The M3 phosphorylation motif has been functionally conserved for intracellular trafficking of long-looped PIN-FORMEDs in the Arabidopsis root hair cell.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers contribute to polar auxin transport and plant development by exhibiting dynamic and diverse asymmetrical localization patterns in the plasma membrane (PM). Phosphorylation of the central hydrophilic loop (HL) of PINs has been implicated in the regulation of PIN trafficking. Recently, we reported that a phosphorylatable motif (M3) in the PIN3-HL is necessary for the polarity, intracellular trafficking, and biological functions of PIN3. In this study, using the root hair system for PIN activity assay, we investigated whether this motif has been functionally conserved among long-HL PINs. RESULTS: Root hair-specific overexpression of wild-type PIN1, 2, or 7 greatly inhibited root hair growth by depleting auxin levels in the root hair cell, whereas overexpression of M3 phosphorylation-defective PIN mutants failed to inhibit root hair growth. Consistent with this root hair phenotype, the PM localization of M3 phosphorylation-defective PIN1 and PIN7 was partially disrupted, resulting in less auxin efflux and restoration of root hair growth. Partial formation of brefeldin A-compartments in these phosphorylation-mutant PIN lines also suggested that their PM targeting was partially disrupted. On the other hand, compared with the PIN1 and PIN7 mutant proteins, M3-phosphorylation-defective PIN2 proteins were almost undetectable. However, the mutant PIN2 protein levels were restored by wortmannin treatment almost to the wild-type PIN2 level, indicating that the M3 motif of PIN2, unlike that of other PINs, is implicated in PIN2 trafficking to the vacuolar lytic pathway. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the M3 phosphorylation motif has been functionally conserved to modulate the intracellular trafficking of long-HL PINs, but its specific function in trafficking has diverged among PIN members.
Project description:Asymmetrically localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers play key roles in regulating directional intercellular auxin movement, generating local auxin gradients, and diverse auxin-mediated growth and development. The polar localization of PINs is controlled by phosphorylation in the central hydrophilic loop (HL) of PINs. Although the M3 phosphorylation site, including phosphorylatable 5 Ser/Thr residues, is conserved among long HL-PINs, its native role has only been characterized in PIN3. In this study, we examined the role of M3 phosphorylation site of PIN1, PIN2, and PIN7 in intracellular trafficking, phosphorylation, and biological functions of those PINs in their native expressing tissues. Phosphorylation-defective mutations of the phosphorylatable residues in the M3 site of PIN1-HL led to alteration in subcellular polarity of PIN1 and caused defects in PIN1-mediated biological functions such as cotyledon development, phyllotaxy of vegetative leaves, and development of reproductive organs. The M3 mutations of PIN7 interfered with its polar recycling in the root columella cell in response to gravity stimulus and partially disrupted root gravitropism. On the other hand, the M3 site of PIN2 was shown to be necessary for its targeting to the plasma membrane. In vitro phosphorylation assay showed that the M3 phosphorylation residues of PIN1 are the partial targets by PINOID kinase. Our data suggest that the M3 phosphorylation site is functionally conserved among long HL-PINs by playing roles for their subcellular trafficking and auxin-mediated developmental processes.
Project description:Cell polarity is crucial for the coordinated development of all multicellular organisms. In plants, this is exemplified by the PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers of the phytohormone auxin: The polar subcellular localization of the PINs is instructive to the directional intercellular auxin transport, and thus to a plethora of auxin-regulated growth and developmental processes. Despite its importance, the regulation of PIN polar subcellular localization remains poorly understood. Here, we have employed advanced live-cell imaging techniques to study the roles of microtubules and actin microfilaments in the establishment of apical polar localization of PIN2 in the epidermis of the Arabidopsis root meristem. We report that apical PIN2 polarity requires neither intact actin microfilaments nor microtubules, suggesting that the primary spatial cue for polar PIN distribution is likely independent of cytoskeleton-guided endomembrane trafficking.
