have diameters smaller than mucus mesh spacings rapidly penetrate mucus layers [mucus-penetrating particles (MPP)], which we hypothesized would provide prolonged lung retention compared to MAP. We compared in vivo behaviors of variously sized, polystyrene-based MAP and MPP in the lungs following inhalation. MAP, regardless of particle size, were aggregated and poorly distributed throughout the airways, leading to rapid clearance from the lungs. Conversely, MPP as large as 300 nm exhibited uniform distribution and markedly enhanced retention compared to size-matched MAP. On the basis of these findings, we formulated biodegradable MPP (b-MPP) with an average diameter of <300 nm and examined their behavior following inhalation relative to similarly sized biodegradable MAP (b-MAP). Although b-MPP diffused rapidly through human airway mucus ex vivo, b-MAP did not. Rapid b-MPP movements in mucus ex vivo correlated to a more uniform distribution within the airways and enhanced lung retention time as compared to b-MAP. Furthermore, inhalation of b-MPP loaded with dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DP) significantly reduced inflammation in a mouse model of acute lung inflammation compared to both carrier-free DP and DP-loaded MAP. These studies provide a careful head-to-head comparison of MAP versus MPP following inhalation and challenge a long-standing dogma that favored the use of MAP for pulmonary drug delivery.
Project description:Diseases in the respiratory tract rank among the leading causes of death in the world, and thus novel and optimized treatments are needed. The lungs offer a large surface for drug absorption, and the inhalation of aerosolized drugs are a well-established therapeutic modality for local treatment of lung conditions. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery platforms are gaining importance for use through the pulmonary route. By using porous carrier matrices, higher doses of especially poorly soluble drugs can be administered locally, reducing their side effects and improving their biodistribution. In this study, the feasibility of mesoporous silica particles (MSPs) as carriers for anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of airway inflammation was investigated. Two different sizes of particles on the micron and nanoscale (1 µm and 200 nm) were produced, and were loaded with dexamethasone (DEX) to a loading degree of 1:1 DEX:MSP. These particles were further surface-functionalized with a polyethylene glycol⁻polyethylene imine (PEG⁻PEI) copolymer for optimal aqueous dispersibility. The drug-loaded particles were administered as an aerosol, through inhalation to two different mice models of neutrophil-induced (by melphalan or lipopolysaccharide) airway inflammation. The mice received treatment with either DEX-loaded MSPs or, as controls, empty MSPs or DEX only; and were evaluated for treatment effects 24 h after exposure. The results show that the MEL-induced airway inflammation could be treated by the DEX-loaded MSPs to the same extent as free DEX. Interestingly, in the case of LPS-induced inflammation, even the empty MSPs significantly down-modulated the inflammatory response. This study highlights the potential of MSPs as drug carriers for the treatment of diseases in the airways.
Project description:Mounting evidence suggests that the tumor microenvironment is profoundly immunosuppressive. Thus, mitigating tumor immunosuppression is crucial for inducing sustained antitumor immunity. Whereas previous studies involved intratumoral injection, we report here an inhalable nanoparticle-immunotherapy system targeting pulmonary antigen presenting cells (APCs) to enhance anticancer immunity against lung metastases. Inhalation of phosphatidylserine coated liposome loaded with STING agonist cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (NP-cGAMP) in mouse models of lung metastases enables rapid distribution of NP-cGAMP to both lungs and subsequent uptake by APCs without causing immunopathology. NP-cGAMP designed for enhanced cytosolic release of cGAMP stimulates STING signaling and type I interferons production in APCs, resulting in the pro-inflammatory tumor microenvironment in multifocal lung metastases. Furthermore, fractionated radiation delivered to one tumor-bearing lung synergizes with inhaled NP-cGAMP, eliciting systemic anticancer immunity, controlling metastases in both lungs, and conferring long-term survival in mice with lung metastases and with repeated tumor challenge.
Project description:In an earlier study we demonstrated that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles coated with chitosan-poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide (HAp/Ch-PLGA) target lungs following their intravenous injection into mice. In this study we utilize an emulsification process and freeze drying to load the composite HAp/Ch-PLGA particles with 17?-hydroxy-17?-picolyl-androst-5-en-3?-yl-acetate (A), a chemotherapeutic derivative of androstane and a novel compound with a selective anticancer activity against lung cancer cells. 1H NMR and 13C NMR techniques confirmed the intact structure of the derivative A following its entrapment within HAp/Ch-PLGA particles. The thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses coupled with mass spectrometry were used to assess the thermal degradation products and properties of A-loaded HAp/Ch-PLGA. The loading efficiency, as indicated by the comparison of enthalpies of phase transitions in pure A and A-loaded HAp/Ch-PLGA, equaled 7.47wt.%. The release of A from HAp/Ch-PLGA was sustained, neither exhibiting a burst release nor plateauing after three weeks. Atomic force microscopy and particle size distribution analyses were used to confirm that the particles were spherical with a uniform size distribution of d50=168nm. In vitro cytotoxicity testing of A-loaded HAp/Ch-PLGA using MTT and trypan blue dye exclusion assays demonstrated that the particles were cytotoxic to the A549 human lung carcinoma cell line (46±2%), while simultaneously preserving high viability (83±3%) of regular MRC5 human lung fibroblasts and causing no harm to primary mouse lung fibroblasts. In conclusion, composite A-loaded HAp/Ch-PLGA particles could be seen as promising drug delivery platforms for selective cancer therapies, targeting malignant cells for destruction, while having a significantly lesser cytotoxic effect on the healthy cells.
