Genetic diversity and population structure of Rheum tanguticum (Dahuang) in China.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Wild Rheum tanguticum (Dahuang in Chinese) has becoming endangered in China. This study aims to examine the genetic structure and genetic diversity of R. tanguticum within species, and the genetic differentiation within and among populations in China. METHODS:The variability and structure of 19 populations of R. tanguticum were investigated by their chloroplast DNA matK sequences. The genetic diversity index was calculated by Dnasp, PERMUT, and Arlequin 3.0 software, and a neighbor-joining (NJ)-tree was constructed by MEGA 5.0 software. RESULTS:Fifteen haplotypes were obtained based on the matK sequence analysis. The mean genetic diversity within species was 0.894, and the genetic variability among populations (67.6%) was relatively higher than that within populations (13.88%) according to the AMOVA and PERMUT analyses. The NJ-tree and a pairwise difference analysis indicated geographical isolation of R. tanguticum. The gene flow among populations was 0.05, indicating a genetic drift among some populations, which was also confirmed by the NJ-tree and haplotype distributions. Furthermore, a mismatch distribution analysis revealed the molecular evolution of R. tanguticum. CONCLUSION:Genetic diversity among and within populations of R. tanguticum in China was demonstrated.
Project description:Angiostrongylus cantonensis is of increasing public health importance as the main zoonotic pathogen causing eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis, which has been documented all over the world. However, there are very limited studies about its phylogeography and spread pattern. In the present study, the phylogeography of A. cantonensis in southern China (including Taiwan) and partial areas of Southeast Asia were studied based on the sequences of complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene. A total of 520 individuals of A. cantonensis obtained from 13 localities were sequenced for the analyses and grouped into 42 defined haplotypes. The phylogenetic tree (NJ tree and BI tree) revealed a characteristic distribution pattern of the four main lineages, with detectable geographic structure. Genetic differentiation among populations was significant, but demographic expansion could not be detected by either neutrality tests or mismatch distribution analysis, which implied a low gene flow among the local populations in different regions where the samples were collected. Two unique lineages of the A. cantonensis population in Taiwan were detected, which suggests its multiple origin in the island. Populations in Hekou (China) and Laos showed the highest genetic diversities, which were supported by both genetic diversity indices and AMOVA. These results together infer that the area around Thailand or Hekou in Yunnan province, China are the most likely origins of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.
Project description:Within a regional floristic context, DNA barcoding is more useful to manage plant diversity inventories on a large scale and develop valuable conservation strategies. However, there are no DNA barcode studies from tropical areas of China, which represents one of the biodiversity hotspots around the world.A DNA barcoding database of an Asian tropical trees with high diversity was established at Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Yunnan, southwest China using rbcL and matK as standard barcodes, as well as trnH-psbA and ITS as supplementary barcodes. The performance of tree species identification success was assessed using 2,052 accessions from four plots belonging to two vegetation types in the region by three methods: Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and BLAST. We corrected morphological field identification errors (9.6%) for the three plots using rbcL and matK based on Neighbor-Joining tree. The best barcode region for PCR and sequencing was rbcL (97.6%, 90.8%), followed by trnH-psbA (93.6%, 85.6%), while matK and ITS obtained relative low PCR and sequencing success rates. However, ITS performed best for both species (44.6-58.1%) and genus (72.8-76.2%) identification. With trnH-psbA slightly less effective for species identification. The two standard barcode rbcL and matK gave poor results for species identification (24.7-28.5% and 31.6-35.3%). Compared with other studies from comparable tropical forests (e.g. Cameroon, the Amazon and India), the overall performance of the four barcodes for species identification was lower for the Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, possibly because of species/genus ratios and species composition between these tropical areas.Although the core barcodes rbcL and matK were not suitable for species identification of tropical trees from Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, they could still help with identification at the family and genus level. Considering the relative sequence recovery and the species identification performance, we recommend the use of trnH-psbA and ITS in combination as the preferred barcodes for tropical tree species identification in China.
Project description:DNA barcoding is widely used in species identification, but there is considerable controversy regarding the extent of sampling in research methods. Some scholars have proposed that this small sample size underestimates the intraspecific genetic diversity, which would impact on the accuracy of DNA barcoding to identify species. In study, we selected all Phellodendron species (including P. amurense Rupr., P. chinense Schneid., and P. chinense var. glabriusculum Schneid.) as the materials, collected 59 P. amurense samples from 35 populations greatly to represent the genetic diversity, and analyzed the haplotype, genetic distance, barcoding gap, and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) trees based on psbA-trnH and internal transcribed spacer gene sequences. Additionally, a sampling simulation was conducted to assess the correlation between genetic diversity and the number of populations. Finally, analysis of critical geographical populations was performed. Based on analysis of haplotype, genetic distance, barcoding gap, and NJ trees, we found that eight P. amurense samples impacted on the effectiveness of DNA barcoding, which genetic information were very important to identify Phellodendron species. Moreover, the result of the NJ tree analysis performed the small-scale P. amurense sample size did not completely match the objective phylogenetic relationship in Phellodendron. In simulation sampling analysis, the data showed the genetic diversity indexes at the same population level gradually decreased and stabilized as the number of simulation sampling populations increased. We found that 1-2 samples from over 24 populations based on uniform geographical distribution could represent 80% of the genetic diversity of P. amurense and ensure authenticity and reliability of DNA barcoding. Thus, we proposed it is particularly important adequately samples to cover infraspecific genetic diversity in order to ensure identification accuracy of DNA barcoding.