Project description:Root gravitropism allows plants to establish root systems and its regulation depends on polar auxin transport mediated by PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters. PINOID (PID) and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A (PP2A) act antagonistically on reversible phosphorylation of PINs. This regulates polar PIN distribution and auxin transport. Here we show that a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1At regulates root gravitropism. Downregulation of Pin1At suppresses root agravitropic phenotypes of pp2aa and 35S:PID, while overexpression of Pin1At affects root gravitropic responses and enhances the pp2aa agravitropic phenotype. Pin1At also affects auxin transport and polar localization of PIN1 in stele cells, which is mediated by PID and PP2A. Furthermore, Pin1At catalyses the conformational change of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs of PIN1. Thus, Pin1At mediates the conformational dynamics of PIN1 and affects PID- and PP2A-mediated regulation of PIN1 polar localization, which correlates with the regulation of root gravitropism.
Project description:Root hair development is crucial for phosphate absorption, but how phosphorus deficiency affects root hair initiation and elongation remains unclear. We demonstrated the roles of auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) and phospholipase D (PLD)-derived phosphatidic acid (PA), a key signaling molecule, in promoting root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana under a low phosphate (LP) condition. Root hair elongation under LP conditions was greatly suppressed in pin2 mutant or under treatment with a PLD?2-specific inhibitor, revealing that PIN2 and polar auxin transport and PLD?2-PA are crucial in LP responses. PIN2 was accumulated and degraded in the vacuole under a normal phosphate (NP) condition, whereas its vacuolar accumulation was suppressed under the LP or NP plus PA conditions. Vacuolar accumulation of PIN2 was increased in pld?2 mutants under LP conditions. Increased or decreased PIN2 vacuolar accumulation is not observed in sorting nexin1 (snx1) mutant, indicating that vacuolar accumulation of PIN2 is mediated by SNX1 and the relevant trafficking process. PA binds to SNX1 and promotes its accumulation at the plasma membrane, especially under LP conditions, and hence promotes root hair development by suppressing the vacuolar degradation of PIN2. We uncovered a link between PLD-derived PA and SNX1-dependent vacuolar degradation of PIN2 in regulating root hair development under phosphorus deficiency.
Project description:The plant hormone auxin plays a crucial role in regulating plant development and plant architecture. The directional auxin distribution within tissues depends on PIN transporters that are polarly localized on the plasma membrane. The PIN polarity and the resulting auxin flow directionality are mediated by the antagonistic actions of PINOID kinase and protein phosphatase 2A. However, the contribution of the PIN phosphorylation to the polar PIN sorting is still unclear. Here, we identified an evolutionarily conserved phosphorylation site within the central hydrophilic loop of PIN proteins that is important for the apical and basal polar PIN localizations. Inactivation of the phosphorylation site in PIN1(Ala) resulted in a predominantly basal targeting and increased the auxin flow to the root tip. In contrast, the outcome of the phosphomimic PIN1(Asp) manipulation was a constitutive, PINOID-independent apical targeting of PIN1 and an increased auxin flow in the opposite direction. Furthermore, the PIN1(Asp) functionally replaced PIN2 in its endogenous expression domain, revealing that the phosphorylation-dependent polarity regulation contributes to functional diversification within the PIN family. Our data suggest that PINOID-independent PIN phosphorylation at one single site is adequate to change the PIN polarity and, consequently, to redirect auxin fluxes between cells and provide the conceptual possibility and means to manipulate auxin-dependent plant development and architecture.
Project description:Plant growth flexibly adapts to environmental conditions, implying cross-talk between environmental signalling and developmental regulation. Here, we show that the PIN auxin efflux carrier family possesses three highly conserved putative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) sites adjacent to the phosphorylation sites of the well-characterised AGC kinase PINOID, which regulates the polar localisation of PINs and directional auxin transport, thereby underpinning organ growth. The conserved sites of PIN1 are phosphorylated in vitro by two environmentally activated MAPKs, MPK4 and MPK6. In contrast to AGC kinases, MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of PIN1 at adjacent sites leads to a partial loss of the plasma membrane localisation of PIN1. MAPK-mediated modulation of PIN trafficking may participate in environmental adjustment of plant growth.
