Succinimidyl ester surface chemistry: implications of the competition between aminolysis and hydrolysis on covalent protein immobilization.
ABSTRACT: N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester terminal groups are commonly used to covalently couple amine-containing biomolecules (e.g., proteins and peptides) to surfaces via amide linkages. This one-step aminolysis is often performed in buffered aqueous solutions near physiological pH (pH 6 to pH 9). Under these conditions, the hydrolysis of the ester group competes with the amidization process, potentially degrading the efficiency of the coupling chemistry. The work herein examines the efficiency of covalent protein immobilization in borate buffer (50 mM, pH 8.50) using the thiolate monolayer formed by the chemisorption of dithiobis (succinimidyl propionate) (DSP) on gold films. The structure and reactivity of these adlayers are assessed via infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical reductive desorption, and contact angle measurements. The hydrolysis of the DSP-based monolayer is proposed to follow a reaction mechanism with an initial nucleation step, in contrast to a simple pseudo first-order reaction rate law for the entire reaction, indicating a strong dependence of the interfacial reaction on the packing and presence of defects in the adlayer. This interpretation is used in the subsequent analysis of IR-ERS kinetic plots which give a heterogeneous aminolysis rate constant, ka, that is over 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of the heterogeneous hydrolysis rate constant, kh. More importantly, a projection of these heterogeneous kinetic rates to protein immobilization suggests that under coupling conditions in which low protein concentrations and buffers of near physiological pH are used, proteins are more likely physically adsorbed rather than covalently linked. This result is paramount for biosensors that use NHS chemistry for protein immobilization due to effects that may arise from noncovalently linked proteins.
Project description:Heterobifunctional cross-linking agents are useful in both protein science and organic synthesis. Aminolysis of reactive esters in aqueous systems is often used in bioconjugation chemistry, but it must compete against hydrolysis processes. Here we study the kinetics of aminolysis and hydrolysis of 2-S-phosphorylacetate ester intermediates that result from displacement of bromide by a thiophosphate nucleophile from commonly used bromoacetate ester cross-linking agents.We found cross-linking between uridine-5'-monophosphorothioate and D-glucosamine using N-hydroxybenzotriazole and N-hydroxysuccinimde bromoacetates to be ineffective. In order to gain insight into these shortfalls, 2-S-(5'-thiophosphoryluridine)acetic acid esters were prepared using p-nitrophenyl bromoacetate or m-nitrophenyl bromoacetate in combination with uridine-5'-monophosphorothioate. Kinetics of hydrolysis and aminolysis of the resulting p- and m-nitrophenyl 2-S-(5'-thiophosphoryluridine)acetates were determined by monitoring the formation of phenolate ions spectrophotometrically as a function of pH. The p- and m-nitrophenyl 2-S-(5'-thiophosphoryluridine)acetates showed similar reactivity profiles despite the significant difference in the pK(aH) values of their nitrophenolate leaving groups. Both were more reactive with respect to hydrolysis and aminolysis in comparison to their simple acetate progenitors, but their calculated selectivity towards aminolysis vs hydrolysis, while reasonable, would not lead to clean reactions that do not require purification. Extrapolations of the kinetic data were used to predict leaving group pK(a) values that could lead to improved selectivity towards aminolysis while retaining reasonable reaction times.Both p- and m-nitrophenyl 2-S-(5'-thiophosphoryluridine)acetates show some selectivity towards aminolysis over hydrolysis, with the m-nitrophenolate system displaying slightly better selectivity. Extrapolation of the data for hydrolysis and aminolysis of these esters suggests that the use of readily accessible trifluoroethyl 2-S-(5'-thiophosphoryluridine)acetate with a leaving group pK(aH) of 12.4 should afford better selectivity while maintaining reasonable reaction times. Kinetically, p- and m-nitrophenyl 2-S-(5'-thiophosphoryluridine)acetates show similar properties to o-nitrophenyl 2-S-ethylacetate, and show no evidence for intramolecular catalysis of hydrolysis or aminolysis by the phosphoryl groups.