Project description:We analyzed variations in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) in the widespread herbaceous species Hosta sieboldiana and Hosta albomarginata across large portions of their geographic ranges in the Japanese archipelago. Our objective was to compare the phylogeographic histories and phylogeographic structures of the two congeneric species in the Japanese archipelago. The location of the study is Japanese archipelago. We sequenced 1380 bp of noncoding cpDNA from 45 populations of H. sieboldiana (n = 362) and 55 populations of H. albomarginata (n = 436) to assess genetic variations within and among populations across almost the entire distributions of the species in Japan. Extant patterns of geographic structure were analyzed using statistical parsimony networks and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA). We also used Monmonier's algorithm to detect genetic barriers between regions. Relationships between the populations were examined using a neighbor-joining (NJ) method. Four haplotypes were found for H. sieboldiana, whereas eight haplotypes were identified for H. albomarginata. Total genetic haplotype diversity (hT) and within-population haplotype diversity (hS) for H. sieboldiana were 0.352 and 0.040, respectively, while the values for H. albomarginata were 0.529 and 0.085, respectively. The population differentiations (GST) for H. sieboldiana and H. albomarginata were 0.839 and 0.886, respectively. The SAMOVA analysis revealed two clusters in H. sieboldiana and four clusters in H. albomarginata. Differentiations between and among the clusters were supported by the BARRIER analysis and the NJ tree. We detected differences in the population genetic structure between the two species. We found that H. sieboldiana had lower haplotype diversity than H. albomarginata. These results may be partially explained by the difference in ecological habitats and geographic distributions between the species. Hosta albomarginata is more widely distributed than H. sieboldiana in East Asia including Russia, and this large distribution range would enable more chances to intraspecific gene flow.
Project description:Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was performed on 257 Phytophthora infestans isolates belonging to four clonal lineages to study within-lineage diversity. The four lineages used in the study were US-8 (n = 28), US-11 (n = 27), US-23 (n = 166), and US-24 (n = 36), with isolates originating from 23 of the United States and Ontario, Canada. The majority of isolates were collected between 2010 and 2014 (94%), with the remaining isolates collected from 1994 to 2009, and 2015. Between 3,774 and 5,070 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within each lineage and were used to investigate relationships among individuals. K-means hierarchical clustering revealed three clusters within lineage US-23, with US-23 isolates clustering more by collection year than by geographic origin. K-means hierarchical clustering did not reveal significant clustering within the smaller US-8, US-11, and US-24 data sets. Neighbor-joining (NJ) trees were also constructed for each lineage. All four NJ trees revealed evidence for pathogen dispersal and overwintering within regions, as well as long-distance pathogen transport across regions. In the US-23 NJ tree, grouping by year was more prominent than grouping by region, which indicates the importance of long-distance pathogen transport as a source of initial late blight inoculum. Our results support previous studies that found significant genetic diversity within clonal lineages of P. infestans and show that GBS offers sufficiently high resolution to detect sub-structuring within clonal populations.
Project description:China has numerous native domestic goat breeds, however, extensive studies are focused on the genetic diversity within the fewer breeds and limited regions, the population demographic history and origin of Chinese goats are still unclear. The roles of geographical structure have not been analyzed in Chinese goat domestic process. In this study, the genetic relationships of Chinese indigenous goat populations were evaluated using 30 microsatellite markers.Forty Chinese indigenous populations containing 2078 goats were sampled from different geographic regions of China. Moderate genetic diversity at the population level (H(S) of 0.644) and high population diversity at the species level (H(T) value of 0.737) were estimated. Significant moderate population differentiation was detected (F(ST) value of 0.129). Significant excess homozygosity (F(IS) of 0.105) and recent population bottlenecks were detected in thirty-six populations. Neighbour-joining tree, principal components analysis and Bayesian clusters all revealed that Chinese goat populations could be subdivided into at least four genetic clusters: Southwest China, South China, Northwest China and East China. It was observed that the genetic diversity of Northern China goats was highest among these clusters. The results here suggested that the goat populations in Southwest China might be the earliest domestic goats in China.Our results suggested that the current genetic structure of Chinese goats were resulted from the special geographical structure, especially in the Western China, and the Western goat populations had been separated by the geographic structure (Hengduan Mountains and Qinling Mountains-Huaihe River Line) into two clusters: the Southwest and Northwest. It also indicated that the current genetic structure was caused by the geographical origin mainly, in close accordance with the human's migration history throughout China. This study provides a fundamental genetic profile for the conservation of these populations and better to understand the domestication process and origin of Chinese goats.