Project description:PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein-mediated auxin polar transport is critically important for development, pattern formation, and morphogenesis in plants. Auxin has been implicated in the regulation of polar auxin transport by inhibiting PIN endocytosis, but how auxin regulates this process is poorly understood. Our genetic screen identified the Arabidopsis SPIKE1 (SPK1) gene whose loss-of-function mutations increased lateral root density and retarded gravitropic responses, as do pin2 knockout mutations. SPK1 belongs to the conserved DHR2-Dock family of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors. The spk1 mutations induced PIN2 internalization that was not suppressed by auxin, as did the loss-of-function mutations for Rho-like GTPase from Plants 6 (ROP6)-GTPase or its effector RIC1. Furthermore, SPK1 was required for auxin induction of ROP6 activation. Our results have established a Rho GTPase-based auxin signaling pathway that maintains PIN2 polar distribution to the plasma membrane via inhibition of its internalization in Arabidopsis roots. Our findings provide new insights into signaling mechanisms that underlie the regulation of the dynamic trafficking of PINs required for long-distance auxin transport and that link auxin signaling to PIN-mediated pattern formation and morphogenesis.
Project description:The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation probably does not result from inhibition of auxin efflux, as supply of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid failed to restore pin2 gravitropism. We propose that flavonoids promote asymmetric PIN shifts during gravity stimulation, thus redirecting basipetal auxin streams necessary for root bending.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol monophosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) catalyzes the synthesis of PI-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) by phosphorylation of PI-4-phosphate at the 5 position of the inositol ring, and is involved in regulating multiple developmental processes and stress responses. We here report on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis PIP5K2, which is expressed during lateral root initiation and elongation, and whose expression is enhanced by exogenous auxin. The knockout mutant pip5k2 shows reduced lateral root formation, which could be recovered with exogenous auxin, and interestingly, delayed root gravity response that could not be recovered with exogenous auxin. Crossing with the DR5-GUS marker line and measurement of free IAA content confirmed the reduced auxin accumulation in pip5k2. In addition, analysis using the membrane-selective dye FM4-64 revealed the decelerated vesicle trafficking caused by PtdIns(4,5)P(2) reduction, which hence results in suppressed cycling of PIN proteins (PIN2 and 3), and delayed redistribution of PIN2 and auxin under gravistimulation in pip5k2 roots. On the contrary, PtdIns(4,5)P(2) significantly enhanced the vesicle trafficking and cycling of PIN proteins. These results demonstrate that PIP5K2 is involved in regulating lateral root formation and root gravity response, and reveal a critical role of PIP5K2/PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in root development through regulation of PIN proteins, providing direct evidence of crosstalk between the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway and auxin response, and new insights into the control of polar auxin transport.
Project description:The directional distribution of the phytohormone auxin is essential for plant development. Directional auxin transport is mediated by the polarly distributed PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. We have previously shown that efficient PIN1-mediated auxin efflux requires activation through phosphorylation at the four serines S1-S4 in Arabidopsis thaliana The Brefeldin A (BFA)-sensitive D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and the BFA-insensitive PINOID (PID) phosphorylate and activate PIN1 through phosphorylation at all four phosphosites. PID, but not D6PK, can also induce PIN1 polarity shifts, seemingly through phosphorylation at S1-S3. The differential effects of D6PK and PID on PIN1 polarity had so far been attributed to their differential phosphosite preference for the four PIN1 phosphosites. We have mapped PIN1 phosphorylation at S1-S4 in situ using phosphosite-specific antibodies. We detected phosphorylation at PIN1 phosphosites at the basal (rootward) as well as the apical (shootward) plasma membrane in different root cell types, in embryos, and shoot apical meristems. Thereby, PIN1 phosphorylation at all phosphosites generally followed the predominant PIN1 distribution but was not restricted to specific polar sides of the cells. PIN1 phosphorylation at the basal and apical plasma membrane was differentially sensitive to BFA treatments, suggesting the involvement of different protein kinases or trafficking mechanisms in PIN1 phosphorylation control. We conclude that phosphosite preferences are not sufficient to explain the differential effects of D6PK and PID on PIN1 polarity, and suggest that a more complex model is needed to explain the effects of PID.