Project description:This paper describes a method for the selective and covalent immobilization of proteins to surfaces with control over the density and orientation of the protein. The strategy is based on binding of the serine esterase cutinase to a self-assembled monolayer presenting a phosphonate ligand and the subsequent displacement reaction that covalently binds the ligand to the enzyme active site. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy showed that cutinase binds irreversibly to a monolayer presenting the capture ligand at a density of 1% mixed among tri(ethylene glycol) groups. The covalent immobilization is specific for cutinase, and the glycol-terminated monolayer effectively prevents unwanted nonspecific adsorption of proteins. To demonstrate that the method could be used to immobilize proteins of interest, a cutinase-calmodulin fusion protein was constructed and immobilized to the monolayer. SPR showed that calcineurin selectively associated with the immobilized calmodulin. This capture ligand immobilization method combines the advantages that the immobilization reaction is highly selective for the intended protein, the tether is covalent and, hence, stable, and the method avoids the need for synthetic modification and rigorous purification of proteins before immobilization. These characteristics make the method well suited to a range of applications and, in particular, for constructing protein microarrays.
Project description:Functional properties of each enzyme strictly depend on immobilization protocol used for linking enzyme and carrier. Different strategies were applied to prepare the immobilized derivatives of Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) and chemically aminated RML (NH2-RML). Both RML and NH2-RML forms were covalently immobilized on glyoxyl sepharose (Gx-RML and Gx-NH2-RML), glyoxyl sepharose dithiothreitol (Gx-DTT-RML and Gx-DTT-NH2-RML), activated sepharose with cyanogen bromide (CNBr-RML and CNBr-NH2-RML) and heterofunctional epoxy support partially modified with iminodiacetic acid (epoxy-IDA-RML and epoxy-IDA-NH2-RML). Immobilization varied from 11% up to 88% yields producing specific activities ranging from 0.5 up to 1.9 UI/mg. Great improvement in thermal stability for Gx-DTT-NH2-RML and epoxy-IDA-NH2-RML derivatives was obtained by retaining 49% and 37% of their initial activities at 70 °C, respectively. The regioselectivity of each derivative was also examined in hydrolysis of fish oil at three different conditions. All the derivatives were selective between cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in favor of EPA. The highest selectivity (32.9 folds) was observed for epoxy-IDA-NH2-RML derivative in the hydrolysis reaction performed at pH 5 and 4 °C. Recyclability study showed good capability of the immobilized biocatalysts to be used repeatedly, retaining 50-91% of their initial activities after five cycles of the reaction.
Project description:1. Changes in proton-magnetic-resonance spectra were followed during the reaction of cephalosporins, deacetylcephalosporins, deacetoxycephalosporins and a Delta(2)-cephalosporin with ND(3) in D(2)O. 2. Changes in proton-magnetic-resonance spectra were also followed during the hydrolysis of a cephalosporin and a deacetylcephalosporin in D(2)O with a beta-lactamase. 3. Structures for the reaction products are proposed. 4. The signals obtained after aminolysis of the beta-lactam ring of a cephalosporin indicate that the reaction is accompanied by expulsion of the acetoxy group as acetate, formation of a double bond in the Delta(4)-position and the appearance of an exocyclic methylene group. 5. Aminolysis of deacetyl- and deacetoxycephalosporins can occur without immediate structural changes in the dihydrothiazine ring. 6. In contrast, the ring structure of the first product of enzymic hydrolysis of a deacetylcephalosporin is apparently identical with that of the product of aminolysis of the cephalosporin itself.
Project description:Pigeon liver NAD kinase was covalently coupled to the inside surfaces of nylon tubes, both directly to the nylon and via polyamine specers Km values and the inactivation energy of the reaction changed upon immobilization, but the pH-dependence remained unaltered. The activities and stabilities of different preparations are compared.
Project description:The Ser-70----Gly mutant of the TEM-1 beta-lactamase, where the active-site serine hydroxy group has been lost, does not catalyse the hydrolysis of either benzylpenicillin or N-(phenylacetyl)glycyl depsipeptides. This is as would be expected for a double-displacement mechanism where the Ser-70 becomes acylated at an intermediate stage. Further, however, the mutant enzyme, unlike the wild-type, does not catalyse aminolysis of depsipeptides by D-phenylalanine. If the active site is not structurally disrupted by the mutation, this result shows that Ser-70 is necessary for the aminolysis reaction and implies that this reaction, like the hydrolysis, proceeds by way of an acyl-(serine)-enzyme intermediate. Although physical evidence suggests that the mutant enzyme does not have a structure in solution identical with that of the wild-type, the mutant does still bind beta-lactam substrates. The latter result suggests sufficient conservation of the active-site structure for the major conclusion above to hold.