Project description:Geographic distance and geographical barriers likely play a considerable role in structuring genetic variation in species, although some migratory species may have less phylogeographic structure on a smaller spatial scale. Here, genetic diversity and the phylogenetic structure among geographical populations of the yellow-spined bamboo locust, Ceracris kiangsu, were examined with 16S rDNA and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). In this study, no conspicuous phylogeographical structure was discovered from either Maximum parsimony (MP) and Neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analyses. The effect of geographical isolation was not conspicuous on a large spatial scale.At smaller spatial scales local diversity of some populations within mountainous areas were detected using Nei's genetic distance and AMOVA. There is a high level of genetic diversity and a low genetic differentiation among populations in the C. kiangsu of South and Southeast China. Our analyses indicate that C. kiangsu is a monophyletic group. Our results also support the hypothesis that the C. kiangsu population is in a primary differentiation stage. Given the mismatch distribution, it is likely that a population expansion in C. kiangsu occurred about 0.242 Ma during the Quaternary interglaciation. Based on historical reports, we conjecture that human activities had significant impacts on the C. kiangsu gene flow.
Project description:Many species of Corydalis (Papaveraceae) have been used as medicinal plants in East Asia, and the most well-known species are Corydalis yanhusuo and C. decumbens in the Pharmacopoeia of China. However, authentication of these species remains problematic because of their high morphological variation. Here, we selected 14 closely related species and five genomic regions (chloroplast: matK, trnG, rbcL, psbA-trnH; nuclear: ITS) to explore the utility of DNA barcoding for authenticating these herbs. In addition, the Poisson tree process (PTP) and automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) were also used and compared with DNA barcoding. Our results showed that the ITS region was not suitable for molecular analysis because of its heterogeneous nature in Corydalis. In contrast, matK was an ideal region for species identification because all species could be resolved when matK was used along with the other three chloroplast regions. We found that at least five traditional identified species were lumped into one genetic species by ABGD and PTP methods; thus, highlighting the overestimation of species diversity using the morphological approach. In conclusion, our first attempt of molecular analysis of Corydalis herbs presented here successfully resolved the identification of medicinal species and encouraged their taxonomic re-assessment.
Project description:Saccharina japonica is a commercially and ecologically important seaweed and is an excellent system for understanding the effects of domestication on marine crops. In this study, we used 19 selected simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to investigate the influence of domestication on the genetic diversity and structure of S. japonica populations. Wild kelp populations exhibited higher genetic diversity than cultivated populations based on total NA, HE, HO, NP and AR. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), a neighbour-joining (NJ) tree and STRUCTURE analyses indicated that S. japonica populations could be divided into two groups (a cultivated/introduced group and a wild indigenous group) with significant genetic differentiation (P?<?0.0001). Divergent selection, continuous inbreeding and inter-specific hybridization have caused the divergence of these two genetically separate gene pools. The significant genetic differentiation between northern and southern cultivated populations appears to be due to inter-specific hybridization and wild germplasm introduction during the domestication process. In addition, the cultivation of S. japonica has not resulted in any serious genetic disturbance of wild introduced S. japonica populations. An understanding of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of domesticated S. japonica will be necessary for further genetic improvement and effective use of germplasm.
Project description:In southern China, the masson pine caterpillar, Dendrolimus punctatus, has caused serious damage to the Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) pine forests. Here, the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was employed to analyze the population evolution of D. punctatus and to understand the process underlying its current phylogenetic pattern. D. punctatus populations within its distribution range in China were categorized into five subgroups: central and eastern China (CEC), southwestern China (SWC), Yibin in Sichuan (SC), Baise in Guangxi (GX), and Luoding in Guangdong (GD), with a high level of haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity among them. The genetic distances between subgroups are relatively large; however, the genetic distances between populations within the CEC subgroup were relatively small, suggesting that many populations were closely related in this subgroup. The mantel test showed that geographic distance had an important impact on the genetic distance of different geographic populations (r = 0.3633, P < 0.001). The neutrality tests, Bayesian skyline plot, and haplotype network showed that D. punctatus experienced a population expansion around 100,000 years ago. The divergence times of GX/SC, SWC, GD, and CEC were 0.347, 0.236, 0.200, and 0.110 million years ago, respectively. The SWC, CEC, and GD subgroups might have evolved from GX or SC subgroups. The population genetic structure of D. punctatus was closely related to its host tree species, geographic distance among populations, the weak flight capacity, and many eco-environment conditions.