Project description:Chemotherapy is one of the major approaches for the treatment of metastatic lung cancer. However, systemic chemotherapy is limited by poor therapeutic efficiency and severe toxic side effects, due to the extremely low delivery efficacy and non-specificity of anticancer drugs. Herein, we report a sericin microparticles enveloped with metal-organic networks as a pulmonary delivery system for treating lung metastasis of breast cancer in an animal model. The sericin microparticles (SMPs) were prepared using water in oil (w/o) emulsification method. After doxorubicin (DOX) loading, tannic acid (TA)/ferric irons (Fe3+) based metal organic networks (MON) were coated on the particles to obtain DOX-loaded microparticles (DOX@SMPs-MON). The SMPs-MON with good biocompatibility could effectively encapsulate DOX and sustainably unload cargos in a pH-dependent manner. The DOX-loaded microparticles could be uptaken by 4T1 cells, and effectively kill the cancer cells. In vivo, DOX@SMPs-MON was deposited in the lungs and remained for over 5 days after pulmonary administration. In contrast to conventional DOX treatment that did not show significantly inhibitory effects on lung metastatic tumor, DOX@SMPs-MON markedly decreased the number and size of metastatic nodules in lungs, and the lung weight and appearance were similar to those of healthy mice. In summary, the sericin microparticles with MON wrapping might be a promising pulmonary delivery system for treating lung metastatic cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Functional respiratory imaging (FRI) uses three-dimensional models of human lungs and computational fluid dynamics to simulate functional changes within airways and predict the deposition of inhaled drugs. This study used FRI to model the effects of different patient inhalation and drug formulation factors on lung deposition of an inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting ?2-agonist (ICS/LABA) combination, administered by a pressurized metered-dose inhaler. METHODS:Three-dimensional models of the lungs of six patients with asthma (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s, 83%), treated with an ICS/LABA, were included. FRI modelling was used to simulate (1) the effects on lung deposition of inhalation duration and particle size [fine particle fraction (FPF), proportion of particles <5 µm; and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), average size of inhalable particles]; (2) deposition of fluticasone propionate/formoterol (FP/FORM) 125/5 µg; and (3) how inhalation profiles and flow rates affected FP/FORM deposition. RESULTS:Total lung depositions (TLDs) following 1-, 3- and 5-s inhalations were 22.8%, 36.1% and 41.6% (metered dose), respectively, and central-to-peripheral deposition (C:P) ratios were 1.81, 0.86 and 0.61, respectively. TLD increased with increasing FPF, from ~8% at 10% FPF to ~36% at 40% FPF (metered dose); by contrast, MMAD had little effect on TLD, which was similar across MMADs (1.5-4.5 µm) at each FPF. FP/FORM deposited throughout central and peripheral airways with gradual (sinusoidal) and sharp (rapid) inhalations. TLD ranged from 35.8 to 44.0% (metered dose) for gradual and sharp inhalations at 30 and 60 L/min mean flow rates. CONCLUSIONS:These data provide important insights into the potential effects of inhalation characteristics (inhalation profile and duration) and aerosol formulation (FPF) on lung deposition of inhaled therapies. FRI thus represents a useful alternative to scintigraphy techniques. Future FRI studies will further our understanding of the deposition of inhaled drugs and help improve the management of asthma.
Project description:Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, which readily metastasizes through lymph nodes to the lungs, liver, and brain. Since the repeated administration of most chemotherapeutic drugs develops chemoresistance and severe systemic toxicities, herein we synthesized 2-(4-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl) methanone (abbreviated as QW-296), a novel tubulin destabilizing agent with little susceptible to transporter-mediated drug resistance. QW-296 disturbed the microtubule dynamics at the nanomolar concentration in A375 and B16F10 melanoma cells. QW-296 binding to colchicine-binding site on tubulin protein was confirmed by molecular modeling and tubulin polymerization assay. QW-296 significantly inhibited A375 and B16F10 cell proliferation, induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and led to apoptosis and cell death. To improve its aqueous solubility, QW-296 was encapsulated into methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol)-b-poly(carbonate-co-lactide) [mPEG-b-P(CB-co-LA)] polymeric nanoparticles by solvent evaporation, with the mean particle size of 122.0?±?2.28?nm and drug loading of 3.70% (w/w). Systemic administration of QW-296 loaded nanoparticles into C57/BL6 albino mice bearing lung metastatic melanoma at the dose of 20?mg/kg 4 times a week for 1.5?weeks resulted in significant tumor regression and prolonged mouse median survival without significant change in mouse body weight. In conclusion, QW-296 loaded nanoparticles have the potential to treat metastatic melanoma.
Project description:Development of cancer cell resistance, low accumulation of therapeutic drug in the lungs, and severe adverse treatment side effects represent main obstacles to efficient chemotherapy of lung cancer. To overcome these difficulties, we propose inhalation local delivery of anticancer drugs in combination with suppressors of pump and nonpump cellular resistance. To test this approach, nanoscale-based delivery systems containing doxorubicin as a cell death inducer, antisense oligonucleotides targeted to MRP1 mRNA as a suppressor of pump resistance and to BCL2 mRNA as a suppressor of nonpump resistance, were developed and examined on an orthotopic murine model of human lung carcinoma. The experimental results show high antitumor activity and low adverse side effects of proposed complex inhalatory treatment that cannot be achieved by individual components applied separately. The present work potentially contributes to the treatment of lung cancer by describing a unique combinatorial local inhalation delivery of drugs and suppressors of pump and nonpump cellular resistance.