Project description:We describe an effective approach for the covalent immobilization of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to bioinert substrates via Cu(I) -catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The bioinert substrates were prepared by surface hydrosilylation of oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) terminated alkenes on hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces. To render the OEG monolayers "clickable", mixed monolayers were prepared using OEG-alkenes with and without a terminal alkyne protected by a trimethylgermanyl (TMG) group. The mixed monolayers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), elliposometry and contact angle measurement. The TMG protecting group can be readily removed to yield a free terminal alkyne by catalytic amounts of Cu(I) in an aqueous media. This step can then be combined with the subsequent CuAAC reaction. Thus, the immobilization of an azide modified AMP (N3-IG-25) was achieved in a one-pot deprotection/coupling reaction. Varying the ratio of the two alkenes in the deposition mixture allowed for control over the density of the alkynyl groups in the mixed monolayer, and subsequently the coverage of the AMPs on the monolayer. These samples allowed for study of the dependence of antimicrobial activities on the AMP density. The results show that a relative low coverage of AMPs (?1.6×10(13) molecule per cm(2)) is sufficient to significantly suppress the viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while the surface presenting the highest density of AMPs (?2.8×10(13) molecule per cm(2)) is still cyto-compatible. The remarkable antibacterial activity is attributed to the long and flexible linker and the site-specific "click" immobilization, which may facilitate the covalently attached peptides to interact with and disrupt the bacterial membranes.
Project description:Label-free assays, and particularly those based on the combination of mass spectroscopy with surface chemistries, enable high-throughput experiments of a broad range of reactions. However, these methods can still require the incorporation of functional groups that allow immobilization of reactants and products to surfaces prior to analysis. In this paper, we report a traceless method for attaching molecules to a self-assembled monolayer for matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (SAMDI) mass spectrometry. This method uses monolayers that are functionalized with a 3-trifluoromethyl-3-phenyl-diazirine group that liberates nitrogen when irradiated and gives a carbene that inserts into a wide range of bonds to covalently immobilize molecules. Analysis of the monolayer with SAMDI then reveals peaks for each of the adducts formed from molecules in the sample. This method is applied to characterize a P450 drug metabolizing enzyme and to monitor a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling chemical reaction and is important because modification of the substrates with a functional group would alter their activities. This method will be important for high-throughput experiments in many areas, including reaction discovery and optimization.
Project description:This study presents the development of an efficient procedure for covalently immobilizing collagen molecules on AVS-functionalized Ti-6Al-4V samples, and the assessment of the survival and proliferation of cells cultured on these substrates. Activated Vapor Silanization (AVS) is a versatile functionalization technique that allows obtaining a high density of active amine groups on the surface. A procedure is presented to covalently bind collagen to the functional layer using EDC/NHS as cross-linker. The covalently bound collagen proteins are characterized by fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy and their stability is tested. The effect of the cross-linker concentration on the process is assessed. The concentration of the cross-linker is optimized and a reliable cleaning protocol is developed for the removal of the excess of carbodiimide from the samples. The results demonstrate that the covalent immobilization of collagen type I on Ti-6Al-4V substrates, using the optimized protocol, increases the number of viable cells present on the material. Consequently, AVS in combination with the carbodiimide chemistry appears as a robust method for the immobilization of proteins and, for the first time, it is shown that it can be used to enhance the biological response to the material.
Project description:1. The penicillinase-catalysed hydrolysis of quinacillin was quenched by addition of 5 m-guanidinium chloride or 1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate, and the quenched reaction mixture was dialysed exhaustively against solutions of the denaturant. 2. Irreversibly bound quinacillin was shown by titration with HgCl2 to be covalently attached to the protein by the beta-lactam carboxyl group. 3. The derivative was found to be stable over the pH range 3.5-8.5. 4. Chymotryptic hydrolysis of the product and subsequent fractionation showed that quinacillin was bound to one or possibly two peptides.